A volcanologist or vulcanologist is a geologist who studies the processes involved in the formation and eruptive activity of volcanoes and their current and historic eruptions, known as volcanology. Volcanologists visit volcanoes active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra and lava samples. One major focus of inquiry is the prediction of eruptions. "Volcanologist" was derived from the English volcanology, derived from the French volcanologie, further derived from the French word volcan, further derived from Vulcanus, the Latin name of the Roman god of fire and metalworking. The Latin word is of Estrucan origin. Volcanologists attempt to decipher what clues rocks leave behind about the inner workings and chemistry of the earth. While there are many exciting aspects to a volcanologist career, most assignments study the remains of either dead or dormant volcanoes. Volcanologists earn an average of $90,890 per year, with the highest 10% earning around $187,200 and the lowest 10% earning around $48,270.
Most of these scientists work for different levels of government and private research institutes. Volcanologists split their workdays between conducting fieldwork and working in a laboratory. During fieldwork, scientists may be required to venture to exotic or isolated locations where active or dormant volcanoes reside, they must collect various samples and data in an outdoor area. Those hoping to become a Volcanologist must be prepared to travel, spend extended periods of time away from home, perform strenuous physical activities, brave adverse weather conditions. Once they have finished collecting samples, they return to their laboratory to analyze their data, they must communicate their findings to a group of scientists. Volcanologists employed by universities may be required to spend time in a classroom environment. Most of these scientists work full-time and may be required to work extended hours when performing fieldwork, quite frequent; the job demand for Volcanologists is expected to grow 16% in the next 10 years, faster than the average profession.
The public's increasing interest in environmental protection and management will spur the upcoming growth in positions. Volcanologists require a bachelor's degree at minimum in geophysics, or earth science. However, a bachelor's degree provides little specialized knowledge of volcanoes and will only allow someone to obtain an entry-level position in the field. Most Volcanologists possess either a master's or doctorate degree, allowing them to acquire more advanced knowledge of volcanoes specifically; those wishing to be employed by universities or seek academic funding would be well served by earning a Ph. D. In some areas, becoming a Volcanologist that predicts the eruption of volcanoes may require a special license. See: Volcanology Plato Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon James Hutton Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu Giuseppe Mercalli Alfred Lacroix Frank A. Perret Alfred Rittmann Sigurður Þórarinsson, Haroun Tazieff, advisor to the French Government and Jacques Cousteau George P. L. Walker, pioneering volcanologist who transformed the subject into a quantitative science Jean Louis Cheminée Haraldur Sigurdsson, Icelandic volcanologist and geochemist Katia and Maurice Krafft, died at Mount Unzen in Japan, 1991 Peter Francis Henry Gaudru Keith Rowley David A. Johnston, killed during the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens Bill McGuire Harry Glicken, died at Mount Unzen in Japan, 1991 Volcanology Volcanism Volcano Live- What is a volcanologist?
Environmental Science- How to Become a Volcanologist
Patrick Augustus Mervyn Manning was a Trinidadian politician, the fourth and sixth Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago. He was Political Leader of the People's National Movement from 1987 to 2010. A geologist by training, Manning served as Member of Parliament for the San Fernando East constituency from 1971 until 2015 when he was replaced by Randall Mitchell and was the longest-serving member of the House of Representatives, he was the Leader of the Opposition from 1986 to 1990 and again from 1995 to 2001. Manning was born in San Fernando and received his secondary education at Presentation College, San Fernando, his Bachelor's Degree from the University of the West Indies at Mona, in 1969. After graduation, he returned to Trinidad, he entered Parliament in 1971 representing the San Fernando East constituency. After graduating from the University of the West Indies, Manning worked as a geologist with Texaco Trinidad Ltd. until he ran for Parliament in 1971. Between 1971 and 1978 he served as Parliamentary Secretary in various Ministries before being appointed junior Minister in the Ministry of Finance in the government of Eric Williams.
In 1979 he was given the additional position of junior Minister in the Office of the Prime Minister. In 1981 he was given a full Cabinet position of Minister of Information and Minister of Industry and Commerce. Between 1981 and 1986 he served as Minister of Natural Resources; the 1986 general elections saw the ruling PNM suffer an total defeat. Only three candidates won their seats; as one of the three successful PNM candidates, Manning was appointed Leader of the Opposition. In 1987, he was elected political leader of the PNM. A split in the ruling National Alliance for Reconstruction in 1988 left the PNM as the minority Opposition party, and, in 1990, Basdeo Panday requested that he be appointed Leader of the Opposition. In 1995, Manning called a General Election one full year. In this election both the PNM and the UNC won 17 seats each and the NAR won 2 seats; the UNC and the NAR formed the government. Manning served as Leader of the Opposition once again losing the 2000 elections; the 2001 elections ended in a tie, with both the Opposition PNM and the governing United National Congress winning 18 seats.
President A. N. R. Robinson appointed Manning as Prime Minister. Unable to elect a Speaker of the House of Representatives, Manning proceeded to rule without Parliament until the need to pass a Budget forced him to call elections in October 2002, his party formed the new government. Under the PNM administration, income taxes were reduced and the Corporation Tax reduced from 35% to 25% of profits for most companies; the Government instituted free university education. The economy grew a pace due to high natural gas and oil prices and to significant increases in natural gas production. In September 2007, Manning received an honorary doctorate from Medgar Evers College, CUNY. In 2007, Manning called for a general election to be held on 4 November; the PNM won this election with 26 of the 41 seats and Manning began his third term as Prime Minister. Subsequently, the country experienced a slow down in the economy. Despite this the economic ratings of the country came in for high praises from the Standards and Poor report on 15 August 2008 which raised Trinidad and Tobago from an "A-" to an "A".
The Government of Trinidad and Tobago hosted King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia of Spain on 30 November to 2 December 2008. The purpose of the visit was to strengthen the economic ties between Spain, Latin America and the Caribbean and to open new markets and possibility for increase trading and the opening of new markets; the country hosted two world summits in 2009: the 5th Summit of the Americas on 17 to 19 April 2009 as well as The Commonwealth Heads of Government on 27 to 29 November 2009. The Chilean President Michelle Bachelet paid Prime Minister Manning and the Government of Trinidad and Tobago a visit in 2010; the purpose was to strengthen bilateral ties between the two countries and as a result a formal agreement was signed in an effort to unite the two countries. Despite economic growth, crime was considered a serious problem; the number of murders increased from 93 in 1999 to 509 in 2009. Additionally, 2008 saw the country's highest number of murders with 550; the Prime Minister's explanation was that the crime problem was a result of the illegal drug and arms trade.
His speech at the 5th summit of the Americas points to the fact that the Caribbean is situated between the narcotic producing South American continent and the narcotic consuming North American continent. Some of his crime detection and prevention methods included the introduction of the Special Anti-Crime Unit of Trinidad and Tobago, two surveillance airships, the inclusion of six high speed off-shore patrol vessels for better control of the country's maritime borders and coastlines on 15 February 2010. Manning was quoted as saying that the country could expect to see a 50% decrease in crime because of this effort. On 9 April 2010 Prime Minister Manning advised President George Maxwell Richards to dissolve Parliament resulting in a General Election to be held two years sooner than was constitutionally mandated. Manning announced 24 May 2010 as the date for general elections. Manning and the PNM lost the election to The People's Partnership
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
University of the West Indies
The University of the West Indies University College of the West Indies, is a public university system established to serve the higher education needs of the residents of 17 English-speaking countries and territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands; each country is either a member of the Commonwealth of a British Overseas Territory. The aim of the university is to help'unlock the potential for economic and cultural growth' in the West Indies, thus allowing improved regional autonomy; the University was instituted as an independent external college of the University of London. The University has produced students who have excelled in a number of disciplines such as the arts and sciences, business and sports. Notable alumni and faculty include three UWI Nobel Laureates, 72 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Gates Cambridge Scholarship winners, 18 current or former Caribbean Heads of Government, an Olympic medallist.
The university's cricket team participated in West Indian domestic cricket, but now participates as part of a Combined Campuses and Colleges team. The university was founded in 1948, on the recommendation of the Asquith Commission through its sub-committee on the West Indies chaired by Sir James Irvine; the Asquith Commission had been established in 1943 to review the provision of higher education in the British colonies. In a special relationship with the University of London, the University College of the West Indies was seated at Mona, about five miles from Kingston, Jamaica; the university was based at the Gibraltar Camp used by evacuated Gibraltarians during the war. Seeking to address a need for medical care the first faculty established; the foundation stone for a hospital was added in 1949 and the University College Hospital of the West Indies opened in 1953. On 18 January 1953, Sir Winston Churchill visited the hospital on 18 January 1953 and unveiled a plaque in recognition of the contribution made by the government of the United Kingdom to the hospital.
The hospital was renamed the University Hospital of the West Indies in 1967 when the University gained full university status. The hospital offers patient care, the hospital facilitates research and teaching along with the Medical Services department of the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies; the University College achieved independent university status in 1962. The St Augustine Campus in Trinidad the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, was established in 1960, followed by the Cave Hill Campus in Barbados in 1963. Before the establishment of the Open Campus, University Centres, headed by a Resident Tutor, were established in each of the other 13 contributing territories. In 1950, HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, the last surviving granddaughter of Queen Victoria, became the first Chancellor of the University College of the West Indies. Sir William Arthur Lewis was the first Vice-Chancellor under the UWI’s independent Charter. A native of St Lucia, he served as the first West Indian Principal of the UCWI from 1958 to 1960 and as Vice-Chancellor from 1960 to 1963.
He was succeeded by Sir Philip Sherlock who served as Vice-Chancellor from 1963 to 1969. Sir Roy Marshall, a Barbadian, was the next Vice-Chancellor, serving from 1969 to 1974, he was succeeded by Dr Aston Zachariah Preston, a Jamaican, who died in office on 24 June 1986, having served from 1974. The fifth Vice-Chancellor was Sir Alister McIntyre, who served from 1988 to 1998, followed by alumnus and Professor Emeritus Rex Nettleford who served from 1998 to 2004; the current Vice-Chancellor is Professor Sir Hilary Beckles, who succeeded Professor E. Nigel Harris in May 2015; the University of the West Indies Museum exhibits some of the university's history. The UWI is the largest, most longstanding higher education provider in the Commonwealth Caribbean, with four constituent campuses: Mona in Jamaica, St. Augustine in Trinidad and Tobago, Cave Hill in Barbados, an Open Campus serving 17 Caribbean island-nations; the following are the satellite campuses of the university: Mount Hope Campus in Mount Hope and Tobago Western Jamaica Campus in Montego Bay, Jamaica Centre for Hotel and Tourism Management in Nassau, Bahamas The other contributing countries are served by the Open Campus.
Various islands have proposed adding further campuses to the UWI system this includes Hope and Five Islands and Barbuda The Open Campus was established to improve services to the non-campus territories. It brought together several existing UWI units, namely the University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre, the School of Continuing Studies, the Tertiary Level Institutions Unit, the Office of the Board for Non-Campus Countries & Distance Education; the Extra-Mural Department was first established in 1947 when UWI was still the University College of the West Indies. As it developed into the School of Continuing Studies, it incorporated the Caribbean Child Development Centre, the Hugh Lawson Shearer Trade Union Education Institute, the Human Resources Development Unit, the Social Welfare Training Centre and the Women and Development Unit; the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment was an initiative funded by a USD 600,000 grant from USAID. The telecommunications sys
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Leader of the Opposition (Trinidad and Tobago)
The Leader of the Opposition in Trinidad and Tobago is the leader of the largest political party which has not formed the current government. The Leader of the Opposition is a member of the House of Representatives, is appointed by the President of Trinidad and Tobago; the current Leader of the Opposition is Kamla Persad-Bissessar, leader of the United National Congress. Politics of Trinidad and Tobago President of Trinidad and Tobago List of Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Parliament - Leaders of the Opposition
Eric Eustace Williams served as the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago. He served as prime minister from 1962 until his death in 1981, he was a noted Caribbean historian. Dr. Williams was born on 25 September 1911, his father Thomas Henry Williams was a minor civil servant, his mother Eliza Frances Boissiere was a descendant of the mixed French Creole elite. He saw his first school years at Tranquillity Boys' Intermediate Government School and he was educated at Queen's Royal College in Port of Spain, where he excelled at academics and football. A football injury at QRC led to a hearing problem, he won an island scholarship in 1932, which allowed him to attend Oxford. In 1935, he received first-class honours for his B. A in history and was ranked in first place among University of Oxford students graduating in History in 1935, he represented the university at football. In 1938 he went on to obtain his doctorate. In Inward Hunger, his autobiography, he described his experience of racism in Great Britain, the impact on him of his travels in Germany after the Nazi seizure of power.
In Inward Hunger, Williams recounts that in the period following his graduation: "I was handicapped in my research by my lack of money.... I was turned down everywhere I tried... and could not ignore the racial factor involved". However, in 1936, thanks to a recommendation made by Sir Alfred Claud Hollis, the Leathersellers' Company awarded him a £50 grant to continue his advanced research in history at Oxford, he completed the D. Phil in 1938 under the supervision of Vincent Harlow, his doctoral thesis was titled The Economic Aspects of the Abolition of the Slave Trade and West Indian Slavery, was published as Capitalism and Slavery in 1944. It was both a direct attack on the idea that moral and humanitarian motives were the key facts in the victory of British abolitionism, a covert critique of the idea common in the 1930s, emanating in particular from the pen of Oxford Professor Reginald Coupland, that British imperialism was propelled by humanitarian and benevolent impulses. Williams's argument owed much to the influence of C. L. R. James, whose The Black Jacobins completed in 1938 offered an economic and geostrategic explanation for the rise of British abolitionism.
Gad Heuman states: In Capitalism and Slavery, Eric Williams argued that the declining economies of the British West Indies led to the abolition of the slave trade and of slavery. More recent research has rejected this conclusion. In 1944, Dr. Williams was appointed to the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission. In 1948 he returned to Trinidad as the Commission's Deputy Chairman of the Caribbean Research Council. In Trinidad, he delivered a series of educational lectures. In 1955 after disagreements between Dr. Williams and the Commission, the Commission elected not to renew his contract. In a famous speech at Woodford Square in Port of Spain, he declared that he had decided to "put down his bucket" in the land of his birth, he rechristened that enclosed park, which stood in front of the Trinidad courts and legislature, "The University of Woodford Square", proceeded to give a series of public lectures on world history, Greek democracy and philosophy, the history of slavery, the history of the Caribbean to large audiences drawn from every social class.
From that public platform, Williams on 15 January 1956 inaugurated his own political party, the People's National Movement, which would take Trinidad and Tobago into independence in 1962, dominate its post-colonial politics. Until this time his lectures had been carried out under the auspices of the Political Education Movement, a branch of the Teachers Education and Cultural Association, a group, founded in the 1940s as an alternative to the official teachers' union; the PNM's first document was its constitution. Unlike the other political parties of the time, the PNM was a organized, hierarchical body, its second document was The People's Charter, in which the party strove to separate itself from the transitory political assemblages which had thus far been the norm in Trinidadian politics. In elections held eight months on 24 September the Peoples National Movement won 13 of the 24 elected seats in the Legislative Council, defeating 6 of the 16 incumbents running for re-election. Although the PNM did not secure a majority in the 31-member Legislative Council, he was able to convince the Secretary of State for the Colonies to allow him to name the five appointed members of the council.
This gave him a clear majority in the Legislative Council. Williams was thus elected Chief Minister and was able to get all seven of his ministers elected. After the Second World War, the British Colonial Office had preferred that colonies move towards political independence in the kind of federal systems which had appeared to succeed since the Confederation of Canada, which created Canada, in the 19th century. In the British West Indies this goal coincided with the political aims of the nationalist movements which had emerged in all the colonies of the region during the 1930s; the Montego Bay conference of 1948 had declared the common aim to be the achievement by the West Indies of "Dominion Status" as a Federation. In 1958, a West Indies Federation emerged from the British West Indies