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Kellogg–Briand Pact

The Kellogg–Briand Pact is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them". There were no mechanisms for enforcement. Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by treaty", it was signed by Germany and the United States on 27 August 1928, by most other states soon after. Sponsored by France and the U. S. the Pact calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy, it is named after its authors, United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand; the pact remains in effect. A common criticism is that the Kellogg–Briand Pact did not live up to all of its aims, but has arguably had some success, it neither ended war, nor stopped the rise of militarism, was unable to prevent the Second World War.

The pact has been ridiculed for its legalism and lack of influence on foreign policy. Moreover, it erased the legal distinction between war and peace because the signatories began to wage wars without declaring them; the pact's central provisions renouncing the use of war, promoting peaceful settlement of disputes and the use of collective force to prevent aggression, were incorporated into the United Nations Charter and other treaties. Although civil wars continued, wars between established states have been rare since 1945, with a few exceptions in the Middle East. One legal consequence is that it is unlawful to annex territory by force, although other forms of annexation have not been prevented. More broadly, some authors claim there is now a strong presumption against the legality of using, or threatening, military force against another country; the pact served as the legal basis for the concept of a crime against peace, for which the Nuremberg Tribunal and Tokyo Tribunal tried and executed the top leaders responsible for starting World War II.

Many historians and political scientists see the pact as irrelevant and ineffective. With the signing of the Litvinov Protocol in Moscow on February 9, 1929, the Soviet Union and its western neighbors, including Romania agreed to put the Kellogg-Briand Pact in effect without waiting for other western signatories to ratify; the Bessarabian Question had made agreement between Romania and the Soviet Union challenging and dispute between the nations over Bessarabia continued. The main text is short:Article I The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another. Article II The High Contracting Parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means. After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry by the representatives from Australia, Canada, France, Great Britain, the Irish Free State, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States.

It took effect on 24 July 1929. By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of ratification of the pact: Eight further states joined after that date for a total of 62 states parties. In 1971, Barbados declared its accession to the treaty. In the United States, the Senate approved the treaty 85–1, with only Wisconsin Republican John J. Blaine voting against over concerns with British imperialism. While the U. S. Senate did not add any reservations to the treaty, it did pass a measure which interpreted the treaty as not infringing upon the United States' right of self-defense and not obliging the nation to enforce it by taking action against those who violated it; the 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact was concluded outside the League of Nations and remains in effect. One month following its conclusion, a similar agreement, General Act for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, was concluded in Geneva, which obliged its signatory parties to establish conciliation commissions in any case of dispute.

The pact's central provisions renouncing the use of war, promoting peaceful settlement of disputes and the use of collective force to prevent aggression, were incorporated into the United Nations Charter and other treaties. Although civil wars continued, wars between established states have been rare since 1945, with a few exceptions in the Middle East; as a practical matter, the Kellogg–Briand Pact did not live up to its primary aims, but has arguably had some success. It did not end war or stop the rise of militarism, was unable to keep the international peace in succeeding years, its legacy remains as a statement of the idealism expressed by advocates for peace in the interwar period. Moreover, it erased the legal distinction between war and peace because the signatories, having renounced the use of war, began to wage wars without declaring them as in the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935, the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the Soviet invasion of Finland in 1939, the German and Soviet invasions of Poland.

While the Pact has been ridiculed for its moralism and legalism and lack of influence on foreign policy, it ins

The Seekers (1975 album)

The Seekers is the seventh studio album by Australian group the Seekers. The album was released in May 1975. Louisa Wisseling provided the vocals, it was the first The Seekers' album not to feature the vocals of Judith Durham. The lead single "Sparrow Song" was released in May 1975, peaking at number 7 on the Kent Music Report. A second single "Reunion" was released in November 1975 and peaked at number 83; the Seekers had been a successful group in the 1960s, disbanding in July 1968 when lead singer Judith Durham left the group. In 1972, the band needed a suitable female vocalist to replace Durham. Band member Athol Guy asked his friend Buddy England for assistance. I was asked to vet material for the group to record... I signed them to the Astor label went to England to work on the production with the rest of the guys; the album was a success." Side A"Sparrow Song" - 3:56 "Goodbye Again" - 4:31 "Please Come to Boston" - 3:50 "Sweet Surrender" - 3:51 "Freedom" - 3:52 "A Never Ending Song" - 3:21Side B"I'll Have to Say I Love You in a Song" - 2:34 "Sweet Sympathy" - 4:18 "Can We Learn to Get Along" - 3:23 "Break These Chains" - 3:13 "Every Road Leads Back to You" - 4:14 "Reunion" - 5:32 "The Seekers -"The Seekers"". Retrieved 28 September 2016

Martin Itjen

Martin Itjen is most famous for being the unofficial premier tour director of Skagway, Alaska in the early 1900s. He held many distinct titles, including that of miner, railroad employee, hotel operator, hack service, the town's undertaker, Ford motor car dealer, a tour guide. Much of Skagway's early history was saved from destruction because of his interest in the city. Itjen was born in Germany, he arrived in the United States on February 1891 in Charleston, South Carolina. Relatives say Itjen denied his German citizenship, claiming he was from Austria to evade the German draft of the era. From Charleston, Itjen went to Jacksonville and set up shop as a storekeeper, it is assumed by his descendants, that he met his wife, Lucille Petitclare here, as Lucy's death certificate notes that she had several cousins in Florida. Itjen came to Skagway, Alaska from Jacksonville, Florida, as a stampeder, in the spring of 1898, at the height of the Klondike gold rush, he sent for his wife, Lucy, to join him in Skagway.

He tried his luck at prospecting. Itjen took up employment working for the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad, while seeking his fortune in gold prospecting. Becoming overly successful at neither, he went into the undertaking business. Between 1915 and 1917 He ran a hack service, it was a wagon that he used as a coal hauling business. When business was slow he built a tour bus from an old Ford bus. Itjen referred to it as a "streetcar." He began giving tours of the gold rush town. By the 1930s he became Skagway's premier tour agent; the most picturesque car carried a bear cub on the front, the bear growling and pointing to the right or left as the car turned. A small mannequin on the front was operated by foot pedal, he nodded his head, waved a flag, rang a bell, puffed exhaust smoke through a cigarette. One of the buses had an effigy of Soapy Smith that with the pull of a handle, Itjen would make Soapy salute walking pedestrians as he passed them; the buses toured the streets of Skagway and visited the Gold Rush Cemetery and other Skagway attractions.

Itjen's tour was quite a show: He recited poetry, told stories, related humorous anecdotes of Skagway during the gold rush. In 1935, as a great publicity stunt, Itjen took his "street car" to Hollywood to promote Skagway tourism, he called on big screen starlet, Mae West, to "come up and visit him sometime." The pair was popular with newsmen and photographers. While in the movie capital, Itjen attracted numerous screen queens to his side for photographs. Skagway had become a tourist stop, thanks to Itjen. In 1938 Itjen published a book and an LP record, The Story of the Tour on the Skagway, Alaska Street Car. Itjen's tours were theatrical productions, complete with motorized mechanical actors and humorous anecdotes, all relating to the colorful history of Skagway and its inhabitants. Itjen branched out to become the badly needed caretaker of the city's gold rush cemetery; this included badman Soapy Smith's grave, at the height of power when Itjen arrived, was killed in Skagway at the Shootout on Juneau Wharf.

A postcard from the era shows Itjen, just outside the graveyard, showing off the world's largest nugget, chained to a tree with a huge chain. In reality, it was just a huge boulder. In 1935 Itjen restored Soapy's saloon as part of his streetcar tour. Upon opening the front door to enter, guests were greeted by an effigy of Soapy Smith standing at the bar. With Itjen's mechanical artistry, the front door made Soapy's head turn towards the entering guests, as his hand, complete with beer mug, raised in a toast of welcoming. Itjen died on December 3, 1942, his wife Lucy died December 27, 1946, they are buried near the "world's largest nugget". Their home has been restored by the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, is used as the museum gift store managed by Alaska Geographic. Bob Wieking, a descendant, Günter E. Martin Sievert, a descendant of Martin Itjen Bob Wieking, descendant of Martin Itjen Klondike Goldrush National Historic Park- Point mouse onto Martin Itjen house and click, Skagway Street Car Company – Martin's Street Car Tour Company Revived

Harry Fleer

Harry Fleer was an American actor. He appeared in more than sixty films and television shows between 1955 and 1994. Fleer was cast six times from 1957 to 1960 on the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. In "The Camel Train", he played Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, who commissions an experiment of using camels in the southwestern desert country headed by Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale, played by Stanley Lachman, he was Wyatt Earp in "Birth of a Boom". Harry Fleer on IMDb Harry Fleer at the Internet Broadway Database

2006 AFC Challenge Cup

The 2006 AFC Challenge Cup was held between 1 and 16 April 2006 in Bangladesh. Sixteen teams were split into four groups, the top two in each group qualifying for the quarterfinals, from on a straight knockout contest. There was no qualification stage; the cup winner was Tajikistan. The fair play award was won by Sri Lanka and Tajikistani Ibrahim Rabimov won the most valuable player award; the AFC classed seventeen nations as emerging associations, which need time to develop their football. They were selected in August 2005 to take part. Laos and Timor-Leste were selected to participate, but were replaced by Bangladesh and India of the developing associations class, reducing the number of participating teams to sixteen; the AFC decided at its annual meeting, that Bangladesh would host the opening ceremony and that Nepal would host the final unless Bangladesh makes it into the last two, in which case it would be held in Dhaka, its capital. It was planned that the teams in Groups A and B would play their games in Nepal and that teams in Groups C and D would play in Bangladesh, but due to the political unrest that shook Nepal, it was decided that only Bangladesh would host the tournament.

The Challenge Cup was scheduled to take place between 26 March to 9 April 2006 but was changed to avoid clashes with Bangladesh's Independence Day on 26 March. The two stadia that were selected to be used during this tournament were: the Bangabandhu Stadium in Dhaka and the MA Aziz Stadium in Chittagong. However, the Bangladesh Army Stadium in Dhaka was used to make-up the matches that were abandoned due to heavy rain; some teams did not take part with their'main' national squad, as noted below: India decided to field their under-20 team in preparation for the AFC Youth Championship they were hosting. Kyrgyzstan took part with a young squad, made up of players from their under-20 team which had qualified for the AFC Youth Championship. All times are Bangladesh Standard Time – UTC+6 Where two or more teams end the group stage with the same number of points, their ranking is determined by the following criteria: points earned in the matches between the teams concerned. Official Site of the AFC Challenge Cup Bangladesh 2006 AFC Challenge Cup 2006 at AFC Challenge Cup 2006 at

Tooth worm

The idea of a tooth worm is an erroneous theory of the cause of dental caries and toothaches. Once widespread, the belief is now obsolete, it was supposed that the disease was caused by small worms resident within the tooth, eating it away. The origins of the belief are wrapped in obscurity. A prominent early mention, a Babylonian cuneiform tablet titled "The Legend of the Worm", recounts how the tooth worm drinks the blood and eats the roots of the teeth – causing caries and periodontitis: "After Anu,Heaven had created,The earth had created the rivers,The rivers had created the canals,The canals had created the marsh, the marsh had created the worm—The worm went, before Shamash, his tears flowing before Ea: "What wilt thou give for my food? What wilt thou give me for my sucking?""I shall give thee the ripe fig, the apricot.""Of what use are they to me, the ripe fig and the apricot? Lift me up and among the teeth and the gums cause me to dwell! The blood of the tooth I will suck, of the gum I will gnaw its roots!"Accounts are found in the Central American legends of Popol Vuh.

The belief persisted into the 18th century, only being disproven by the microscopical endeavors of M. Pierre Fauchard. Modern veterinary practice shows that when removed intact, the necrotic or necrotic tooth pulp can have an appearance like that of a worm. Sinhalese Charm for toothache: Ira deyené asyā! Sanda deyené aeyā! Passé Buduné acyā! Daté nositoo dat aeyā! Worm of the sun-god! Worm of the moon god! Worm of the Passé Buddha! Stay not in the tooth, tou tooth-worm! Although no rigorous evidence was found, some practitioners believed the pulpal tissue within the root of the tooth to in fact be a worm. Most however admitted to have never encountered a worm in vivo, but nonetheless encouraged the belief among the general public. A 2009 study by the University of Maryland Baltimore using micro imaging revealed worm like structures within a dissected molar; these structures, while not worms or caused by worms may have given rise to the Tooth Worm belief. It is unclear what caused them. Media related to Tooth worm at Wikimedia Commons