Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 217,214. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it is the largest inland city in British Columbia. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2019, it was estimated that Kelowna's population had grown to 217,229 the metropolitan area and 142,146 in the city proper. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the habitation of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "l'Anse au Sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on 4 May 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry, sunny summers and cool, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures. Kelowna has the second mildest winter of any non-coastal city in Canada, after neighboring Penticton; this is caused by the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a te
Nancy Cárdenas was a Mexican actor, poet and feminist. She was a one of the first Mexican people to publicly declare her homosexuality. Born in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Cárdenas earned a doctorate in Philosophy and Letters at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, studied staging and theater at Yale University in the United States and took courses in Polish language and culture in Łódź. Nancy Cárdenas began as a radio announcer at the age of 20 years became a stage actress. In the 1950s she participated in the reading program, Poesía en Voz Alta, directed by Héctor Mendoza. In the 1960s she switched to writing, she published her first one-act play, El cántaro seco, began a career as a journalist for various magazines and on the culture pages of various newspapers. In 1970 she worked as a theater director on El efecto de los rayos gamma sobre las caléndulas, which won the Association of Theatre Critics Prize, she directed several successful plays. She wrote, along with Carlos Monsiváis, a documentary film, México de mis amores, directed it herself in 1979.
From 1980 she devoted her time to writing plays and poetry. She died in Mexico City on March 1994, of breast cancer. At age 39, Cárdenas became the first publicly declared lesbian in Mexico when she revealed her sexuality on the TV show 24 horas, hosted by James Zabludovsky, during an interview about the firing of a gay employee. In the 1970s, she pioneered the gay liberation movement in Mexico, elaborating on the subject in several television interviews, she founded, in 1974, the first gay organization in Mexico, Frente de Liberación Homosexual Mexicano. As a feminist and sexology specialist she held numerous conferences and national and international television interviews on the subject. In 1975, along with Carlos Monsiváis, she wrote the Manifesto in Defense of Homosexuals in Mexico. On October 2, 1978, during the march in commemoration of the Tlatelolco massacre, she headed the first gay pride march in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. A center for gay and lesbian activities was named in her honor: the Nancy Cárdenas Latin American and Mexican Lesbian Documentation and Historical Archives Center.
México de mis amores El cántaro seco Y la maestra bebe un poco Los chicos de la banda de Matt Crowley Cuarteto Misterio bufo La hiedra La casa de muñecas de Henrik Ibsen El pozo de la soledad de Radclyffe Hall Sida.... Así es la vida Cuaderno de amor y desamor
The Battle of Bergerac was fought between Anglo-Gascon and French forces at the town of Bergerac in Gascony, in August 1345 during the Hundred Years' War. In early 1345 Edward III of England decided to launch a major attack on the French from the north, while sending smaller forces to Brittany and Gascony, the latter being both economically important to the English war effort and the proximate cause of the war; the French focused on the threat to northern France, leaving comparatively small forces in the south west. Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby arrived in Gascony in August, breaking with the previous policy of cautious advance, struck directly at the largest French concentration, at Bergerac, he surprised and defeated the French forces, under Bertrand I of l'Isle-Jourdain and Henri de Montigny. The French suffered the loss of the town, a significant strategic setback. Along with the Battle of Auberoche in the year, it marked a change in the military balance of power in the region, it was the first of a series of victories which would lead to Henry of Derby being called "one of the best warriors in the world" by a contemporary chronicler.
Since the Norman Conquest of 1066, English monarchs had held titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals of the kings of France. By 1337 only Gascony in south western France and Ponthieu in northern France were left; the Gascons preferred their relationship with a distant English king who left them alone, to one with a French king who would interfere in their affairs. Following a series of disagreements between Philip VI of France and Edward III of England, on 24 May 1337 Philip's Great Council in Paris agreed that the Duchy of Aquitaine Gascony, should be taken back into Philip's hands on the grounds that Edward was in breach of his obligations as a vassal; this marked the start of the Hundred Years' War, to last 116 years. Before the war commenced at least 1,000 ships a year departed Gascony. Among their cargoes were over 80,000 tuns of wine; the duty levied by the English Crown on wine from Bordeaux, the capital of Gascony, was more than all other customs duties combined and by far the largest source of state income.
Bordeaux had a population of over 50,000, greater than London's, Bordeaux was richer. However, by this time English Gascony had become so truncated by French encroachments that it relied on imports of food from England. Any interruptions to regular shipping were liable to starve financially cripple England. Although Gascony was the cause of the war, Edward was able to spare few resources for it, when an English army had campaigned on the continent it had operated in northern France. In most campaigning seasons the Gascons had had to rely on their own resources and had been hard pressed by the French. In 1339 the French besieged Bordeaux, the capital of Gascony breaking into the city with a large force before they were repulsed; the Gascons could field 3,000–6,000 men, the large majority infantry, although up to two thirds of them would be tied down in garrisons. The border between English and French territory in Gascony was unclear. Many landholders owning a patchwork of separated estates owing fealty to a different overlord for each.
Each small estate was to have a fortified tower or keep, with larger estates having castles. Fortifications were constructed at transport choke points, to collect tolls and to restrict military passage. Military forces could support themselves by foraging so long. If they wished to remain in one place for any length of time, as was necessary to besiege a castle access to water transport was essential for supplies of food and fodder and desirable for such items as siege equipment. Warfare was a struggle for possession of castles and other fortified points, for the mutable loyalty of the local nobility. By 1345, after eight years of war, English-controlled territory consisted of a coastal strip from Bordeaux to Bayonne, with isolated strongholds further inland; the French had strong fortifications throughout. Several directly threatened Bordeaux: Libourne, 20 miles to the east allowed French armies to assemble a day's march from Bordeaux. Edward determined early in 1345 to attack France on three fronts.
The Earl of Northampton would lead a small force to Brittany, a larger force would proceed to Gascony under the command of Henry, Earl of Derby and the main force would accompany Edward to France or Flanders. The previous Seneschal of Gascony, Nicholas de la Beche, was replaced by the more senior Ralph, Earl of Stafford, who sailed for Gascony in February with an advance force. Derby was appointed the King's Lieutenant in Gascony on 13 March 1345 and received a contract to raise a force of 2,000 men in England, further troops in Gascony itself; the detailed contract of indenture had a term of six months from the opening of the campaign in Gascony, with an option for Edward III to extend it for a further six month on the same terms. Derby was given a high