Pisgah Crater, or Pisgah Volcano, is a young volcanic cinder cone rising above a lava plain in the Mojave Desert, between Barstow and Needles, California in San Bernardino County, California. The volcanic peak is around 2.5 miles south of historic U. S. Route 66-National Old Trails Highway and of Interstate 40, west of the town of Ludlow; the volcano had a historic elevation of 2,638 feet, but has been reduced to 2,545 feet due to mining. The volcano was the site of the Mount Pisgah Volcanic Cinders Mine, a cinder quarry that produced pumice for commercial use, the primary end product being railroad ballast for the Santa Fe Railroad; the mountain is owned by Can-Cal Resources Limited, a Canadian company specializing in exploration of precious minerals in California. Mining has had a severe environmental impact; the mountain is still quarried for various cinder products, sand from the mountain was used to depict the black sands of Iwo Jima in the film Letters from Iwo Jima. The crater stands 98 meters above the surrounding High Desert terrain, has a base diameter of 488 meters.
It has lost much of its original cinder cone shape to ongoing aggregate mining operations, in addition to minor natural erosion. The mountain contains a large number of lava tubes; the most well known cave is the 1,300-foot -long SPJ Cave. Located in the Basin and Range Province, the Mojave Valley and the Cady Mountains lie to the north of the peak, while the Rodman Mountains lie to the west; the Lava Bed Mountains lie to the south, the Bullion Mountains lie to the southeast. The crater and much of the surrounding lava field are on private property. Despite this, the lava tubes in the area are a somewhat popular and accessible destination for caving. Historic Lavic Siding is with the Mojave National Preserve beyond. There is no reliable date of; some believe that Pisgah Volcano is the youngest vent, of four cinder cones, in the Lavic Lake volcanic field. There may have been activity at this site as as 2,000 years ago, it is too young for the potassium-argon dating technique used on specimens over 100,000 years old.
No charred organic material for radiocarbon dating has been found. Lava at nearby and active Amboy Crater is interbedded with Bristol Playa sediments at a depth of about 9 meters which are 100,000 years old. Recent argon-argon dating reveals an age of 18,000 years ± 5,000 years for the most recent flow. Lava flows extend 18 km to the west and 8 km to southeast of the cone, containing basalt of the pahoehoe texture, with some a'a; the flows contain numerous lava caves. The cindercone volcano itself shows signs of oxidization prominent in the reddish/orange/brown appearance of much of the upper portions; the volcano is a popular field site for geology instruction. On some weekends, it is not uncommon to find university classes and professional seminar groups around the mountain. Quarrying operations and geological survey activity occurs at the mountain every so often; the volcano erupted at least three times. All three eruptions produced porphyritic basalt, although rocks from the first eruptive phase are aphanitic.
The first eruption was a basaltic flow that created the extensive lava fields visible from Interstate 40. Due to evidence from intrusive structures, it is believed that the cinder cone was formed around this time, although rocks from this eruptive phase are not present on the surface of the cinder cone; the second phase produced extensive flows, while the third eruption produced substantial amounts of tephra. It is believed that most of the present cinder cone consists of pyroclastic material that originated from this final eruption; the lava found around the volcano consists of a'a and pahoehoe, with considerable concentrations of olivine and plagioclase. Large amounts of gypsum can be found coating rocks near the cinder cone. Lavic Lake volcanic field Amboy Crater Cima volcanic field Mojave National Preserve Providence Mountains State Recreation Area Mitchell Caverns Coso Volcanic Field Wood, Charles A.. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 242–243. ISBN 0-521-43811-X. Volcano World: Pisgah Crater Pisgah Crater: Virtual Tour Satellite view of Pisgah Crater
El Garces Hotel
El Garces was the Atchison and Santa Fe Depot with a hotel and restaurant in Needles, California. After extensive renovations, it reopened as the El Garces intermodal transportation facility in 2014. Built by the Santa Fe Railroad under contract with the Fred Harvey Company in 1908, the hotel was designed in an elegant Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts style and was considered "the Crown Jewel" of the entire Fred Harvey chain; this early Harvey House was designed by architect Francis W. Wilson; the hotel was named in honor of Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés, an explorer in 1774 with Juan Bautista de Anza and the legendary De Anza expedition. The hotel's restaurant was staffed by the famous Harvey Girls, young women who worked for the Fred Harvey Company; the El Garces Hotel was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 17, 2002. El Garces hotel and restaurant closed in 1949. Historic U. S. Route 66 went by the hotel from the 1920s through the 1960s; the Santa Fe railroad station was used by Amtrak until it closed in 1988.
Restoration and reconstruction of the historic El Garces began on March 7, 2007. Allen Affeldt, owner of the historic La Posada Hotel in Winslow, intended to buy the station, opening an upscale hotel and restaurant, but abandoned that plan after a 2009 audit. City redevelopment of the intermodal transportation facility continued; the El Garces intermodal transportation facility renovation project was completed in 2014. Van Noy Railway News and Hotel Company Needles El Garces Hotel, California National Park Service El Garces Hotel Archived March 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine A Harvey House home page Needles Amtrak Station and El Garces Hotel "Needles, CA". Great American Stations
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color, it is mowed to ensure an acceptable length, although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. Lawns are used around houses, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent; the term "lawn", referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century. Tied to suburban expansion and the creation of the household aesthetic, the lawn is an important aspect of the interaction between the natural environment and the constructed urban and suburban space.
In many suburban areas, there are bylaws in place requiring houses to have lawns and requiring the proper maintenance of these lawns. In some jurisdictions where there are water shortages, local government authorities are encouraging alternatives to lawns to reduce water use. Lawn is a cognate of llan, derived from the Common Brittonic word landa that means heath, barren land, or clearing. Lawns may have originated as grassed enclosures within early medieval settlements used for communal grazing of livestock, as distinct from fields reserved for agriculture; the word "laune" is first attested in 1540, is related to the Celtic Brythonic word lan/llan/laun, which has the meaning of enclosure in relation to a place of worship. In medieval Europe, open expanses of low grasses became valued among the aristocracy because they allowed those inside an enclosed fence or castle to view those approaching. Lawns became popular with the aristocracy in northern Europe from the Middle Ages onward; the early lawns were not always distinguishable from pasture fields.
The damp climate of maritime Western Europe in the north made lawns possible to manage. They were not a part of gardens in other regions and cultures of the world until contemporary influence. Before the invention of mowing machines in 1830, lawns were managed differently, they were an element of wealthy estates and manor houses, in some places were maintained by the labor-intensive methods of scything and shearing. In most situations, they were pasture land maintained through grazing by sheep or other livestock. Areas of grass grazed by rabbits, horses or sheep over a long period form a low, tight sward similar to a modern lawn; this was the original meaning of the word "lawn", the term can still be found in place names. Some forest areas where extensive grazing is practiced still have these seminatural lawns. For example, in the New Forest, such grazed areas are common, are known as lawns, for example Balmer Lawn. Lawns similar to those of today first appeared in France and England in the 1700s when André Le Nôtre designed the gardens of Versailles that included a small area of grass called the tapis vert, or "green carpet".
It was not until the 17th and 18th century that the garden and the lawn became a place created first as walkways and social areas. They were made up of meadow plants, such as a particular favorite. In the early 17th century, the Jacobean epoch of gardening began. By the end of this period, the English lawn was a symbol of status of the gentry. In the early 18th century, landscape gardening for the aristocracy entered a golden age, under the direction of William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown, they refined the English landscape garden style with the design of natural, or "romantic", estate settings for wealthy Englishmen. Brown, remembered as "England's greatest gardener", designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure, his influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and William Kent are overlooked. His work still endures at Croome Court, Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Bowood House, Milton Abbey, in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations.
His style of smooth undulating lawns which ran seamlessly to the house and meadow, clumps and scattering of trees and his serpentine lakes formed by invisibly damming small rivers, were a new style within the English landscape, a "gardenless" form of landscape gardening, which swept away all the remnants of previous formally patterned styles. His landscapes were fundamentally different from what they replaced, the well-known formal gardens of England which were criticised by Alexander Pope and others from the 1710s; the open "English style" of parkland first spread across Britain and Ireland, across Europe, such as the garden à la française being replaced by the French landscape garden. By this time, the word "lawn" in England had semantically shifted to describe a piece of a garden covered with grass and mown. Wealthy families in America during the late 18th century began mimicking English landscaping styles. In 1780, the Shaker community began the first industrial production of high-quality grass seed in North America, a number of seed companies and nurseries were founded in Philadelphia.
The increased availability of these grasses meant they were in plentiful supply
Populus fremontii known as Fremont's cottonwood or the Alamo cottonwood, is a cottonwood native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. It is one of three species in Populus sect. Aigeiros; the tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont; the tree is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico. In the United States, the species can be found in California, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado. In Mexico, it can be found in Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Mexico State, Puebla; the riparian tree grows near streams, springs, seeps and well-watered alluvial bottomlands at elevations below 2,000 m elevation. P. fremontii is a large tree growing from 12–35 m in height with a wide crown, with a trunk up to 1.5 m in diameter. The bark is smooth when young, becoming fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees; the 3–7 cm long leaves, are cordate with an elongate tip, with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides, glabrous to hairy, stained with milky resin.
Autumn colors occur from October–November a bright yellow orange red. The inflorescence consists of a long drooping catkin; the fruit is a wind dispersed achene, that appears to look like patches of cotton hanging from limbs, thus the name cottonwood. The largest known P. fremontii tree in the United States grows in Arizona. In 2012, it had a measured circumference of 557 in, height of 102 ft, a spread of 149.5 ft. Two subspecies are recognized; some confusion due to hybridization with a Rio Grande subspecies of Populus deltoides subsp. Wislizeni had placed this eastern cottonwood subspecies as a P. fremontii subspecies, but it was removed in 1977. P. f. subsp. Fremontii, with synonyms P. f. var. arizonica - Sarg. and P. f. var. macdougalii - Jeps. from California and west of the Continental Divide P. f. subsp. Metesae - Eckenwal. of arid areas of Mexico, planted elsewhere east of the Continental Divide P. fremontii is cultivated as an ornamental tree and riparian zone restoration tree. It is used in planting for: ecological restoration.
Fremont cottonwood was used in the past by ranchers for fuel and fence posts. Traditional medicineNative Americans in the Western United States and Mexico used parts of the Fremont cottonwood variously for a medicine, in basket weaving, tool making, for musical instruments; the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood contains vitamin C and was chewed as an antiscorbutic, or treatment for vitamin C deficiency. The bark and leaves could be used to make poultices to treat wounds. ArtThe Pima people of southern Arizona and northern Mexico lived along Sonoran Desert watercourses and used twigs from the tree in the fine and intricate baskets they wove; the Cahuilla people of southern California used the tree's wood for tool making, the Pueblo peoples for drums, the Lower Colorado River Quechan people in ritual cremations. The Hopi of Northeastern Arizona carve the root of the cottonwood to create kachina dolls. California native plants Riparian buffer Riparian forest Calflora Database: Populus fremontii Calflora Database: Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii Populus fremontii — U.
C. Photo gallery Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii — U. C. Photo gallery
Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Mojave Desert of San Bernardino County, California, USA, between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The preserve was established October 31, 1994, with the passage of the California Desert Protection Act by the US Congress, it was the East Mojave National Scenic Area, under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. Mojave National Preserve is vast. At 1,600,000 acres, it is the third largest unit of the National Park System in the contiguous United States. Natural features include the Kelso Dunes, the Marl Mountains and the Cima Dome, as well as volcanic formations such as Hole-in-the-Wall and the Cinder Cone Lava Beds; the preserve encloses Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve, which are both managed by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. Impressive Joshua tree forests are found in parts of the preserve; the forest covering Cima Dome and the adjacent Shadow Valley is the largest and densest in the world.
The ghost town of Kelso is found in the preserve, with the defunct railroad depot serving as the Visitor Center. The preserve is traversed by 4 wheel drive vehicles traveling on the historic Mojave Road. Climate in the preserve varies greatly. Summer temperatures average 90 °F, with highs exceeding 105 °F. Elevations in the preserve range from 7,929 feet at Clark Mountain to 880 feet near Baker. Annual precipitation varies from 3.37 inches near Baker, to 9 inches in the mountains. At least 25% of precipitation comes from summer thunderstorms. Snow is found in the mountains during the winter; the California Desert Protection Act of 1994 designated a wilderness area within Mojave National Preserve of 695,200 acres. The National Park Service manages the wilderness in accordance with the Wilderness Act, the CDPA, other laws that protect cultural and historic sites in the wilderness; the following climate data is for a higher elevation area in the preserve. See Climate of the Mojave Desert. Mojave Memorial Cross Official website Photo tour of Mojave National Preserve - from USGS
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o