Kemerovo Oblast known as Kuzbass and Kemerovo Oblast — Kuzbass after the Kuznetsk Basin, is a federal subject of Russia, located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian Mountains. The oblast, which covers an area of 95,500 square kilometers, shares a border with Tomsk Oblast in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Altai Republic in the south, with Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai in the west. Kemerovo is the administrative center of the oblast, though Novokuznetsk is the largest city in the oblast, in terms of size. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most urbanized regions, with over 70% of the population living in its nine principal cities, its ethnic composition is predominantly Russian, but Ukrainians and Chuvash live in the oblast. The population recorded during the 2010 Census was 2,763,135; the oblast was established on January 26, 1943, but it has older antecedents. Shors and Siberian Tatars are native peoples of the region.
The oldest city in Kemerovo Oblast is Novokuznetsk, founded in 1618, soon after Cossack ataman Yermak's push into Siberia. The territory of modern Kemerovo Oblast has been inhabited for several thousand years. In 1618, Kuznetsk fort was established in the south of the future oblast to protect the land from Russian and Mongolian Dzhungarian invaders. During the 19th century, the territory of the modern oblast was a part of Tomsk Governorate. After the October Revolution of 1917, Kuzbass experienced significant strife as part of the Russian Civil War. A major peasant rebellion took place in the region in early 1921, but was suppressed by the Red Army. In 1930, Kuzbass became part of the West Siberian Krai, the Novosibirsk Oblast. Post revolutionary period was characterized by the transition to a planned economy, the creation of the Ural-Kuzbass industrial complex development of the coal and chemical industries Kuzbass Kemerovo Coke built, Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine, a lot of new mines. Industrial enterprises are being built near the workers' settlements, which became a city: Kiselevsk Osinniki Krasnobrodsky, Tashtagol Kaltan Mezhdurechensk and others.
During the Great Patriotic War, Kemerovo region became a major supplier of metal. From Novokuznetsk steel produced over 45,000 aircraft. In Kuzbass from the occupied areas were evacuated equipment 71 enterprises, most of which have remained in the Kuzbass. In January 26, 1943, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issued a decree, decided to allocate from the Novosibirsk Oblast of Kuzbass and the establishment on its territory of Kemerovo region with administrative center in the city of Kemerovo. In the new Oblast included 17.5% of the Novosibirsk region, 9 of the 12 cities of regional subordination, 17 of the 20 workers' settlements, 23 of the 75 districts. The population of the Kemerovo Oblast was 42% of the total population of the Novosibirsk Oblast. Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed into a mountain range in the Kemerovo Oblast in 1994; the climate of the oblast is continental: winters are cold and long, summers are warm, but short. The average January temperature ranges from −17 to −20 °C, the average in July is 17 to 18 °C.
Average annual precipitation ranges from 300 millimeters on the plains and the foothills of up to 1,000 millimeters or more in mountainous areas. The duration of the frost-free period is 100 days in the north area, up to 120 days in the south of the Kuznetsk Basin. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most important industrial regions, with some of the world's largest deposits of coal; the south of the region is dominated by metallurgy and the mining industry, as well as mechanical engineering and chemical production. The Evraz Group and an ore subsidiary Evrazruda operate iron ore mining and processing facilities along with the Raspadskaya, the Siberian holding company SIBPLAZ, coal and coking coal mines there; the northern area of the region is more agricultural. The region has a dense railway network, including the Trans-Siberian Railway, which passes through the oblast. Prokopevsk and Andzhero-Sudzhensk are coal-producing centers, Novokuznetsk is the center of the engineering industry. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kemerovo CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Kemerovo Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Legislative Assembly of Kemerovo Oblast is the province's standing legislative body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. A minor planet 2140 Kemerovo discovered in 1970 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after Kemerovo Oblast.
Pamela J. Hunter is the Assembly member for the 128th District of the New York State Assembly, she is a Democrat. The district includes portions of Syracuse as well as the surrounding towns of Salina, DeWitt and Onondaga. Hunter was born and raised in upstate New York, served in the United States Army. Over the years, she has been involved in a number of Syracuse-based charities, including the Syracuse Community Health Center, Home Aides of CNY, Catholic Charities. In 2013, Hunter made her first foray into politics, running for and winning an At-Large seat on the Syracuse Common Council, she would serve as the Chair of the Public Safety Committee. In 2015, Assemblyman Samuel D. Roberts resigned to take a position with New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, as a result a special election was called for his seat. Hunter soon after announced that she would pursue the seat, in a three-way primary won the seat, she went on to win the three-way general election with a plurality. Hunter was sworn into the seat on November 4, 2015.
Assemblywoman Pamela Hunter official site
Hornsea Museum is a local museum in Hornsea, East Riding of Yorkshire, northern England. The museum was established in 1978, it is housed in two cottages. The museum is a registered charity and is run by volunteers; the museum is a member of the Holderness museums collaboration. The farmhouse was occupied by the Burn family for 300 years; the museum presents local history concerning north Holderness. Rooms present life in Victorian times, including a bedroom, the dairy, kitchen and wash-house. Outside the farmhouse, set in a large garden, are a barn, craft workshops, a Victorian school room and a Victorian street scene. In addition, there is an exhibition room showing militaria and another exhibiting childhood and toys; the Whitedale building has displays on the history of the Hull and Hornsea Railway and Hornsea's fishing heritage. The cottages have exhibition rooms containing some 2,000 items of Hornsea Pottery. Hornsea Museum website
The Croatian Navy is a branch of the Croatian Armed Forces. It was formed in 1991 from what Croatian forces managed to capture from the Yugoslav Navy during the Breakup of Yugoslavia and Croatian War of Independence. In addition to mobile coastal missile launchers, today it operates 30 vessels, divided into the Navy Flotilla for traditional naval duties, the Croatian Coast Guard. Five missile boats form Croatian fleet's main offensive capability. Since the ninth century, the Duchy of Croatia engaged in naval battles, struggling to maintain control over the eastern Adriatic coast and Adriatic merchant routes. Commemorating the first recorded Croat naval victory, when the subjects of Croatian duke Branimir defeated the Venetian naval expedition on September 18, 887, the Croatian Navy Day is celebrated yearly on September 18. Croatian fleet was active under duke Domagoj and king Petar Krešimir IV. Royal Croatian-Dalmatian navy with 12-15 galleys existed under Louis I in central Dalmatia in the 14th century.
Afterwards Venetian Republic established control over most of Croatian coast until 1797. Modern foundations of Croatian Navy can be traced back to Austro-Hungarian Navy and Yugoslav Navy when Croatia was a constituent part of these states; when Croatia was a part of Austria-Hungary, its Adriatic coast was the only access to sea this Central European state had. A Habsburg arsenal and a naval shipyard were established in Kraljevica in 1729, while naval bases, shipyards, headquarters and a naval academy were set up in Pula and Rijeka. Navy's emblem included Croatian coat of arms. Many ranked officers came from Croatia: grand admiral Maximilian Njegovan, ship-of-the-line captain Janko Vuković Podkapelski and others. In 1885, 44.9% of sailors and NCOs and 10.3% of naval officers came from Croatia, while in 1910 those shares dropped to 29.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Czech military historian Jindřich Marek points out that "Croats were more applied to heavy labour as stokers and deck hands" and were at comparative disadvantage due to their lack of swimming and German language skills.
At the end of October 1918, while Austria-Hungary was falling apart and the war was drawing to an end, emperor Charles handed the Navy over to the Zagreb People's Council, which promoted Vuković to the rank of the rear admiral and appointed him as a fleet commander. Croatian flag was hoisted on all ships in Pula and some in Kotor, but the Entente navies soon captured nearly all vessels and divided them among themselves. Croatian officers and sailors continued to man the new Royal Yugoslav Navy until its demise during the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. During World War II Croatian partisans formed a guerilla Partisan Navy consisting of makeshift vessels in 1942, resisting Italian occupation of the Adriatic. In the phases of the war, they cooperated with the Royal Navy. After the war, Socialist Yugoslav Navy, sprung up from the partisan navy, had Split as its HQ and used shipyards in Šibenik, Kraljevica and Pula. In 1991, after the federal Yugoslav armed forces sided with Serbian leadership under Milošević and decided to fight against democratically elected Croatian government which proclaimed Croatia's independence, ethnically Croat naval officers and rank-and-file led by admiral Sveto Letica started forming new Croatian Navy.
Using coastal artillery batteries they forced Yugoslav ships to retreat from Croatian territorial waters while in commando actions Croatian forces and shipyard personnel seized naval equipment and 35 vessels. At least three Yugoslav patrol boats were disabled in two minesweepers sunk; the Croatian Navy played an important role during the Croatian War of Independence after acquiring strategically important RBS-15B missiles. In 2004 Croatia joined the Navy was restructured in the process. In addition to that, in 2007 it was reorganized by dividing the personnel and vessels with newly founded Coast Guard, which remained a part of the Navy. Two former Helsinki class missile boats, FNS Oulu and FNS Kotka, were acquired from Finland, they were renamed Vukovar and Dubrovnik and entered service in December, 2008. They were acquired along with a considerable amount of spare parts due to a severe shortage of vessels at present; the price of these ships was €9 million and is considered rather symbolic because it was a part of the offset deal for the previous Croatian acquisition of Patria AMV armoured vehicles.
The ships reached their full operational capability in June, 2009. The 2015 Strategic Defence Review envisages an overhaul and upgrade suitable for'interception duties' to be completed in 2020. A revised out-of-service date is not known; the Končar class missile boat Šibenik has been overhauled with new turbine engines and radars and is due to remain in service until 2018-2020. The Kralj class vessels were planned to be extensively modernized at a price of €20 million, but as a result of the recent acquisition of Helsinki class boats RTOP-11 has completed a basic overhaul and engine upgrade worth around €5 million. RTOP-12 will be upgraded to this standard; the RBS-15 missile system was due to be scrapped but this decision was reversed in 2014 and an upgrade to 20 units will be completed by 2018. Successful live firing of the upgraded missiles was conducted from a mobile launcher and from RTOP-12 during 2015 (the first missile firing exercise by the Croa
Lief Java was an orchestra in the Dutch East Indies. It was one of the first keroncong groups in the colony. Various musicians are recorded as having been part of the Lief Java orchestra; this includes a singer-cum-songwriter known for his nationalist works. Other members included Hugo Dumas and Miss Netty. Lief Java was established in 1918 by Soewardi as the Rukun Anggawe Santoso Orchestra before changing its name to Lief Java in 1923; the orchestra used a variety of instruments, including cellos, flutes and violins. Most of the artists were amateurs, with little previous experience; the orchestra practiced in Kampung Kepuh, Batavia, in the home of musician S. Abdullah, played a variety of songs, both originals and arrangements or adaptations; the company had two musical divisions and jazz. Sometime after 1925, after Dutch entrepreneurs established NIROM, Lief Java began playing music over the radio as part of the station's Eastern Programme; this helped the orchestra to reach new audiences outside of Batavia.
However, the orchestra left NIROM owing to concerns over the use of their intellectual property. Thus, sometime after 1937 the orchestra quit NIROM and joined the rival station VORO, playing live every Saturday. By the mid 1930s Hugo Dumas was the orchestra's leader. In 1938 Lief Java completed its first film score; as Roekiah was the main star of Tan's, the orchestra was retained to score the company's releases. This included Siti Akbari; some of the orchestra's singers, such as Kartolo and Landouw, joined the company as actors. The orchestra toured. During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, the troupe abandoned changed their name from the Dutch Lief Java to the Japanese Kireina Djawa. During this period the orchestra performed live on several occasions, their songs became pro-East Asian; the orchestra was still in existence in 1949. An article in Pedoman Radio described the orchestra as "the'mother' of the vocal and musical arts of Indonesia"
In current usage a riot gun or less-lethal launcher is a type of firearm, used to fire "non-lethal" or "less-lethal" ammunition for the purpose of suppressing riots. Less-lethal launchers may be special purpose firearms designed for riot control use, or standard firearms shotguns and grenade launchers, adapted to riot control use with appropriate ammunition; the ammunition is most found in 12 gauge shotguns and 37mm or 40 mm grenade launchers. In the United States, the term riot gun more refers to a riot shotgun. Less-lethal launchers can fire various sorts of ammunition: Impact projectile; these rely on e.g. baton rounds, bean bag rounds, rubber bullets etc.. Teargas cartridge, chemical riot control agent. Pepper spray, chemical riot control agent. Stun ammo Smoke round Different types of less than lethal shotgun shells. Different types of less than lethal grenades. Sound 180db Sound emitting electric Projectile GLIMPS; this is a 40 mm caliber projectile which contains a small camera which transmits television images of what it sees.
To avoid breaking the projectile up, less-lethal cartridges are propelled by black powder, which when fired may make an eruption of sparks and smoke, spectacularly large to those accustomed to modern cartridges propelled by more modern propellants: see images at. Chemical agents may be dispersed in three ways: This method is the simplest: the chemical agent is in the form of a loose powder, expelled by the propellant of the cartridge; these rounds are used at short range, have effect from the muzzle to a range of about 30 feet. This method is best used by operators wearing gas masks, as the chemical agent can be blown towards the operator; these are called gas grenades, are used at longer ranges. They are analogous to rifle grenades, providing increased accuracy and range over hand-thrown gas grenades. Gas grenades may be used by operators without gas masks, as the agent is only dispersed in the area of impact, as far away as 150 yards; the agent in gas grenades is dispersed as an aerosol spray.
These are specialized gas grenades designed to penetrate light barriers, such as windows, hollow core doors, interior walls, disperse chemical agents on the far side. Impact rounds come in a variety of shapes and compositions for varying roles. Impact rounds are made out of materials of much lower density than the lead used in bullets, are larger, are fired at lower velocities. Rounds are designed with low mass, moderate velocity, large surface area to prevent the rounds from penetrating the skin or causing severe injury, so they provide a painful blow to the target: but instances have been reported where rubber or plastic bullets have caused significant injuries to the body or eyes, in some cases caused death. One broad classification of impact rounds is direct fire and indirect fire rounds. Direct fire rounds can be fired directly at the target, ideally targeted low on the target, away from vital organs that are more prone to damage from the impact. Indirect or skip fire rounds are intended to be fired into the ground in front of the target, where they dissipate some energy, rebound into the target.
Baton rounds called rubber bullets or plastic bullets, are cylinders made of rubber, wood, or foam, can be as large as the full bore diameter of the launcher. Smaller baton rounds may be encased in other housing. Baton rounds may fire one long baton, or several shorter batons. Harder or denser baton rounds are intended for skip fire, while softer or less dense batons are intended for direct fire. Baton rounds are the subject of significant controversy, due to extensive use by British and Israeli forces, resulting in a number of unintended fatalities. Beanbag rounds consist of a tough fabric bag filled with birdshot; the bag is flexible enough to flatten on impact, covering a large surface area, they are used for direct fire. Beanbag rounds may be wide and flat, designed for close range use, or elliptical in shape, with a fabric tail to provide drag stabilization, for longer range use; these called stinger rounds, consist of a number of rubber balls ranging from around 0.32 to 0.60 inches in diameter, are used for direct fire.
The small diameter means that each ball contains far less energy than a baton round, but it limits the range. Rubber slugs, used in 12 gauge firearms, consist of a fin stabilized full bore diameter rubber projectile; these are used for accurate direct fire shots on individual targets. Pepper-spray projectiles called pepperballs, are direct-fire paintball-like capsules filled with a pepper spray solution of capsaicin, they provide a more user-friendly way to disperse pepper spray. Many sorts can be fired from paintball markers. Other sorts are designed to be fired from specially-designed pepperball guns whose muzzle velocity is greater than a paintball marker: if the velocity is not high enough the projectile will not break; as with paintball impacts, the capsule's impact is mildly painful and by itself can discourage rioters, but the pepper spray incapacitates and discourages more rioters than the capsule's impact. Purpose-built launchers are large bore guns 25 to 27 mm, modern versions are 37 to 40 mm. Dual-purpose guns are 12 gauge riot shotguns, firing special less-lethal shotgun shells.
Single-shot large bore launchers, such as the Milkor Stopper 37/38 mm riot gun, M79 Grenade launcher, ARWEN ACE, RGS-50M, are break open designs. The barrels are short, resulting in a carbine sized gun, and