Purple Line (Namma Metro)
Purple Line of the Namma Metro is part of the metro rail system for the city of Bengaluru, India. The 18.22 km line connects Baiyyappanahalli with Mysore Road. The line links the eastern and western areas of Bengaluru; the Purple Line is elevated, with 12 elevated stations and 5 underground stations. The Majestic station serves as the interchange station with the Green Line, it takes around 35 minutes to travel from one end to another end, as compared to around 90 minutes taken to travel on road. Civil construction work on Phase I of the line began on 15 April 2007, was scheduled to be completed in 5 years. However, the project faced delays and missed several deadlines, which the BMRCL blamed on land acquisition disputes, difficulty in drilling though the hard rock of the Deccan Plateau for the underground section; the first stretch of the Purple Line between Baiyyappanahalli and Mahatma Gandhi Road was inaugurated on 20 October 2011, Reach 2 between Mysore Road and Magadi Road commenced operations on 16 November 2015.
These two sections operated independently until the final section, the underground stretch between Mahatma Gandhi Road and City Railway station was opened to the public on 30 April 2016, linking the operational stretches and completing Phase I of the Purple Line. The final stretch of Phase I is the first underground metro section in South India; the proposed Phase II will extend the line at both its western termini. Once Phase II is completed, the line will consist of 36 stations from Whitefield in the east to Kengeri in the west, measure 42.53 km. The following dates represent the dates the section opened to the public, not the private inauguration; the detailed project report for Phase I, comprising the Purple and Green Lines, of the Namma Metro project was prepared by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation and submitted to the BMRCL in May 2003. The final approval on a scheme that incorporated the expertise of DMRC and RITES Limited did not come until April 2006; the DPR prepared by DMRC envisaged a 33 km elevated and underground rail network with 32 stations for Phase I of the project.
The proposed gauge was standard gauge unlike the broad gauge on the Delhi Metro network. The rationale for the metro includes reduced journey times, cutting fuel use, accident reduction and lower pollution. Construction work for Phase I of the Namma Metro project was scheduled to start in 2005 but was delayed due to change of government in Karnataka and continued debate over whether the project was financially feasible and appropriate for the city; the Union Cabinet approved Phase I of the Namma Metro on 25 April 2006, when it was estimated to cost ₹5,400 crore. The cost was revised to ₹8,158 crore, to ₹11,609 crore; the cost escalated to ₹ 13,845 crore. The cost of the Purple Line was estimated at ₹4500-5000 crore, with the cost of the underground stretch alone amounting to about ₹2,000 crore. Land acquisition for Phase I of the project cost ₹2,500 crore. BMRCL secured ₹6,500 crore through long-term loans and ₹300 crore by selling bonds, while the remaining project cost was funded by Central Government and the State Government.
BMRCL secured loans from several agencies - ₹3,000 crore from the Japan International Cooperation Agency, ₹600 crore from the Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited, ₹25 crore from the Asian Development Bank, the rest from a French lending agency. 10% of the ₹6500 crore must be paid as interest by the BMRCL every year. The Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry estimated that this amounted to an interest payment of ₹2 crore, however the BMRCL refuted the claims that the interest was that high, while confirming that it was "definitely more than ₹1 crore per day."Navayuga Engineering was awarded the contract to construct Reach 1 of the Purple Line in 2006. The foundation stone for the Phase I construction was laid by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 June 2006, civil construction on Reach I of the line, between M. G. Road and Baiyyappanahalli, commenced on 15 April 2007; the underground work commenced in May 2011. Each corridor consists of two 4.8 km long tunnels which are the first underground tunnels built for trains in South India.
The tunnels, dug using tunnel boring machines, are located 60 feet below ground level, have an outer diameter of 6.5 metres and inner diameter of 5.6 metres, situated are 5 metres apart. Two Japanese TBMs, nicknamed Helen and Margarita, were used for tunneling work on the Purple Line. Tunneling work began in May 2011 and completed in May 2014; the work required the BMRCL to conduct 10,000 controlled blasts using 50,000 kg of 125 gm gel nitrate capsules as explosives to tunnel through the hard granite rock of the Deccan Plateau. Blasts were carried out daily from 6 am to 7 am from March 2011 to early 2013. Regulations restricted blasting work from being carried out at the times of day. Preparation for a single blast took 3.5 hours, with the actual duration of a blast being 5 seconds. 20,250 truckloads of debris was excavated during construction. Kolar-based National Institute of Rock Mechanics served as consultant for blasting work. A total of 2500 trees were cut down during the construction of both lines of Phase I.
Reach 1 was scheduled to begin operations in March 2010. After the deadline was missed, the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd shifted the deadline to 31
Kempegowda Bus Station
Kempegowda Bus Station, more known as Majestic Bus Station, is a large bus station in central Bangalore, India. It is located opposite the Bangalore City Railway Station, it is bordered by Seshadri Road to the north, Danavanthri Road to the east, Tank Bund Road to the south and Gubbi Thotadappa Road to the west. This bus station provides connectivity to all the areas of Bangalore. One side of the bus station is used for intra-city buses by the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation while the other side is used by out-station buses operated by various state road transport corporations; the KSRTC side of the bus station houses the Nadaprabhu Kempegowda metro station on the Namma Metro. Former chief minister of Karnataka R. Gundu Rao is credited with building the station; the bus station not only eased congestion with buses and helped streamline the transport system but helped the local area grow economically and was a major landmark of the city for many years. The station acquired the name Majestic Bus Station or "Majestic" from a popular cinema theatre of the same name located nearby.
It was named as Kempegowda Bus Station in honour of Kempe Gowda I, the founder of Bangalore. However, Majestic continues to be the most used name for the station. Buses terminating at the station display signs that show "Kempegowda Bus Station" or "KBS"; the Kempegowda Bus Station was opened in the 1960s. The semi-circular city bus terminal was built in 1980s; the station is located on the site of the Dharmambudhi Lake, which dried up in the early 20th century. Mysore Road Satellite Bus Station Shantinagar Bus Station
Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants for food and beauty. A more precise definition can be given as "The cultivation and sale of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, flowers as well as many additional services", it includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management and garden design and maintenance, arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs, their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, quality, nutritional value, resistance to insects and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, therapists and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden; the word horticulture is modeled after agriculture, comes from the Latin hortus "garden" and cultūra "cultivation", from cultus, the perfect passive participle of the verb colō "I cultivate".
Hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and the borrowed word garden. The major areas of Horticulture include: Arboriculture is the study of, the selection, plant and removal of, individual trees, shrubs and other perennial woody plants. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use. Floriculture includes the marketing of floral crops. Study of flower cultivation. Landscape horticulture includes the production and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the marketing of vegetables. Pomology includes the marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the marketing of grapes. Oenology includes all aspects of winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants and animals. Horticulture has a long history; the study and science of horticulture dates all the way back to the times of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia, has been going on since, with present-day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank.
The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years. The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least 6950–6440 cal BP; the origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited during migrations from one area to the next. In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. In forest areas such horticulture is carried out in swiddens. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. Horticulture differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.
Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety of crops including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, cacao and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans, squash and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended or by women. Since 1804 The Royal Horticultural Society, a UK charity, leads on the encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches and shares this knowledge through its community and learning programmes, world class gardens and shows; the oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still have four shows a year in York, UK.
The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticulture. The IOH has an international branch for members outside of these islands; the International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science. The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas; the Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. The National Junior Horticultural Association was established in 1934 and was the first organisation in the world dedicated to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, develop skills in, the ever-expanding art and science of horticulture; the New Zealand Horticulture Institute. The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHo
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not used in English; these include Hinduism and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion. The form and function of temples is thus variable, though they are considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Offerings of some sort are made to the deity, other rituals enacted, a special group of clergy maintain, operate the temple; the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly. Temples have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo; the word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.
It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building, marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. Despite the specific set of meanings associated with the word, it has now become used to describe a house of worship for any number of religions and is used for time periods prior to the Romans; the temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; the most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god". A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual.
These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were of economic significance to Egyptian society; the temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land. In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room. Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos, or sacred precinct, its sacredness connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become elaborate.
Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions. The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are not known today. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; the Romans referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum. Medieval Latin writers sometimes used the word templum reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is used. A Zoroastrian temple may be called a Dar-e-mehr and a Atashkadeh. A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.
In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, Mandira, Gudi, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Devasthana, Deva Mandiraya and Devalaya. A Hindu temple is the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods, it is a structure designed to bring human gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and during the Indus Valley Civilization. Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India
Kempegowda International Airport
Kempegowda International Airport is an international airport serving Bengaluru, the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Spread over 4,000 acres, it is located about 40 kilometres north of the city near the village of Devanahalli, it is operated by Bengaluru International Airport Limited, a public -- private consortium. The airport opened in May 2008 as an alternative to increased congestion at HAL Airport, the original primary commercial airport serving the city, it is named after the founder of Bengaluru. Kempegowda International Airport became Karnataka's first solar powered airport developed by CleanMax Solar. Kempegowda Airport is the third-busiest airport by passenger traffic in the country, behind the airports in Delhi and Mumbai, is the 29th busiest airport in Asia, it handled over 25.04 million passengers in the calendar year 2017 with over 600 aircraft movements a day. The airport handled about 314,060 tonnes of cargo; the airport consists of a single runway and passenger terminal, which handles both domestic and international operations.
A second runway is being constructed and is expected to be operational by September 2019 while a second terminal is in the early stages of construction. In addition, there is three cargo terminals; the airport serves as a hub for AirAsia India, Alliance Air, Jet Airways and IndiGo and a focus city for Air India and SpiceJet. The original airport serving Bengaluru was HAL Airport, located 10 kilometres from the city centre. However, as Bengaluru grew into the Silicon Valley of India and passenger traffic to the city rose, the airport was unable to cope. There was no room for expansion and the apron could only park six aircraft. In March 1991, former chairman of the National Airports Authority of India S. Ramanathan convened a panel to select the site for a new airport; the panel decided on a village about 40 kilometres north of Bengaluru. The State Government made a proposal to build the airport with private assistance, which the Union Government approved in 1994. In December 1995, a consortium consisting of Tata Group and Singapore Changi Airport signed a memorandum of understanding with the State Government regarding participation in the project.
In June 1998, the consortium announced it was pulling out of the project due to delays in government approval. These included disputes over the fate of HAL Airport. In May 1999, the Airports Authority of India and the Karnataka State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation of the State Government signed a memorandum of understanding regarding the nature of the project, it would be a public–private partnership, with AAI and KSIIDC having a 26% share and private companies having the remaining 74%. In January 2001, the State Government created the company Bengaluru International Airport Limited as a special purpose entity and began searching for partners. By November, the project had attracted Unique Zürich Airport, Siemens Project Ventures and Larsen & Toubro. Construction was expected to begin in October 2002; the concession agreement between the State Government, the Union Government and BIAL was signed in July 2004. In it, BIAL required the closure of HAL Airport. Construction commenced on 2 July 2005.
When a study predicted the airport would receive 6.7 million passengers in 2008, the airport was redesigned from its initial capacity of 4.5 million passengers to 11 million, with the terminal size expanded and the number of aircraft stands increased. The cost of the airport rose to ₹1,930 crore. Construction was completed in 32 months, BIAL set the launch date for 30 March 2008. However, due to delays in establishing air traffic control services at the airport, the launch date was pushed to 11 May and 24 May 2008; as the opening date for the airport approached, public criticism arose directed toward the closure of HAL Airport. In March 2008, AAI employees conducted a massive strike against the closure of HAL Airport along with Begumpet Airport in Hyderabad, fearing they would lose their jobs; the Bangalore City Connect Foundation, a group of citizens and businessmen, staged a rally in mid-May, claiming the new airport was too small for the latest demand projections. On 23 May, a hearing was held at the Karnataka High Court over poor connectivity between the city and the airport.
The State Government decided to go ahead with inaugurating the new airport and closing HAL Airport. The first flight to the airport, Air India Flight 609 from Mumbai, was allowed to land the previous night as it would be continuing to Singapore shortly after midnight; the aircraft touched down at 10:40 pm on 23 May. The airport became the third greenfield airport under a public–private partnership to open in India, after Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad and Cochin International Airport; the original name of the airport was Bengaluru International Airport. In February 2009, the State Government sent a proposal to the Union Government to rename the airport after the founder of Bengaluru, Kempe Gowda I; when no action was taken, the State Government passed a resolution for the name change in December 2011. The Union Government accepted the proposal in 2012 and formally approved it in July 2013; the airport was renamed Kempegowda International Airport on 14 December 2013 amid the inauguration of the expanded terminal building.
Kingfisher Airlines once was one of the largest airlines at Kempegowda Airport. Following its collapse in October 2012, other airlines stepped in to fill the gap in domestic connectivity by adding more flights. In additio
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Bengaluru Pete is an area of Bangalore city, established by Kempegowda I in 1537 with roads laid out in the cardinal directions, entrance gates at the end of each road. Kempegowda termed the Pete he built as his "gandu bhoomi" or "Land of Heroes". Pete forms a well–defined body of markets which were associated with various trades and professions of the populace in the locality markets and given the names of trades pursued in such markets; the well known markets are the Tharagupete–market for grains, the Balepete – for Bangles and musical instruments, the Chikkapete and the Nagarthpete for textile trade, the Ballapurpete and the Ganigarapete market where oil is extracted by people of the Ganiga community, the Tigalarapete–flower market of gardeners, the Cubbonpete – textile manufacture by people of the Devanga community. The Bengaluru Pete, established in 1537 around the Mud Fort built by Kempe Gowda I as the nucleus, with an area of 2.24 square kilometres, has expanded to the present sprawling city of 741 square kilometres embracing a multi ethnic population of 5.7 million.
The other nicknames of the city reflect the growth direction of the city, such as the Silicon Valley of India, the "Fashion Capital of India," and "The Pub City of India."The old Pete, structured in the contemporary style of deep networks of crowded streets, richly represented the multi cultural identity, social history, economic geography of the times which are considered as a hallmark in the planning and design of any urban agglomerate. The place has left its mark on literature with novels like Riddle of the Seventh Stone being set in this part of Bangalore; these attributes have been further accentuated in the present day Bangalore city. It is now the third largest metropolis in India, the largest city in Karnataka state and the 28th largest city in the world. Though Bengaluru is chronicled to the period of 900 AD, but with confirmed history of the Bengaluru Pete traced to 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, a Chieftain of the Vijayanagara Empire held as the founder of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort and established the area around it as his province.
He was the great grand son of Jaya Gowda who established the Yelahankanada Prabhu clan, in 1418 AD and whose principality was in Yelahanka, north of the present day Bangalore. Kempegowda I, who showed remarkable qualities of leadership from his childhood, had a grand vision to build a new city, further fueled by his visits to Hampi the beautiful capital city of the Vijayanagar Empire, he persevered with his vision and got permission from the King Achutaraya, the ruler of the empire, to build a new city for himself. The King gifted 12 hoblis with an annual income of 30,000 varahas to his Chieftain Kempegowda to meet the expenses of his venture of building a new city. Kempegowda moved from his ancestral land of Yelahanka to establish his new principality, having obtained support from King Achutaraya. One version for the site selection process for the Bengalore Pete is that during a hunting expedition along with his advisor Gidde Gowda, he went westward of Yelahanka and reached a village called Shivasamudra some 10 miles from Yelahanka where, in a tranquil atmosphere under a tree, he visualised building a suitable city with a fort, a cantonment, tanks and people of all trades and professions to live in it for his future capital.
It is said that an omen of an uncommon event of a hare chasing away a hunter dog at the place favoured selection of the place and a dream of goddess Lakshmi that prophesied good indications of the events to happen further sealed his decision on the place for his capital. Following this event, on an auspicious day in 1537 A. D. he conducted a ground breaking ritual and festivities by ploughing the land with four pairs of decorated white bulls in four directions, at the focal point of the junction of Doddapet and Chikkapet, the junction of the present day Avenue Road and Old Taluk Kacheri Road. Thereafter, he constructed a mud fort, with a moat surrounding it. Building of the mud fort is steeped in a legend, a tragic but heroic story. During the construction of the Fort it was said that the southern gate would fall off no sooner than it was built and human sacrifice was indicated to ward off the evil spirits. Kempe Gowda permit any such event to occur, but his daughter-in-law, realising her father-in-Law's predicament, beheaded herself with a sword at the southern gate in the darkness of night.
Thereafter, the fort was completed without any mishap. In her memory, Kempegowda built a temple in her name in Koramangala. Thus, Kempegowda's dream fructified and the Bengaluru Pete evolved around the Mud fort called the Bangalore Fort; this mud fort was converted and enlarged into the present stone fort during Chikkadeva Raya Wodeyar's rule between 1673 AD – 1704 AD and Hyder Ali's rule, in 1761. It has been reported that Guru Nanak, the 1st Sikh Guru, on his way back from Sri Lanka halted at Bangalore. Kempegowda sought his blessings. Guru Nanak not only blessed Kempegowda but advised him to develop the place; the PeteThe Pete as built by Kempegowda I had two main streets, namely the Chikkapet Street, which ran east–west, the Doddapet Street, which ran north–south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square, the heart of Bangalo