Prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich
Prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich comprises 11 – or 10% of all European pile dwelling sites – of a total of 56 prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Lake Zurich in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; these 11 – including one further on the nearby Greifensee and Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore – prehistoric pile-dwelling settlements were built from around 5000 BC to 500 BC and are concentrated within an area of about 40 square kilometres, on Lake Zurich Obersee lakeshore in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; as part of a series of, in all, 111 European prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, they were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 2011. Archaeological excavations were conducted in only some of the sites, to preserve the heritage for future generations; the excavations yielded evidence that provides insight into life in prehistoric times during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Alpine Europe and the way communities interacted with their environment.
The settlements are a unique group of exceptionally well-preserved and culturally rich archaeological sites, which constitute one of the most important sources for the study of early agrarian societies. Contrary to popular belief, the settlements were not erected over water, but on nearby marshy land, among them on the Seedamm Frauenwinkel area, or, on the swamp land between the Limmat and Lake Zurich around Sechseläutzenplatz on small islands and peninsulas in Zürich; the settlements were set on piles to protect against occasional flooding by the Jona. Because the lake has grown in size over time, most of the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres, giving modern observers the false impression that they always had been. Of the transnational 111 serial sites are 56 – divided into 15 of 26 Swiss cantons – in Switzerland, where the excavations of the "Pan-European stilt house settlements" began. In spring 1855, in the context of work on land reclamation at Lake Zurich, the archaeologist Ferdinand Keller discovered the remains of the site Meilen–Rorenhaab.
The majority of the important sites of the so-called Horgen culture are situated on lakeshore, including Grosser Hafner on a former lake island and Kleiner Hafner on a peninsula at Sechseläutenplatz at the effluence of the Limmat, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai within an area of about 0.2 hectares in the city of Zürich. Worldwide unique are the prehistoric lake crossings on the upper lake between Rapperswil and Hurden on the Seedamm area, including the four pile dwellings Rapperswil-Jona-Technikum, Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn and Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld; the settlement Robenhausen at the Pfäffikersee is a unique site and researched by Jakob Messikommer at the end of the 19th century, as being continuously inhabited for thousands of years. Sources, among them area and location as well as coordinates and ID, used in the table base on Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, are listed as references; the list bases on the dates of December 2014. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance.
Hence, the area of each settlement is provided as a historical site under federal protection, within the meaning of the Swiss Federal Act on the nature and cultural heritage of 1 July 1966. Unauthorised researching and purposeful gathering of findings represent a criminal offense according to Art. 24. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Peter J. Suter, Helmut Schlichtherle et al.: Pfahlbauten – Palafittes – Palafitte. Palafittes, Biel 2009. ISBN 978-3-906140-84-1. Beat Eberschweiler: Ur- und frühgeschichtliche Verkehrswege über den Zürichsee: Erste Ergebnisse aus den Taucharchäologischen Untersuchungen beim Seedamm. In: Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz, Volume 96, Schwyz 2004. Official website
Feldbach is a village near Rapperswil, Switzerland. It is located on the north bank of the lake of Zurich and is part of the political municipality of Hombrechtikon. In the local dialect it is called Fäldbach. Situated on Zürichsee lake shore, Feldbach is neighboured by Kempraten, nearby the Seedamm, an isthmus between the Zürichsee and the Obersee lake area; the Prehistoric pile dwelling site Seegubel was in close vicinity to the prehistoric lake crossings, neighboured by three other Prehistoric pile dwelling settlements: Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld and Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum. Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres; as well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the Prehistoric settlmemnt Seegubel is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class object.
Thomas Frischknecht, Swiss cyclist Feldbach railway station is a stop of the S-Bahn Zürich on the line S7. Official website
Seedamm is the artificial causeway and bridge at the most narrow area of Lake Zurich, between Hurden and Rapperswil. The Seedamm carries a road and a railway across the lake, with the railway being used by the S5 and S40 lines of the S-Bahn Zürich and by the Südostbahn Voralpen Express; the Seedam is based on an ice age moraine located between the three Swiss cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; this morain formed a peninsula protruding from the south shore of the lake and containing the village of Hurden, a small island to the Rapperswil side of the lake, a section of shallow water dividing Lake Zürich and its upper part, Obersee. The causeway and bridges span this area of shallow water, are 1 kilometre in length and carry a road and a railway line. To the east of the modern causeway and bridge, there is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden, built in 2001 as a reconstruction of the first bridge between eastern and western lakesides around 1650 B. C. Situated to the southwest, Frauenwinkel is a mire landscape situated at the Seedamm' area on the easternly Zürichsee lakeshore between Hurden and Pfäffikon the Lützelau and Ufenau islands.
Around 1650 BC a first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zurich followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD when the Roman Empire built a 6 metres wide wooden bridge under Empire Marcus Aurelius. At Kempraten's Lake Zurich bay, the Roman transshipment harbour for goods was located that have been transported on the Roman streets, on the wooden bridge Rapperswil-Hurden and on the waterway Zürichsee-Obersee–Linth–Walensee. Historians mention a 10th-century ferry station assumably at the so-called Einsiedlerhaus in Rapperswil – in 981 AD as well as the vineyard on the Lindenhof hill – between Kempraten on lake shore, Lützelau and Ufenau island and assumably present Hurden, which allowed the pilgrims towards Einsiedeln to cross the lake before the prehistoric bridge at the Seedamm isthmus was re-built. By 1358, ferry services between Rapperswil and Hurden are mentioned. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
A small wooden bridge from Ufenau island to Hurden is mentioned around 1430, so-called Kilchweg in die Ufenau. In 1873 the Swiss federal parliament approved the construction of the today's stone causeway and bridge. Construction works have been begun in 1875 and finished in 1878; the construction costs the sum of 1,462,000 Swiss Francs, of which 1,100,000 have been paid by the city of Rapperswil. In 1878 the Zürichsee-Gotthardbahn established the railway line from Rapperswil railway station via Seedamm. In 1939 and 1951 the now called. Whilst the bridge sections of the Seedamm allow smaller vessels to pass under them, the main shipping channel between the lower and upper halves of Lake Zürich now passes through the Hurden ship canal, cut through the base of the Hurden peninsular in 1942/43, thus placing the village of Hurden on an artificial island; this canal is spanned by the Sternenbrücke, which carries both road and railway. This bridge was November 2010 to allow 40 ton trucks to cross the Seedamm.
In 2001 a new wooden footbridge was opened alongside the causeway for the first 840 metres of the crossing. It was built in quite the same place as the historical lake bridge linking Rapperswil with the nearby Heilig Hüsli bridge chapel, built in 1551; this connection for centuries has been part of old pilgrimage routes, the so-called Jakobsweg to the Einsiedeln Abbey. At the beginning of the 21st-century, about 75 passenger trains and 24,000 vehicles crossed the causeway and the town of Rapperswil-Jona every day, as of 2016, an average of 26,000 vehicles. In order to relieve the traffic on road and rail during rush hours, Rapperswil-Jona is expected to participate as the first Swiss city in a pilot project for so-called Mobility pricing. Located on Obersee lakeshore at the Seedamm isthmus between the Zürichsee and the Obersee lake area, the area was in close vicinity to the Prehistoric lake crossings, neighbored by four Prehistoric pile dwelling settlements: Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld and Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum.
Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO Worl Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the settlements are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as Class A objects of national importance. Geneviève Lüscher: Brücken und Wege der Bronzezeit. Schweizerischer Nationalfonds. In: Horizonte, März 2005. Beat Eberschweiler: Ur- und frühgeschichtliche Verkehrswege über den Zürichsee: Erste Ergebnisse aus den Taucharchäologischen Untersuchungen beim Seedamm. In: Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz, No. 96, Schwyz 2004. Hans Rathgeb: Brücken über den See. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Fussgänger-Holzsteg Rapperswil-Hurden, Rapperswil 2001. ISBN 3-9522511-1-9 Seedamm-Center Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden
Irgenhausen is a village of the municipality of Pfäffikon in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. Irgenhausen is located in the district of Pfäffikon in the Zürcher Oberland on the eastern shore of the Pfäffikersee. Irgenhausen belongs politically to the municipality of Pfäffikon. In Roman era, along Pfäffikersee there was a Roman road from the vicus Centum Prata on Obersee–Lake Zürich via Vitudurum to Tasgetium to the Rhine. To secure this important transport route, the Irgenhausen Castrum was built; the native name of the fort is unknown, thus Irgenhausen was mentioned in 811 AD as Camputuna sive Irincheshusa. Maybe the castrum's name was the name of the neighboring village of Kempten; the Roman Irgenhausen Castrumis located in Irgenhausen on the shore of Pfäffikersee. Jakob Heusser, Swiss industrialist Official website of the municipality of Pfäffikon Irgenhausen in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Bubikon is a municipality in the district of Hinwil in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Some names of localities have Celtic origins, others may have Roman origins. Fiefs of the St. Gallen Abbey are first mentioned around 744 in Berlikon, Bubikon is first mentioned in 811 as Puapinchova; the Ritterhaus Bubikon, a Knights Hospitaller commandry, was given by the Counts of Toggenburg and Counts of Rapperswil between 1191 and 1198. Bubikon has an area of 11.6 km2. Of this area, 62.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 13.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 19.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 12.4% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.8% of the area. As of 2007 17.2% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The municipality is located in the upper Glatt Valley on the water divide between the Glatt river and Lake Zurich.
It includes the villages of Bubikon and Wolfhausen as well as the hamlets of Barenberg, Berlikon, Bürg and Wändhüslen. Egelsee is located in the municipality. Bubikon has a population of 7,200; as of 2007, 8.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 17.7%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 37.7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CSP and the Green Party; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 25% of the population, while adults make up 62.6% and seniors make up 12.4%. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Bubikon about 80.7% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 2125 households in Bubikon.
Bubikon has an unemployment rate of 1.15%. As of 2005, there were 145 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 50 businesses involved in this sector. 1,031 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 84 businesses in this sector. 1,274 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 203 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 46.1% of the working population were employed full-time, 53.9% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 3,044 Protestants in Bubikon. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the 2000 census, 57% were some type of Protestant, with 50.3% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 6.7% belonging to other Protestant churches. 26.3% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 3.1% belonged to another religion, 2.7% did not give a religion, 10.5% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: Bubikon railway station is a stop of the Zürich S-Bahn on the lines S15 and S5.
Its train station is a 25-minute ride from Zürich Hauptbahnhof. Official website Bubikon in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi