Henry Ellsworth Vines Jr. was an American tennis champion of the 1930s, the World No. 1 player or the co-No. 1 for four years in 1932, 1935, 1936 and 1937, able to win Pro Slam titles on three different surfaces. He became a professional golfer. Vines attended the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, where he was a member of the Sigma Nu Fraternity and played on the freshman basketball team. Many believe, he was mentored by Perry T. Jones through the Los Angeles Tennis Club and the Southern California Tennis Association. In the amateur ranks Vines won three Grand Slam tournaments, the Wimbledon Championships in 1932 and the U. S. Championships in 1931 and 1932 and he reached the final of Wimbledon in 1933, he played his first professional tennis match on January 10, 1934 and became the leading pro player until 1938. In 1934 and 1935 he won all the great pro events and the two big annual tours. Vines won four professional majors, which were the Wembley Pro in 1934 and 1935, the French Pro in 1935 and the US Pro in 1939.
Vines won the Paris Indoor in 1934 and Southport Pro in 1935. After two years as the undisputed pro king in 1934 and 1935, Vines didn't need to enter any pro tournament to claim the World pro champion title: he retained his crown by just playing and winning three other great annual pro tours from 1936 to 1938. In 1939 Vines lost his world pro crown to Don Budge but narrowly: in their first pro tour against each other, Vines trailed Budge 17–22; the tour proved that at his best Vines was unbeatable, but that Budge's consistency would prevail a majority of the time, making the latter the best player of the time. In May 1940 Vines, 28 years 7 months old, played his last tennis competition, his physical problems, his desire to enjoy family life, his loss of the world crown, above all his increasing passion for golf drove him to retire from tennis. Comparing Vines and Fred Perry after the 1939 tours, Budge wrote, It was that after enduring Vines's power game, I never felt any real pressure against Perry.
Years Budge deemed that the world's all-time best player had been Ellsworth Vines, "on his day". Budge was always astonished when someone had not heard of Vines whom he considered as the champion of the 1930s. In the opinion of Jack Kramer, himself a great player, Vines was, along with Don Budge, one of the two greatest players who lived. Budge was the best, according to Kramer's 1979 autobiography, but, at the top of his game, Vines was unbeatable by anyone:... On his best days, Vines played the best tennis ever. Hell, when Elly was on, you'd be lucky to get your racket on the ball. Tall and thin, Vines possessed a game with no noticeable weaknesses, according to Kramer, because of his great natural athletic ability, laziness, he was known for his powerful forehand and his fast serve, both of which he hit flat with no spin. Although he could play the serve-and-volley game, he played an all-court game, preferring to hit winners from the baseline. Playing in the white flannel trousers that were standard dress for the time, he impressed the youthful Kramer in a 1935 match in Southern California: And here is Ellsworth Vines, 6'2½" tall, 155 pounds, dressed like Fred Astaire and hitting shots like Babe Ruth.
Kramer made up his mind on the spot to concentrate on tennis. Vines had, according to Kramer, the perfect slim body, coordinated for anything. Elly won Forest Hills the first time when he was still only nineteen, but at the same time he was devoting himself to basketball at the University of Southern California, he went there, on a basketball scholarship. In his chapter on 1932, Bud Collins writes in Total Tennis: The Ultimate Tennis Encyclopedia that Vines... had a curious windmill stroke in which the racket made an 360-degree sweep. Starting on high as though he were going to serve, he brought the racket back to the ground and swept up to the ball, he put no spin on it, thereby hitting a flat shot with tremendous force that made him unbeatable when he was on. Collins goes on to say that: Opponents came to realize that the way to beat him was to keep the ball in play, hitting him soft stuff until he started making errors. After becoming bored with tennis while only in his late twenties, Vines became a professional golfer in 1942 and over the years had a number of high finishes in tournaments, including at least two professional victories and a semifinal position in the prestigious 1951 PGA Championship when it was a match play tournament.
Writes Kramer, He was twice in the top ten of golf money winnings, he was the best athlete in the two sports. He compares Vines to another great tennis player, Lew Hoad: Both were strong guys. Both succeeded at a young age.... Both were lazy guys. Vines lost interest in tennis before he was thirty, Hoad never appeared to be interested. Despite their great natural ability, neither put up the outstanding records that they were capable of; the latter was true because both had physical problems. Vines was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1962. 1946 Massachusetts Open 1951 Southern California PGA Championship 1955 Utah Open Note: Vines d
The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. The tournament is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events held each year, preceding the French Open and the US Open, it features women's singles. Prior to 1988 it was played on grass courts, but since two types of hardcourt surfaces have been used at Melbourne Park – green coloured Rebound Ace up to 2007 and, blue Plexicushion. First held in 1905 as the Australasian championships, the Australian Open has grown to become the largest annual sporting event in the Southern Hemisphere. Nicknamed "the happy slam" and referred to as the "Grand Slam of Asia/Pacific" the tournament is the highest attended Grand Slam event, with more than 780,000 people attending the 2019 edition, it was the first Grand Slam tournament to feature indoor play during wet weather or extreme heat with its three primary courts, the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne Arena and the refurbished Margaret Court Arena equipped with retractable roofs.
The Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, was first played at the Warehouseman's Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre; the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships. It became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities: Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Hastings. Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a major championship until 1924, by the International Lawn Tennis Federation at a 1923 meeting; the tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time. In 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city; the tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until its move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988.
The new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyong's capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an immediate success, with a 90 per cent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong; because of Australia's geographic remoteness few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century. In the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days; the first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946. Inside the country, many players could not travel easily; when the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, a distance of about 3,000 kilometres between the east and west coasts. In Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander; the first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments.
Before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – did not play this tournament. Brookes took part once and won in 1911, Wilding entered and won the competition twice, their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players. When the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country, it was a recurring problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice. Thus, many players had never played the Australian amateur or open championships: the Doherty brothers, William Larned, Maurice McLoughlin, Beals Wright, Bill Johnston, Bill Tilden, René Lacoste, Henri Cochet, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Ted Schroeder, Pancho Gonzales, Budge Patty, others, while Brookes, Ellsworth Vines, Jaroslav Drobný, came just once.
In the 1960s and 1970s, when travel was less difficult, leading players such as Manuel Santana, Jan Kodeš, Manuel Orantes, Ilie Năstase and Björn Borg came or not at all. Beginning in 1969, when the first Australian Open was held on the Milton Courts at Brisbane, the tournament was open to all players, including professionals who were not allowed to play the traditional circuit. Except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates and the low prize money. In 1970, George MacCall's National Tennis League, which employed Rod Laver, Ken Rosewall, Andrés Gimeno, Pancho Gonzales, Roy Emerson and Fred Stolle, prevented its players from entering the tournament because the guarantees were insufficient; the tournament was won by Arthur Ashe. In 1983, Ivan Lendl, John McEnroe and Mats Wilander entered the tournament. Wilander won the singles title and both his Davis Cup singles rubbers in the Swedish loss to Australia at Kooyong shortly after.
Following the 1983 Australia
US Open (tennis)
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament. The tournament is the modern version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, the U. S. National Championship, for which men's singles was first played in 1881. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year; the other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the U. S. Labor Day holiday; the tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, mixed doubles. The tournament includes events for senior and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, New York City; the US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association, a non-profit organization, the chairperson of the US Open is Katrina Adams.
Revenue from ticket sales and television contracts are used to develop tennis in the United States. The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that employs tiebreakers in every set of a singles match. For the other three Grand Slam events, there are special scoring methods for a match that reaches 6–6 in the last possible set: in the French Open, the decisive set continues until a player takes a two-game lead, in Australia, an extended tiebreaker to 10 points is played, at Wimbledon, a tiebreaker is played only if the game score reaches 12–12; as with the US Open, those events use tiebreakers to decide the other sets. The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament with 16 qualifiers in the women's singles draw; the tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island. That year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association were permitted to enter. Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, the first of his seven consecutive singles titles.
From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament. In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, New York City; the effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it. In the first years of the U. S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U. S. National Singles Championships for Men. In 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U. S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club; the winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. This was followed by the introduction of the U. S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U. S. Mixed Doubles Championship in 1892; the women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917.
Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round. In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament, they argued that most tennis clubs and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there. This view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions; this contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation. From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia, it returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium.
Although many regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation designated it as one of the world's major tournaments commencing in 1924. At the 1922 U. S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds; the open era began in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U. S. National Championships had been limited to amateur players. Except for mixed doubles, all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals; that year, 96 men and 63 women entered, prize money totaled US$100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's best-of-twelve points system.
In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions, John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving US$25,000 each. Beginning in 1975, the tournament was played on clay courts instead of grass, floodlights allowed matches to be played at night. In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, three miles to the north; the tournam
Jaroslav Drobný was a World No. 1 amateur tennis champion as well as being an ice hockey player. He left Czechoslovakia in 1949 and travelled as an Egyptian citizen before becoming a citizen of Great Britain in 1959, where he died in 2001. In 1954, he became the first and, to date, only player with African citizenship to win the Wimbledon Championships. Drobný began playing tennis at age five and, as a ball-boy, watched world-class players including compatriot Karel Koželuh, he had a good forehand. Drobny played in his first Wimbledon Championship in 1938, losing in the first round to Alejandro Russell. After World War II Drobný was good enough to be able to beat Jack Kramer in the fourth round of the 1946 Wimbledon Championship before losing in the semifinals. In 1951 and 1952 he won the French Open, defeating in the final Eric Sturgess and retaining the title the following year against Frank Sedgman. Drobný was the losing finalist at Wimbledon in both 1949 and 1952 before winning it in 1954 by beating Ken Rosewall for the title, the first left-hander to capture Wimbledon since Norman Brookes.
He won three singles titles at the Italian Championships. Drobný was ranked World No. 1 in 1954 by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph. He has won the French Open doubles title in 1948, playing with Lennart Bergelin, he won the mixed doubles title paired with Patricia Canning Todd at 1948 French Open. Drobný held the distinction of having competed at Wimbledon under four different national identities. In 1938, at the age of 16, he started for his native Czechoslovakia. A year following the German invasion and occupation of Czechoslovakia, he was representing the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. After World War II, he started at Wimbledon yet again as Czechoslovak but chose to defect from the communist regime in 1949 – he left Czechoslovakia for good on 11 July 1949. After the Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948, Drobný became dissatisfied with the way the communist propaganda used him for its purposes. At the time, he was Czechoslovakia's most renowned athlete together with the phenomenal long-distance runner Emil Zátopek.
It was becoming apparent to Drobný that he was no longer able to travel to tournaments and he grew dissatisfied with the new regime. This resulted in his defection from his native land. Drobný defected from Czechoslovakia together with a fellow Czech Davis Cup player Vladimír Černík while playing at a tennis tournament in Gstaad, Switzerland on July 27th 1949, after disobeying instructions from the USSR government to not play. "All I had", he wrote "was a couple of shirts, the proverbial toothbrush and $50." Drobný and Černík were the core of the Czechoslovak Davis Cup team. Twice, the two of them had carried their country to the Davis Cup semifinals, losing to Australia in 1947 and in 1948. Drobný won. Becoming stateless, Drobný attempted to gain Swiss, US and Australian papers until Egypt offered him citizenship, he represented Egypt at Wimbledon from 1950 through 1959, including his title winning run in 1954. He is the only Egyptian citizen to win a Grand Slam tennis tournament. At the time of his Wimbledon win in 1954 Drobný was living in the United Kingdom but only in his final appearance at Wimbledon in 1960, at the age of 38, did he represent his new homeland Great Britain.
During his amateur career, Drobný won over 130 singles titles, was world ranked in the top 10 from 1946–55. Drobný was inducted in the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island in 1983, he is the only person to win the rare combination of Wimbledon in tennis and a world championship title in ice hockey. In total, Drobný started in Wimbledon 17 times, always sporting his trademark tinted prescription glasses as an old ice hockey injury affected his eyesight. Drobný is the only male tennis player who won a Wimbledon singles title while wearing glasses. Billie-Jean King and Martina Navratilova are the only female Wimbledon champions wearing glasses. Arthur Ashe, known for playing with spectacles, had switched to contact lenses by the time he won Wimbledon in 1975. Drobný has won the most clay court titles of any one player. From 1938 to 1949 Drobný played center in the Czechoslovak ice hockey league, he was a Silver medalist with the Czechoslovak ice hockey team in the 1948 Olympics.
In the final match and Canada tied goalless but Canada won the gold medal due to a better overall goal average. Drobný scored 9 goals in 8 games at the Olympics. Jaroslav Drobný was a member of the Czechoslovak national ice hockey team which won the gold medals at the 1947 World Ice Hockey Championships in Prague, he scored 15 goals in 7 games in the tournament including a hat-trick in the decisive victory over USA which gave his country its first World Championships title. In 1997, Drobný was inducted in the International Ice Hockey Federation Hall of Fame. Drobný could have become the first European player to start in the National Hockey League when the Boston Bruins put him on their reserve in 1949, he was offered $20,000 to come over to play for Boston but he refused, preferring to remain playing amateur ice hockey and retain the flexibility to play tennis during the summers. The first European to play in the NHL became Ulf Sterner from Sweden when he started for the New York Rangers for the first time on 27 January 1965.
In 1955, Jaroslav Drobný published. He was
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season. Only the Czechs have won all three competitions in one calendar year, doing so in 2012.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900.
From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition. During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.
Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition; the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition; this was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000, they in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches.
Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheles
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh