Kenai Fjords National Park is an American national park established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The park covers an area of 669,984 acres on the Kenai Peninsula in south-central Alaska, near the town of Seward; the park contains one of the largest ice fields in the United States. The park is named for the numerous fjords carved by glaciers moving down the mountains from the ice field; the field is the source of at least 38 glaciers, the largest of, Bear Glacier. The fjords are glacial valleys that have been submerged below sea level by a combination of rising sea levels and land subsidence; the park lies just to the west of a cruise ship port. Exit Glacier is a popular destination at the end of the park's only road; the remainder of the park is accessible by boat and hiking. Kenai Fjords National Monument was designated by President Jimmy Carter on December 1, 1978, using the Antiquities Act, pending final legislation to resolve the allotment of public lands in Alaska.
Establishment as a national park followed the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. The park protects the icefield, a narrow fringe of forested land between the mountains and the sea, the indented coastline; the park is inhabited by a variety of terrestrial and marine mammals, including brown and black bears, sea otters, harbor seals and killer whales. Kenai Fjords National Park was established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, it is a small and accessible park by Alaskan national park standards, about 88% as big as Yosemite National Park. It is the fifth most-visited park in Alaska, but the 11th of 13 Alaska parks in area, is the closest national park to Anchorage; the park's headquarters is in Seward. It is the only Alaska national park that did not allow subsistence use by Native Americans, but native village corporations continue to have interests in inholdings within the park, have since established subsistence rights on those properties.
At the time of the park's establishment, there were few permanent inhabitants. Archeological surveys have altered the early view that the area was subject to only transient occupation as evidence has accumulated of long-term use, it is believed that coastal subsidence and rising water levels have inundated many sites, as the shoreline was the place richest in resources for early peoples. A 1993 Park Service survey documented several village sites dated between 1200 AD and 1920; the survey found evidence that an earthquake dating to about 1170 AD lowered the shoreline by at least 1.8 metres inundating earlier sites. A 2003 follow-up survey indicated that one site was occupied between 950 AD and 1800. Another site was used from 1785 to 1820. A third site showed occupancy from 1850 to 1890. Several gold mines from historical times have been documented in the park. Mining activity centered on Nuka Bay; some sites had been active into the 1980s. Eleven mine sites have been documented and two of the mine sites have been determined to be eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.
Early studies of possible new Park Service units in Alaska took place in the 1940s. The first study, entitled Alaska - Its Resources and Development was centered on the development of tourism, despite a dissent from co-author Bob Marshall, who advocated strict preservation. Another study, funded as part of the Alaska Highway in the 1940s drew similar conclusions to the first study's majority opinion. In 1964 George B. Hartzog Jr. director of the National Park Service, initiated a new study entitled Operation Great Land, advocating the development and promotion of the existing Alaska parks. Follow-up action by Hartzog brought the Park Service into discussions over the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; the Kenai Fjords area was not considered to be of the first priority for park designation under the ANCSA. The earliest proposals for a national park at the Kenai Fjords was raised in the 1970s. In 1971 the Seward National Recreation Area was proposed for the area between the head of Resurrection Bay and Turnagain Arm, extending east to Whittier and west to Exit Glacier.
This proposal allowed logging and mining in the area. Although the proposal had support in Congress and from the US Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management, it was overcome by difficulties with native land claims. Internal Park Service documents envisioned an 800,000-acre park protecting the coast and the icefield, but this conflicted with the Seward National Recreation Area and a proposed expansion of the Kenai National Moose Range. Another proposal placed the Aialik Peninsula under US Fish and Wildlife Service jurisdiction. On March 15, 1972, four areas of the Kenai Peninsula were set aside under the ANCSA for federal protected areas; the same day the National Park Service formed an Alaska Task Force to study proposed park lands. The Kenai Fjords region was designated Study Area 11. Negotiations between the Park Service, Forest Service and Wildlife Service and the Chugach Alaska Corporation resulted in a decision by the Department of the Interior to make the Park Service the lead agency for the Kenai Fjords area.
In 1973 the Nixon administration proposed the Harding Icefield–Kenai Fjords National Monument as part of the ANILCA legislation. The proposed monument totaled 300,000 acres in three areas: two island groups. Legislation stalled in Congress during the Watergate scandal, was not pursued again until the Carter administration. Secretary of the Interior Cecil D. Andrus proposed a 410,000-acre Kenai Fjords National Park
Naila Kabeer is an Indian-born British Bangladeshi social economist, research fellow and writer. She is the president elect of the International Association for Feminist Economics, her tenure will be 2018 to 2019, she is on the editorial committee of journals such as Feminist Economist and Change, Gender and Development, Third World Quarterly and the Canadian Journal of Development Studies. She works on poverty and social policy issues, her research interests include gender, social exclusion, labour markets and livelihoods, social protection, focused on South and South East Asia. Kabeer was born in Calcutta, West Bengal, but her family migrated to East Bengal, soon after, she went to school at Loreto Convent in Shillong in India. In 1969, she came to the United Kingdom for further education, she did her B. Sc. in economics at the London School of Economics, her M. Sc. in economics at University College London and returned to the London School of Economics for her Ph. D, she completed her Ph. D in 1985.
Kabeer did her PhD fieldwork in a village in Bangladesh. In 1985, Kabeer joined the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex as a research fellow and became a professorial fellow. In 2010, she joined the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London as professor of development studies. In 2013, she joined the Gender Institute at the London School of Economics and Political Science as professor of gender and international development, where she has been since. Kabeer was the Kerstin Hesselgren Professor at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden in between 2004–2005 and Senior Sabaticant with International Development Research Centre Regional Office in South Asia between 2005–2006, she worked as a senior research fellow at the Department for International Development, UK 2009–2010. She remains as an emeritus fellow at the Institute of Sussex. Kabeer has been active in developing frameworks and methodologies for integrating gender concerns into policy and planning, she is a social economist and works on poverty and social policy issues.
She has been active in developing frameworks and methodologies for integrating gender concerns into policy and planning and has experience of training and advisory work with governments and multilateral agencies and NGOs. as well as for a number of international development agencies (including the United Nations Development Programme, UNICEF, World Bank, UN Women, SIDA. and North American Aerospace Defense Command. And DIFD, she is on the board of the Women’s Rights Program of the Open Society Foundations, of the International Centre for Research on Women, an advisory committee of the International Labour Organization's Better Works Program. Kabeer is the author of numerous books and journal publications, she is the author of Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Vero, 1994 and The Power to Choose: Bangladeshi Women and Labour Market Decisions in London and Dhaka, Verso 2000. She collaborated with UNRISD for the programme Social Effects of Globalization and wrote three papers: Gender, Demographic Transition and the Economics of Family Size: Population Policy for a Human-Centred Development in 1996.
For the UNRISD programme Gender and Development, she co-edited a Routledge/UNRISD book Global Perspectives on Gender Equality: Reversing the Gaze in 2007. Kabeer has worked with the United Nations Division for the Advancement for Women as the lead author on The World Survey on Women and Development in 2009. For the UNRISD programme Social Policy and Development, she co-edited another Routledge/UNRISD volume "Social Protection As Development Policy: Asian Perspectives" in 2010. Kabeer is on advisory editorial committee for the board of the Feminist Review Trust, she is on the Advisory Committee for Better Work. She is engaged in research on social protection strategies and struggles for citizenship among workers in the informal economy. Kabeer is involved in ERSC-DIFD Funded research on Gender and Labour Market dynamics in Bangladesh and India. Kabeer, Naila; the quest for national identity: Women and the state in Bangladesh. Brighton, England: Institute of Development Studies. ISBN 9780903715225.
Kabeer, Naila. Gender and well-being: rethinking the household economy. Brighton, England: Institute of Development Studies. ISBN 9780903715423. Kabeer, Naila. Reversed realities: gender hierarchies in development thought. London New York: Verso Books. ISBN 9780860915843. Kabeer, Naila. Institutions and outcomes: A framework and case studies for gender-aware planning. New Delhi, India: Zubaan. ISBN 9788185107981. Kabeer, Naila; the power to choose: Bangladeshi women and labour market decisions in London and Dhaka. London New York: Verso Books. ISBN 9781859848043. Kabeer, Naila. Social protection in Asia. New Delhi, India: Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124108819. Kabeer, Naila. Gender mainstreaming in poverty eradication and the millennium development goals. London Ottawa: Commonwealth Secretariat. ISBN 9780850927528. Kabeer, Naila. Child labour and the right to education in South Asia. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN 9780761996019. Kabeer, Naila. Inclusive citizenship
The San Gregorio Fault is an active, 209 km long fault located off the coast of Northern California. The southern end of the fault is in southern Monterey Bay, the northern end is about 20 km northwest of San Francisco, near Bolinas Bay, where the San Gregorio intersects the San Andreas Fault. Most of the San Gregorio fault trace is located offshore beneath the waters of Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, the Pacific Ocean, though it cuts across land near Point Año Nuevo and Pillar Point; the San Gregorio Fault is part of a system of coastal faults which run parallel to the San Andreas. The movement of the San Gregorio is right-lateral strike-slip, the slip rate is estimated to be 4 to 10 mm/year; the most recent major earthquake along the fault occurred some time between 1270-1775 AD, with an estimated magnitude of 7 to 7.25