The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska
Valdez–Cordova Census Area is a census area located in the state of Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,636, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest communities are Cordova. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has a total area of 40,340 square miles, of which 34,240 square miles is land and 6,100 square miles is water. Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska – north Yakutat City and Borough, Alaska – southeast Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska – west Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska – west Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska – west Yukon Territory, Canada – east Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Middleton Island Chugach National Forest Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Wrangell-Saint Elias Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 10,195 people, 3,884 households, 2,559 families residing in the census area; the population density was less than 1 person per square mile. There were 5,148 housing units at an average density of less than 1/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the census area was 75.90% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 13.25% Native American, 3.55% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 1.13% from other races, 5.58% from two or more races. 2.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 2.33 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 3,884 households out of which 37.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.10% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.18. In the census area, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 6.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.90 males.
Cordova Valdez Whittier Copperville Eyak List of airports in the Valdez–Cordova Census Area Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor Media related to Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska
Matanuska-Susitna Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. The borough is part of the Anchorage Metropolitan Statistical Area, along with the municipality of Anchorage on its south; the Mat-Su Borough is so designated because it contains the entire Susitna rivers. These rivers empty into Cook Inlet, the southern border of the Mat-Su Borough; this area is one of the few agricultural areas of Alaska. The borough seat is Palmer, the largest city is Wasilla; as of the 2010 census, the population was 88,995. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 25,258 square miles, of which 24,608 square miles is land and 650 square miles is water. Denali Borough, Alaska - north Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska - northeast Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska - east Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska - south Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - south Bethel Census Area, Alaska - west Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - west Chugach National Forest Denali National Park and Preserve Denali Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 59,322 people, 20,556 households, 15,046 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 27,329 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 87.55% White, 0.69% Black or African American, 5.50% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 4.57% from two or more races. 2.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,556 households out of which 42.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.29. In the borough the population was spread out with 32.20% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 5.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 108.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.10 males. Schools in the borough are administered by the Matanuska-Susitna Borough School District. Matanuska-Susitna Borough was the largest of fifteen county-equivalents in America carried by Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Vern Halter is the mayor of the Matanuska-Susitna Borough; the borough has a strong manager form of government. John Moosey is the borough manager. Long-time Manager John Duffy retired in 2010. Houston Palmer Wasilla Alexander Creek Dinglishna Hills In July 2018, the borough's computer systems, including the library and animal shelter, were hit by a ransomware attack, forcing employees to do without computers, using electric typewriters where available; the borough incurred over $2 million in costs. The method is thought to have been a targeted phishing e-mail. Matanuska-Susitna Valley List of Airports in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough Matanuska Formation official government website Borough Facebook Borough newsroom Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
The Trail Lakes are two lakes on the lower Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The lakes are near the town of Moose Pass and adjacent to the Seward Highway, they are the home of a large salmon hatchery owned by the state of Alaska and operated by the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association. The fish hatched at this facility are released into streams and lakes at various points on the peninsula, are the source of the salmon runs at the "fishing hole" on the Homer Spit; the hatchery was at the center of a prolonged legal battle between the Wilderness Society and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the society claimed that the hatchery was conducting commercial activity in a wilderness area, such activity is illegal under the Wilderness Act
Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association
The Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association or CIAA is a non-profit organization based in Kenai, Alaska that works to create sustainable salmon stocks in the Cook Inlet area. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game ran most hatchery programs in Alaska, but as commercial fishermen began to see the benefits of such programs and began their own organizations in the 1970s and 1980s, ADF&G phased itself out and co-ordinated efforts with run hatchery organizations like CIAA, one of eight regional aquaculture associations in Alaska. By 2001 CIAA was able to release 85 million salmon fry in a single year, it is estimated that 20-30% of commercially caught salmon in this region were spawned at CIAA hatcheries. The Association's programs include hatcheries that produce salmon fry, which are released in streams and lakes. CIAA works with the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, who still own two of the three hatcheries operated by CIAA; because of the importance of salmon to Alaska's economy, CIAA has at times been involved in controversy involving the tug-of-war between commercial and sport fisheries, was at the center of a prolonged lawsuit involving its Trail Lakes hatchery.
In 2010 a brown bear attacked a small boy in an area adjacent to the Association's fish weir near Bear Lake, leading some in the area to call for the closing of that facility, as they felt it was attracting bears. However, the victim believed the bear was after berries and was startled by the boy's sudden arrival. Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association
The Chiswell Islands are a group of rocky, uninhabited islands, accessible only by boat or airplane, within the Kenai Peninsula Borough of Alaska in the Gulf of Alaska. These islands are 35 miles south of Alaska, they are part of an important bird sanctuary. The area is active seismically and evidence of this can be seen in the rugged landscape, a rough hewn landscape, carved by high tides and rough seas; these island appear to rise vertically out of the sea. Starfish and other sea life that thrive in a rocky habitat are abundant; the islands are inhabited by millions of marine birds and mammals and is the location of a small rookery of endangered Steller sea lions. Every year millions of birds of various species nest on the refuge islands. Birds that nest on these islands include horned puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, tufted puffins and various auklets such as Cassin's auklet and the whiskered auklet