Hallowell is a city in Kennebec County, United States. The population was 2,381 at the 2010 census. Popular with tourists, Hallowell is noted for old architecture. Hallowell is included in Maine micropolitan New England City and Town Area; the city is named for Benjamin Hallowell, a Boston merchant and one of the Kennebec Proprietors, holders of land granted to the Plymouth Company by the British monarchy in the 1620s. First to settle here was Deacon Pease Clark, who emigrated with his wife and son Peter from Attleborough, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1762. Legend has it that after disembarking on the west side of the Kennebec, near present-day Water Street, the Clarks took shelter in their overturned cart. On a riverfront lot measuring 50 rods, the Clark family raised corn and other crops; the first land they cleared was occupied by the fire department in 1859. In 1797, the modern city of Augusta split from Hallowell to be a separate town; the part of Hallowell, the current city was known as "The Hook".
Today, the city's population is only smaller than it was in 1820, the year Maine seceded from Massachusetts and became a state. Yet 183 years ago, Hallowell's inhabitants enjoyed the services of 71 stores along Water Street. Thriving industries included logging, trading and shipbuilding. Location on the navigable Kennebec River estuary allowed 50 ships launched from Hallowell's wharves to reach the Atlantic Ocean between 1783 and 1901. Two grist mills, five sawmills and two slaughterhouses served the needs of residents far. In 1815, the first granite quarried near the Manchester town line signaled the birth of an industry that would support Hallowell until 1908, when cement displaced stone as the construction material of choice. In 1826, the ice industry began in earnest. Frozen blocks loaded onto Hallowell's schooners were delivered to the West Indies. Other local products exported via the Kennebec from Hallowell included sandpaper, textiles from cotton from the Deep South, linseed oil, wire and shoes.
While the Kennebec River sustained the city from its inception, this mighty freeway inspired fear. Spring floods terrorized shopkeepers and sometimes brought commerce to a standstill. Worse still, citizens eager to cross the river in winter and unwary children skating and playing too far from the riverbank lost their lives when ice turned out to be thinner than it looked. On July 9, 1816, a freak frost during the Year Without a Summer destroyed crops and forced hungry families to sell their farms for half their worth. In 1874, the state opened the Maine Industrial School for Girls in Hallowell. Operated until the 1970s, it was the state's first reform school for girls. Hallowell is located at 44°17′12″N 69°47′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.09 square miles, of which, 5.88 square miles is land and 0.21 square miles is water. Drained by Vaughn Brook, Hallowell is bounded by the Kennebec River; the city is crossed by Interstate 95, as well as state routes 27 and 201.
It borders the towns of Farmingdale to the south, Manchester to the west, Augusta to the north, Chelsea across the Kennebec River to the east. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hallowell has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Hallowell is nicknamed "The Little Easy," or "New Orleans on the Kennebec." The city is known as "Maine's Antique Riverport."Since 1968, the community has hosted Old Hallowell Day, an annual celebration hosted on the third weekend of July, that includes a parade and live performances. The city is the home of one of Maine's oldest community theater companies. Hallowell has been a regional center for the arts for many years in central Maine, with renowned art galleries, performing arts theaters, studios and local artists. Hallowell is home to renowned bars and restaurants, with the downtown area having a high concentration of eating and drinking establishments.
The Hallowell Farmers' Market takes place every Tuesday from 4:00PM until dark on the riverfront. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,381 people, 1,193 households, 556 families residing in the city; the population density was 404.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,329 housing units at an average density of 226.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.5% White, 0.7% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 1,193 households of which 17.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.3% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 53.4% were non-families. 45.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.89 and the average family size was 2.63.
The median age in the city was 50.5 years. 14% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.3% male and 53.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Somerset County, Maine
Somerset County is a county in the state of Maine, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,228, its county seat is Skowhegan. Somerset County was established on March 1, 1809 from portions of Kennebec County and was named after Somerset County in England. Somerset County is part of Maine's 2nd congressional district. In 1992, Somerset County was one of three counties in the state where Ross Perot received over 38% of the vote and won. In 2008, Barack Obama received 51.9% of the vote. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,094 square miles, of which 3,924 square miles is land and 169 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Maine by area. Boundary Bald Mountain Coburn Mountain Mount Bigelow Moxie Mountain Sandy Bay Mountain Carrabassett River Flagstaff Lake Kennebec River Moose River Moxie Falls Somerset County is one of few counties in the United States to border ten counties and county equivalents; as of the census of 2000, there were 50,888 people, 20,496 households, 14,121 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 28,222 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.00% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 0.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.9% were of English, 17.7% French, 15.1% United States or American, 11.5% Irish and 8.8% French Canadian ancestry. 96.2% spoke English and 2.9% French as their first language. There were 20,496 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,731, the median income for a family was $36,464. Males had a median income of $29,032 versus $20,745 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,474. About 11.10% of families and 14.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 52,228 people, 21,927 households, 14,353 families residing in the county; the population density was 13.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,569 housing units at an average density of 7.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 0.6% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.1% were French, 24.2% were English, 15.8% were Irish, 8.0% were German, 7.9% were American, 6.1% were French Canadian.
Of the 21,927 households, 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age was 43.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,647 and the median income for a family was $47,177. Males had a median income of $41,235 versus $30,029 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,709. About 14.0% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts are located at least in Somerset County: MSAD 4 MSAD 12 MSAD 13 MSAD 49 MSAD 53 MSAD 54 MSAD 59 MSAD 74 Carrabec High School – North Anson Faith Baptist Christian School – Skowhegan Forest Hills Consolidated School – Jackman Lawrence High School – Fairfield Madison Area Memorial High School – Madison Maine Academy of Natural Sciences – Hinckley Maine Central Institute – Pittsfield Skowhegan Area High School – Skowhegan Upper Kennebec Valley Memorial High School – Bingham Kennebec Valley Community College Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture L.
C. Bates Museum Anson Bingham Fairfield Hartland Madison Norridgewock Pittsfield Skowhegan Brighton Plantation Dennistown Highland Plantation Pleasant Ridge Plantation The Forks West Forks Central Somerset Northeast Somerset Northwest Somerset Seboomook Lake Flagstaff North Anson Rockwood Historical U. S. Census Totals for Somerset County, Maine List of counties in Maine List of Maine county name etymologies List of towns in Somerset County Category:People from Somerset County, Maine National Register of Historic Places listings in Somerset County, Maine Official Website of Somerset County Somerset County Commissioners Somerset County Charter – passed by voters in November, 2010 History of Somerset County Somerset County Democrats Somerset County Republican Committee
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works is a major United States shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, founded in 1884 as Bath Iron Works, Limited. BIW has built private and military vessels, most of which have been ordered by the United States Navy; the shipyard has built and sometimes designed battleships, frigates and destroyers, including the Arleigh Burke class which are among the world's most advanced surface warships. Since 1995, Bath Iron Works has been a subsidiary of General Dynamics, the fifth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2008. During World War II, ships built at BIW were considered to be of superior toughness by sailors and Navy officials, giving rise to the phrase "Bath-built is best-built." Bath Iron Works was incorporated in 1884 by General Thomas W. Hyde, a native of Bath who served in the American Civil War. After the war, he bought a shop that made windlasses and other iron hardware for the wooden ships built in Bath's many shipyards, he expanded the business by improving its practices, entering new markets, acquiring other local businesses.
By 1882, Hyde Windlass was eyeing the new and growing business of iron shipbuilding, it incorporated as Bath Iron Works in 1884. On February 28, 1890, BIW won its first contract for complete vessels: two iron gunboats for the Navy. One of these 190-foot ships was the first ship launched by the company. In 1892, the yard won its first commercial contract for the 2,500-ton steel passenger steamer City of Lowell. In the 1890s, the company built several yachts for wealthy sailors. In 1899, Hyde was suffering from Bright's Disease and resigned from management of the shipyard, leaving his sons Edward and John in charge; the shipyard began construction of Georgia that same year, the only battleship built in Bath. It dominated the yard for five years until its launching in 1904, was at times the only ship under construction; the yard faced numerous challenges because of the weight of armor and weapons. In sea trials, Georgia averaged 19.26 knots for four hours, making her the fastest ship in her class and the fastest battleship in the United States Navy at the time.
The company continued to rely on Navy contracts, which provided 86-percent of the value of new contracts between 1905 and 1917. The yard produced fishing trawlers and yachts throughout the first half of the century; these included Vanda, Hi-Esmaro, Aras I and Aras II, Corsair IV, which served as a cruise ship before sinking off Acapulco, Mexico in 1949. The shipyard launched a destroyer every 17 days. Bath Iron Works ranked 50th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. In 1981, Falcon Transport ordered two tankers, the last commercial vessels built by BIW. USS Samuel B. Roberts was commissioned at Bath in 1986, it survived a mine explosion that which a hole in its engine room and flooded two compartments. Over the next two years, BIW repaired the ship in unique fashion; the guided missile frigate was towed to the company's dry dock in Portland and put up on blocks, where the damaged engine room was cut out of the ship. Meanwhile, workers in Bath built a 315-ton replacement, the module was floated south to Portland, placed on the dry dock, slid into place under the frigate, jacked up, welded into place.
In 1995, Bath Iron Works was bought by General Dynamics. In 2001, the company wrapped up a four-year effort to build the Land Level Transfer Facility, an enormous concrete platform for final assembly of its ships, instead of building them on a sloping way so that they could slide into the Kennebec at launch. Hulls are now moved by rail from the platform horizontally onto a moveable dry dock, which reduced the work involved in building and launching the ships; the 750-foot, 28,000-ton dry dock was built by China's Jiangdu Yuchai Shipbuilding Company for $27 million. In 2015, Bath Iron Works signed a contract with US Navy for new destroyers, littoral combat ships, new landing craft; the shipyard delivered USS Rafael Peralta and USS Thomas Hudner and is working on USS Daniel Inouye and USS Carl M. Levin; the DDG block buy for Bath includes USS John Basilone, USS Harvey C. Barnum Jr. and USS Louis H. Wilson Jr.. On March 27, Bath received a $610.4 million contract modification to build John Basilone.
This ship was funded in the 2015 defense appropriations act. Yachts Ranger, successful America's Cup defender Aras II, Presidential Yacht known as USS Williamsburg Corsair IV, large yacht built for J. P. Morgan Jr. Lightvessels Diamond Shoal Lightship No. 71 Nantucket Lightship 66 Nantucket Lightship 106 Naval ram USS Katahdin Monitor USS Nevada Denver class protected cruiser USS Cleveland World War I Virginia-class battleship USS Georgia, launched in 1904 Chester-class cruiser USS Chester World War I Smith-class destroyers USS Flusser World War I USS Reid World War I Paulding-class destroyers USS Paulding World War I - Rum Patrol USS Drayton World War I USS Trippe World War I - Rum Patrol USS Jouett World War I - Rum Patrol USS Jenkins World War I Cassin-class destroyers USS Cassin World War I - Rum Patrol USS Cummings World War I - Rum Patrol O'Brien-class destroyer USS McDougal World War I - Rum Patrol Tucker-class destroyer USS Wadsworth World War I Sampson-class destroyers USS Davis World War I - Rum Patrol USS Allen World War I - Attack on Pearl Harbor Caldwell-class destroyer USS Manley World War I - Guadalcanal Campaign - Operation Flintlock - Battle of Saipan - Philippines campaign Wickes-class destroyers USS Wickes
Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia; the actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast between the 40th and 46th parallels. The territory was divided into the British colonies that became Canadian provinces and American states; the population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis; the first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613, but it was rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British Siege of Port Royal in 1710.
Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. During the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.
Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are associated with the lands, descendants, or culture of the former French region. It refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots and culture in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine, it can be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, a region referred to as Acadiana. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions. People living in Acadia, sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians later known as Cajuns, the English pronunciation of'Cadiens, after resettlement in Louisiana; the origin of the designation Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, who on his 16th-century map applied the ancient Greek name "Arcadia" to the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia. "Arcadia" derives from the Arcadia district in Greece, which since Classical antiquity had the extended meanings of "refuge" or "idyllic place".
The Dictionary of Canadian Biography says: "Arcadia, the name Verrazzano gave to Maryland or Virginia'on account of the beauty of the trees,' made its first cartographical appearance in the 1548 Gastaldo map and is the only name on that map to survive in Canadian usage." In 1603 a colony south of the St. Lawrence River between the 40th and 46th parallels was chartered by Henry IV, who recognized the territory as La Cadie. In the 17th century, Samuel de Champlain fixed its present orthography with the r omitted. William Francis Ganong, a cartographer, has shown its gradual progress northeastwards, in a succession of maps, to its resting place in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Of note is the similarity in the pronunciation of Acadie and the Míkmawísimk suffix -akadie, which means "a place of abundance." The modern usage is still seen in place names such as Shubenacadie. It is thought that intercultural conversation between early French traders and Mi'kmaq hunters may have resulted in the name l'Arcadie being changed to l'Acadie.
The borders of French Acadia have never been defined, but the following areas were at some time part of French Acadia: Present-day Nova Scotia with as capital Port Royal. Lost to Great Britain in 1713. Present-day New Brunswick, which remained part of Nova Scotia until 1784 until becoming its own colony in 1785. Île-Royale Cape Breton Island, with the Fortress of Louisbourg. Lost to Great Britain in 1763. Île Saint-Jean Prince Edward Island. Lost to Great Britain in 1763; the part of present-day Maine east of the Kennebec River. Became part of the New England Colonies in 1727; the history of Acadia was influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th century. Prior to that time period, the Mi'kmaq lived in Acadia for centuries; the French arrived in 1604. Despite this, the Mi'kmaq tolerated the presence of the French in exchange for favours and trade. Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years. Early European colonists, who would become known as Acadians, were French subjects from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France.
The first French settlement was established by Pierre Dugua des Monts, Governor of Acadia, under the authority of King H
The Androscoggin River is a river in the U. S. states in northern New England. It is 178 miles long and joins the Kennebec River at Merrymeeting Bay in Maine before its water empties into the Gulf of Maine on the Atlantic Ocean, its drainage basin is 3,530 square miles in area. The name "Androscoggin" comes from the Eastern Abenaki term /aləssíkɑntəkw/ or /alsíkɑntəkw/, meaning "river of cliff rock shelters"; the Anglicization of the Abenaki term is an analogical contamination with the colonial governor Edmund Andros. The Androscoggin begins in Errol, New Hampshire, where the Magalloway River joins the outlet of Umbagog Lake; the river flows south but with numerous bends past the towns of Errol and Milan and the city of Berlin before turning east at the town of Gorham, New Hampshire, to cut across the northern end of the White Mountains and enter Maine. Continuing east, the river passes the towns of Bethel and Dixfield before turning south at the town of Livermore Falls and leaving the mountains behind.
The river passes through the twin cities of Lewiston and Auburn, turns southeast, passes the community of Lisbon Falls and reaches tidewater just below the final falls in the town of Brunswick. Merrymeeting Bay is a 10-mile-long freshwater estuary where the Androscoggin meets the Kennebec River nearly 20 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean; the Androscoggin was once polluted by a variety of textile mills, paper mills, other industries located along its banks, helped inspire the Clean Water Act. Although the river has benefited from environmental work and the departure of certain types of industry from the region, recent EPA test results indicate unacceptably high levels of mercury-contaminated wastewater are still being discharged into the river from numerous paper mills. One environmentalist group has cited the results in calling the Androscoggin one of the 20 most polluted rivers in America. One 14-mile stretch requires oxygen bubblers to prevent fish from suffocating; as of May 2007, environmental groups had a lawsuit pending, in an attempt to force the paper mills located along the river to clean their waste streams.
Companies have resisted. The U. S. Geological Survey maintains four river flow gauges on the Androscoggin River. All four are below one or more dams; the first is at New Hampshire, where the watershed is 1,046 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 16,500 to 0 ft³/s; the mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 1,919 ft³/s. The second is near New Hampshire, where the watershed is 1,361 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 21,900 to a mean daily low of 795 ft³/s; the mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 2,512 ft³/s. The third is at Rumford, where the watershed is 2,068 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 74,000 to 625 ft³/s; the mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 3,801 ft³/s. The fourth is at Auburn, where the watershed is 3,263 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 135,000 to 340 ft³/s; the Androscoggin River is a popular fishing destination for anglers seeking brook and brown trout, as well as landlocked salmon and smallmouth bass. The upper reaches near Errol, New Hampshire, are popular with local and visiting fly fishermen for the chance to catch landlocked salmon from a drift boat.
Although the upper reaches contain some bass, the river warms as it flows into Maine, smallmouth bass are the chief quarry in its lower reaches. The ancient name for the river was Pescedona, Abenaki for "a branch". According to the USGS, variant names for the Androscoggin River include Amasagu'nteg, Ambrose Coggin, Ammoscoggin, Amos Coggin, Anasagunticook, Andrews Coggin, Andros Coggan, Andros Coggin, Andrus Coggin and Ameriscoggin River; the average Androscoggin drop of eight feet per mile made it an excellent source of water power encouraging development of the cities of Berlin, New Hampshire, Lewiston and Auburn and the Maine towns of Brunswick, Lisbon Falls, Livermore Falls, Mexico and Bethel. Listed from source to mouth of Androscoggin, with location of tributary's mouth: Magalloway River, New Hampshire Clear Stream, New Hampshire Mollidgewock Brook, New Hampshire Chickwolnepy Stream, New Hampshire Dead River, New Hampshire Moose Brook, New Hampshire Moose River, New Hampshire Peabody River, New Hampshire Wild River, Maine Pleasant River, Maine Alder River, Maine Sunday River, Maine Bear River, Maine Ellis River, Maine Concord River, Maine Swift River and Mexico, Maine Webb River, Maine Dead River, Maine Nezinscot River, Maine Little Androscoggin River, Maine Sabattus River, Maine Little River, Lisbon Falls, Maine McFarlane, Wallace Scot, “Defining a Nuisance: Pollution and Environmental Politics on Maine’s Androscoggin River,” Environmental History, 17, 307–35.
MaineRivers.org Androscoggin River profile Real-time flow data for the Errol, NH, Gorham, NH, Rumford, ME, Auburn, ME gages. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Androscoggin River USGS River Basin Info Androscoggin River Watershed Council Characterization o
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts of Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used to draw from the wealth of natural resources such as furs through trade with the various indigenous peoples. In the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached 70,000 settlers; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht resulted in France relinquishing its claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to England.
France established the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where they built the Fortress of Louisbourg. Acadia had a difficult history, with the British causing the Great Upheaval with the forced expulsion of the Acadians in the period from 1755 to 1764; this has been remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. Their descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with small populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia and the Magdalen Islands; some went to France. In 1763, France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Britain received Canada and the parts of French Louisiana which lay east of the Mississippi River – except for the Île d'Orléans, granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. In 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland. New France became absorbed within the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as small pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay. Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay; the first European to visit the site of present-day New York, Verrazzano named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême.
Verrazzano's voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I, it was the first province of New France. The first settlement of 400 people, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, was attempted in 1541 but lasted only two years. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Canadian First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe; the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. Another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida.
Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples; these lands were full of valuable natural resources, which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the indigenous population and their European visitors around that time is not known, for lack of historical records. Other attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a French trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac. In 1604, a settlement w