Tonka is an American producer of toy trucks. The company was known for making steel toy models of machinery. Maisto International, which makes diecast vehicles, acquired the rights to use the Tonka name in a line of 1:64 scale diecast vehicles, featuring trucks. Mound Metalcraft was created in 1946 in Mound, Minnesota, by Lynn Everett Baker, Avery F. Crounse, Alvin F. Tesch, their original intent was to manufacture garden implements. Their building's former occupant, the Streater Company, had patented several toys. E. C. Streater was not interested in the toy business; the three men at Mound Metalcraft thought. After some modifications to the design by Alvin Tesch and the addition of a new logo created by Erling Eklof, the company began selling metal toys, which soon became the primary business. In November, 1955, Mound Metalcraft changed its name to Tonka Toys Incorporated; the logo at this time was an oval, showing the Tonka Toys name in red above waves honoring nearby Lake Minnetonka. In 1964, Tonka acquired the Mell Manufacturing Company in Chicago, allowing it to produce barbecue grills under the Tonka Firebowl label.
In 1987, Tonka purchased Kenner Parker, including UK toy giant Palitoy, for $555 million, borrowing extensively to fund the acquisition. However, the cost of servicing the debt meant Tonka itself had to find a buyer and it was acquired by Hasbro in 1991. In 1998, Hasbro began a licensing deal with Funrise Toys to distribute Tonka trucks; the deal began with versions of the trucks fitted with electronics for lights and sounds, but grew to encompass the entire brand. In 2001, Tonka trucks were inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York. Tonka has produced a variety of toys over the years, including dolls and other toys aimed at girls like Keypers and aimed at boys like Gobots, Rock Lords, Spiral Zone, Steel Monsters, it was the original manufacturer of the Pound Puppies toy line, in the late 1980s licensed products inspired by Maple Town. Tonka produced video games, including Tonka Raceway, purchased the rights to distribute and market the Sega Master System after Sega of America stopped competing against the Nintendo Entertainment System in the U.
S. However, the Master System's market share declined, since Tonka didn't have experience with video games or how to market them. Hasbro sold the digital gaming rights for various properties to Infogrames for US$100 million in 2000, buying back the rights for US$66 million in June 2005; the Winifred Museum in Winifred, has a collection of more than 3,000 Tonka toys. Fifteen video games based on the toys were released between 1996 and 2006. In 2012, an animated movie based on the trucks toy line was in development, it was to be produced by Sony Pictures Animation, Hasbro Studios, Happy Madison Productions, to be distributed by Columbia Pictures. A script was written by Happy Madison alumni Fred Wolf, was to be produced by Adam Sandler and Jack Giarraputo, Brian Goldner and Bennett Schneir. Official Tonka Website
Transformers is a Japanese–American media franchise, produced by Japanese toy company Takara Tomy and American toy company Hasbro. A line of transforming mecha toys rebranded from Takara's Diaclone and Microman toylines, the franchise began in 1984 with the Transformers toy line, centers on factions of self-configuring modular extraterrestrial robotic lifeforms in an endless civil war for dominance or eventual peace. In its history, the Transformers robot superhero franchise has expanded to encompass comic books, video games and films; the term "Generation 1" covers both the animated television series The Transformers and the comic book series of the same name, which are further divided into Japanese and British spin-offs, respectively. Sequels followed, such as the Generation 2 comic book and Beast Wars TV series, which became its own mini-universe. Generation 1 characters underwent two reboots with Dreamwave in 2001 and IDW Publishing in 2005 as a remastered series, with a third starting in 2019.
There have been other incarnations of the story based on different toy lines during and after the 20th century. The first was the Robots in Disguise series, followed by three shows that constitute a single universe called the "Unicron Trilogy". A live-action film series started in 2007, again distinct from previous incarnations, while the Transformers: Animated series merged concepts from the G1 continuity, the 2007 live-action film and the "Unicron Trilogy". For most of the 2010s, in an attempt to mitigate the wave of reboots, the Aligned continuity was established. In 2018, Transformers: Cyberverse debuted, once again, distinct from the previous incarnations. Although a separate and competing franchise started in 1983, Tonka's Gobots became the intellectual property of Hasbro after their buyout of Tonka in 1991. Subsequently, the universe depicted in the animated series Challenge of the GoBots and follow-up film GoBots: Battle of the Rock Lords was retroactively established as an alternate universe within the Transformers robot superhero franchise.
Generation One is a retroactive term for the Transformers characters that appeared between 1984 and 1993. The Transformers began with the 1980s Japanese toy lines Diaclone; the former utilized varying humanoid-type figures while the latter presented robots able to transform into everyday vehicles, electronic items or weapons. Hasbro, fresh from the success of the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, which used the Microman technology to great success, bought the Diaclone toys, partnered with Takara. Jim Shooter and Dennis O'Neil were hired by Hasbro to create the backstory. Afterwards, Bob Budiansky created most of the Transformers characters, giving names and personalities to many unnamed Diaclone figures; the primary concept of Generation One is that the heroic Optimus Prime, the villainous Megatron, their finest soldiers crash land on pre-historic Earth in the Ark and the Nemesis before awakening in 1985, Cybertron hurtling through the Neutral zone as an effect of the war. The Marvel comic was part of the main Marvel Universe, with appearances from Spider-Man and Nick Fury, plus some cameos, as well as a visit to the Savage Land.
The Transformers TV series began around the same time. Produced by Sunbow Productions and Marvel Productions Hasbro Productions, from the start it contradicted Budiansky's backstories; the TV series shows the Autobots looking for new energy sources, crash landing as the Decepticons attack. Marvel interpreted the Autobots as destroying a rogue asteroid approaching Cybertron. Shockwave is loyal to Megatron in the TV series, keeping Cybertron in a stalemate during his absence, but in the comic book he attempts to take command of the Decepticons; the TV series would differ wildly from the origins Budiansky had created for the Dinobots, the Decepticon turned Autobot Jetfire, the Constructicons, Omega Supreme. The Marvel comic establishes early on that Prime wields the Creation Matrix, which gives life to machines. In the second season, the two-part episode The Key to Vector Sigma introduced the ancient Vector Sigma computer, which served the same original purpose as the Creation Matrix, its guardian Alpha Trion.
In 1986, the cartoon became the film The Transformers: The Movie, set in the year 2005. It introduced the Matrix as the "Autobot Matrix of Leadership", as a fatally wounded Prime gives it to Ultra Magnus. Unicron, a transformer who devours planets, fears its power and recreates a damaged Megatron as Galvatron, as well as Bombshell or Skywarp becoming Cyclonus, Thundercracker becoming Scourge and two other Insecticons becoming Scourge's huntsmen, the Sweeps. Rodimus Prime takes out the Matrix and destroys Unicron. In the United Kingdom, the weekly comic book interspliced original material to keep up with U. S. reprints, The Movie provided much new material. Writer Simon Furman proceeded to expand the continuity with movie spin-offs involving the time travelling Galvatron; the Movie featured guest voices from Leonard Nimoy as Galvatron, Scatman Crothers as Jazz, Casey Kasem as Cliffjumper, Orson Welles as Unicron and Eric Idle as the leader of the Junkions. The Transformers theme tune for the film was performed by Lion with "Weird Al" Yankovic adding a song to the soundtrack.
The third season followed up The Movie, with the revelation of the Quintessons having use
George Pérez is a retired American comic book artist and writer, whose titles include The Avengers, Teen Titans, Wonder Woman. Writer Peter David has named Pérez his favorite artistic collaborator. George Pérez was born in the South Bronx, New York City, on June 9, 1954, to Jorge Guzman Pérez and Luz Maria Izquierdo, who were both from Caguas, Puerto Rico, but who did not meet until 1949 or 1950, after both had settled in New Jersey while searching for job opportunities, they married in October 26, 1954 and subsequently moved to New York, where Jorge worked in the meat packing industry while Luz was a homemaker. George's younger brother David was born May 28, 1955. Both brothers aspired at a young age to be artists. With George Pérez beginning to draw at the age of five. Pérez's first involvement with the professional comics industry was as artist Rich Buckler's assistant in 1973, he made his professional debut in Marvel Comics' Astonishing Tales #25 as penciler of an untitled two-page satire of Buckler's character Deathlok, star of that comic's main feature.
Soon Pérez became a Marvel regular, penciling a run of "Sons of the Tiger", a serialized action-adventure strip published in Marvel's long-running Deadly Hands of Kung Fu magazine and authored by Bill Mantlo. He and Mantlo co-created the White Tiger a character that soon appeared in Marvel's color comics, most notably the Spider-Man titles. Pérez came to prominence with Marvel's superhero-team comic The Avengers, starting with issue #141. In the 1970s, Pérez illustrated several other Marvel titles, including Creatures on the Loose, featuring the Man-Wolf. Writer Roy Thomas and Pérez crafted a metafictional story for Fantastic Four #176 in which the Impossible Man visited the offices of Marvel Comics and met numerous comics creators. Whilst most of Pérez' Fantastic Four issues were written by Roy Thomas or Len Wein, it would be a Fantastic Four Annual where he would have his first major collaboration with writer Marv Wolfman. Pérez drew the first part of writer Jim Shooter's "The Korvac Saga", which featured nearly every Avenger who joined the team up to that point.
Shooter and Pérez introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council in the second chapter of that same storyline. Writer David Michelinie and Pérez created the Taskmaster in The Avengers #195. In 1980, while still drawing The Avengers for Marvel, Pérez began working for their rival DC Comics. Offered the art chores for the launch of The New Teen Titans, written by Wolfman, Pérez' real incentive was the opportunity to draw Justice League of America. Long-time Justice League artist Dick Dillin died right around that time, providing an opportunity for Pérez to step in as regular artist. While Pérez's stint on the JLA was popular with fans, his career took off with the New Teen Titans; the New Teen Titans was launched in a special preview in DC Comics Presents #26. This incarnation of the Titans was intended to be DC's answer to Marvel's popular X-Men comic, Wolfman and Pérez indeed struck gold. A New Teen Titans drug awareness comic book sponsored by the Keebler Company, drawn by Pérez was published in cooperation with The President's Drug Awareness Campaign in 1983.
In August 1984, a second series of The New Teen Titans was launched by Pérez. Moreover, Pérez's facility with layouts and faces improved enormously during his four years on the book, making him one of the most popular artists in comics as evidenced by the numerous industry awards he would receive during this time. Pérez took a leave of absence from The New Teen Titans in 1984 to focus on his next project with Marv Wolfman, DC's 1985 50th-anniversary event, Crisis on Infinite Earths. Crisis purportedly featured every single character DC owned, in a story which radically restructured the DC universe's continuity. Pérez was inked on the series by Dick Giordano, Mike DeCarlo, Jerry Ordway. After Crisis, Pérez inked the final issue of Superman in September 1986, over Curt Swan's pencils for part one of the two-part story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" by writer Alan Moore. The following month, Pérez was one of the artists on Batman #400 Wolfman and Pérez teamed again to produce the History of the DC Universe limited series to summarize the company's new history.
Pérez drew the cover for the DC Heroes roleplaying game from Mayfair Games as well as the cover for the fourth edition of the Champions roleplaying game from Hero Games. Wonder Woman was rebooted in 1987. Writer Greg Potter spent several months working with editor Janice Race on new concepts for the character, before being joined by Pérez. Inspired by John Byrne and Frank Miller's work on refashioning Superman and Batman, Pérez came in as the plotter and penciler of Wonder Woman; the relaunch tied the character more to the Greek gods and jettisoned many of the extraneous elements of her history. Pérez at first worked with Potter and Len Wein on the stories, but took over the full scripting chores. Mindy Newell joined Pérez as co-writer for nearly a year. While not as popular as either Titans or Crisis, the series was a successful relaunch of one of DC's flagship characters. Pérez would work on the title for five years, leaving as artist after issue #24, but remaining as writer up to issue #62, leaving in 1992.
In 2001, Pérez returned to the character, co-writing a two-part story in issues #168–169 with writer/artist Phil Jimenez. Pérez drew the cover for Wonder Woman #600 a
A toy is an item, used in play one designed for such use. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life in society. Different materials like wood, clay and plastic are used to make toys. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can be used. For instance, a small child may fold an ordinary piece of paper into an airplane shape and "fly it". Newer forms of toys include interactive digital entertainment; some toys are produced as collectors' items and are intended for display only. The origin of toys is prehistoric; the origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are made for children; the oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, practice skills they will need as adults.
Adults on occasion use toys to form and strengthen social bonds, help in therapy, to remember and reinforce lessons from their youth. Most children have been said to play such as sticks and rocks. Toys and games have been unearthed from the sites of ancient civilizations, they have been written about in some of the oldest literature. Toys excavated from the Indus valley civilization include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, toy monkeys which could slide down a string; the earliest toys are made from materials found in nature, such as rocks and clay. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs which were made from stone and wood. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, children played with dolls made of wax or terracotta, sticks and arrows, yo-yos; when Greek children girls, came of age it was customary for them to sacrifice the toys of their childhood to the gods. On the eve of their wedding, young girls around fourteen would offer their dolls in a temple as a rite of passage into adulthood.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BCE. The game consisted of a square divided into 14 parts, the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century. Toys became more widespread with the changing attitudes towards children engendered by the Enlightenment. Children began to be seen as people in and of themselves, as opposed to extensions of their household and that they had a right to flourish and enjoy their childhood; the variety and number of toys that were manufactured during the 18th century rose. He created puzzles on eight themes – the World, Asia, America and Wales, Ireland and Scotland; the rocking horse was developed at the same time in England with the wealthy as it was thought to develop children's balance for riding real horses. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap became a popular pastime, as shown in the painting The Soap Bubble by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.
Other popular toys included hoops, toy wagons, spinning wheels and puppets. The first board games were produced by John Jefferys in the 1750s, including A Journey Through Europe; the game was similar to modern board games. In the nineteenth century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose to them, such as puzzles, books and board games. Religiously themed toys were popular, including a model Noah's Ark with miniature animals and objects from other Bible scenes. With growing prosperity among the middle class, children had more leisure time on their hands, which led to the application of industrial methods to the manufacture of toys. More complex mechanical and optics-based toys were invented. Carpenter and Westley began to mass-produce the kaleidoscope, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, had sold over 200,000 items within three months in London and Paris; the company was able to mass-produce magic lanterns for use in phantasmagoria and galanty shows, by developing a method of mass production using a copper plate printing process.
Popular imagery on the lanterns included royalty and fauna, geographical/man-made structures from around the world. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner and was popularized in the 1860s. Wood and porcelain dolls in miniature doll houses were popular with middle class girls, while boys played with marbles and toy trains; the golden age of toy development was at the turn of the 20th century. Real wages were rising in the Western world, allowing working-class families to afford toys for their children, industrial techniques of precision engineering and mass production was able to provide the supply to meet this rising demand. Intellectual emphasis was increasingly being placed on the importance of a wholesome and happy childhood for the future development of children. William Harbutt, an English painter, invented plasticine in 1897, in 1900 commercial production of the material as a children's toy began. Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and was responsible for the invention and production of
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
G. I. Joe is a line of action figures owned by the toy company Hasbro; the initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U. S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G. I. Joe" for the generic U. S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G. I.". The development of G. I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G. I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys; the G. I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful; the original 12-inch line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch scale complete with vehicles, a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G. I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism.
As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G. I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts and explosives. G. I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003; the original idea for the action figure that would become G. I. Joe was developed in 1963 by a Manhattan licensing agent. Weston made rudimentary prototypes of the figure and basic marketing materials that showed the sales potential of a military action figure; when he showed these materials to Donald Levine, a Hasbro executive, Levine told Weston "You will make a fortune with these." Weston subsequently licensed the entire concept to Hasbro for US$100,000. The conventional marketing wisdom of the early 1960s was that boys would not play with dolls and parents would not buy their sons dolls which have been traditionally a girl’s toy.
I. Joe. "Action figure" was the only acceptable term, has since become the generic description for any poseable doll intended for boys. "America's movable fighting man" is a registered trademark of Hasbro, was prominently displayed on every boxed figure package. The Hasbro prototypes were named "Rocky" "Skip" and "Ace", before the more universal name G. I. Joe was adopted. One of the prototypes would sell in a Heritage auction in 2003 for $200,001. Aside from the obvious trademarking on the right buttock, other aspects of the figure were copyrighted features that allowed Hasbro to pursue cases against producers of cheap imitations, since the human figure itself cannot be copyrighted or trademarked; the scar on the right cheek was one. Early trademarking, with "G. I. Joe™", was used through some point in 1965. I. Joe was a registered trademark. I. Joe®" now appears on the first line. Subsequently, the stamped trademarking was altered after the patent was granted, assigned a number. Figures with this marking would have entered the retail market during 1967.
By the late 1960s, in the wake of the Vietnam War, Hasbro sought to downplay the war theme that had defined "G. I. Joe"; the line became known as "The Adventures of G. I. Joe". In 1970, Hasbro settled on the name "Adventure Team". Highlights of the line included: To coincide with the new direction, "Life-Like" flocked hair and beard, an innovation developed in England by Palitoy for their licensed version of Joe, Action Man, is introduced in 1970. A retooled African American Adventurer was introduced, which came in two versions as did the others in the series, bearded or shaven. In 1974, named after the popular martial art, Hasbro introduced "Kung-Fu Grip" to the G. I. Joe line; this was another innovation, developed in the UK for Action Man. The hands were molded in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. In 1976, G. I. Joe was given eagle eye vision; this would be the last major innovation for the original line of 12-inch figures. A shift in play patternsFor its first ten years, G.
I. Joe was a generic soldier/adventurer with only the slightest hints of a team concept existing. In 1975, after a failed bid to purchase the toy rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure: Mike Power, Atomic Man. One million units were sold. Added to the Adventure Team was a superhero, Bullet Man; this character had The Intruders -- Strongmen from Another World. Comics included with figures at the time featured "Eagle Eye" Joe, Atomic Man, Bullet Man operating together; the original 12-inch G. I. Joe line ended in America in 1976. At this time, Hasbro released a line of inexpensive, rotationally molded mannequins in the G. I. Joe style called The Defenders. From 1966 through 1984, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G. I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market; these were the same designs as the American figures, at first the same military theme which included figures from World War II. The line expanded the line to include all men of action, like footbal
The Muppets are an ensemble cast of puppet characters known for their absurdist and self-referential style of variety-sketch comedy. Created by Jim and Jane Henson in 1955, they are the namesake for the Disney media franchise that encompasses television, music and other media associated with the characters; the Muppets originated in the short-form television series Sam and Friends, which aired from 1955 to 1961. Following appearances on late night talk shows and in advertising during the 1960s, the Muppets began appearing on Sesame Street in 1969; the Muppets attained celebrity status and international recognition through The Muppet Show, which garnered four Primetime Emmy Award wins and twenty-one nominations during its five-year run. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Muppets diversified into theatrical feature films, including The Muppet Movie; the Walt Disney Company began involvement with the Muppets in the late 1980s, during which Henson entered negotiations to sell The Jim Henson Company.
The Muppets continued their media presence in the 1990s with television series The Jim Henson Hour and Muppets Tonight, both of which were similar in format to The Muppet Show, three films: The Muppet Christmas Carol, Muppet Treasure Island, Muppets from Space. Disney acquired the Muppets in February 2004, allowing the characters to gain broader public exposure than in previous years. Under Disney, subsequent projects included two films: The Muppets Most Wanted. Throughout their six-decade career, the Muppets have been regarded as a staple of the entertainment industry and popular culture in the United States, receiving recognition from various cultural institutions and organizations, including the American Film Institute, Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, Library of Congress, the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Muppets were created by puppeteer Jim Henson in the 1950s. Conceived for an adult audience, Henson claimed, recanted, that he coined the term "Muppet" as a portmanteau of the words "marionette" and "puppet".
In 1955, the Muppets were introduced in Sam and Friends, a short-form television series produced for WRC-TV in Washington D. C. Developed by Henson and his future wife Jane Nebel, the series was the first form of puppet media not to incorporate a physical proscenium arch typical of such works, relying instead on the natural framing of the television set through which it was viewed. During the 1960s, the characters—in particular and Rowlf the Dog—appeared in skits on several late-night talk shows and on television commercials, including The Ed Sullivan Show. Rowlf became the first Muppet character to appear on network television when he began appearing with Jimmy Dean on The Jimmy Dean Show. In 1966, Joan Ganz Cooney and Lloyd Morrisett began developing a children's educational television program and approached Henson to design a cast of Muppet characters during this stage. Produced by the Children's Television Workshop, the program debuted as Sesame Street in 1969. Henson and his creative team became involved with Sesame Street during the years that followed.
Sesame Street garnered a positive response, the Muppets' involvement in the series was touted to be a vital component of its increasing popularity, providing an "effective and pleasurable viewing" method of presentation for its educational curriculum. In the early 1970s, the Muppets continued their presence in television appearing in The Land of Gorch segments during the first season of Saturday Night Live; as his involvement with Sesame Street continued, Henson mused about the possibility of creating a network television series featuring the Muppets. Two pilot specials, The Muppets Valentine Show and The Muppet Show: Sex and Violence, aired on ABC in 1974 and 1975, respectively. After ABC passed on the pilots and no other major American network expressed interest in backing the project, British producer Lew Grade approached Henson and agreed to co-produce the series for Associated Television. Debuting in 1976, The Muppet Show introduced new characters such as Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear and Animal alongside existing characters such as Kermit and Rowlf.
Aired in first-run syndication in the United States, The Muppet Show became popular due to its sketch-variety format, unique form of humor, prolific roster of guest stars. The series received twenty-one Primetime Emmy Award nominations during its run and won four, including Outstanding Variety Series in 1978; the success of The Muppet Show allowed Henson Associates to diversify into theatrical films centered on the Muppets, the first of which, The Muppet Movie, was released in 1979. Following The Muppet Movie were The Great Muppet Caper and The Muppets Take Manhattan, released in 1981 and 1984, respectively. Collectively, the three films received four Academy Award nominations. In 1983, Henson debuted Fraggle Rock, which aired on HBO in the United States until 1987. In the late 1980s, Henson entered discussions with Michael Eisner and The Walt Disney Company, in which the latter would acquire Jim Henson Productions and, in turn, the Muppets. Disney expressed interest in purchasing the company for $150 million.
In addition, Eisner expressed a desire to include the Sesam