University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke is a politician from Los Angeles, United States. She was the first African-American woman to represent the West Coast in Congress, she served in the U. S. Congress from 1973 until January 1979, she was the Los Angeles County Supervisor representing the 2nd District. She has served as the Chair three times, her husband is a prominent philanthropist and creator of the Los Angeles Marathon. On December 1, 2008, she retired from the Board of Supervisors and was replaced by Mark Ridley-Thomas. On March 29, 2012, she was nominated by President Barack Obama to serve on the Amtrak Board of Directors. Born Perle Yvonne Watson on October 5, 1932, in Los Angeles to James A. Watson and the former Lola Moore, she married William A. Burke in Los Angeles on June 14, 1972, their daughter Autumn Burke was born on November 23, 1973. Burke attended the University of California, Berkeley from c. 1949 to 1951 before receiving a bachelor's degree in political science from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1953.
She subsequently earned a J. D. degree from the University of Southern California Law School in 1956. Mrs. Brathwaite first became interested of running for public office while working as a volunteer for the reelection of president Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. Prior to representing the 2nd District, Burke served as Vice-Chairperson of the 1972 Democratic National Convention, represented the 4th District, was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives representing portions of Los Angeles, was a member of the California State Assembly representing Los Angeles' 63rd District. Many of her early legislative efforts centered around juvenile issues and limiting garnishment of wages. A lot of what she achieved influenced her to convince others to run after their dream, so she went to children's hospitals and encouraged some of the children to never give up, she said: "No matter what is in your way never give up and chase after your dream, with no interference of discouragement." During her tenure in Congress, she served on the House Select Committee on Assassinations and the House Committee on Appropriations.
She instead ran for Attorney General of California. She won the Democratic nomination over Los Angeles City Attorney Burt Pines but was defeated in the general election by Republican State Senator George Deukmejian. In 1979, shortly after leaving Congress, Governor Jerry Brown appointed her to the Board of Regents of the University of California. A. County Board of Supervisors. Burke was first African-American supervisor, her district, was made up of affluent, conservative white areas on the coast. In 1980, Burke was defeated in her bid for a full term in the seat by Republican Deane Dana. In 1982, Brown again appointed her to the Regents. In 1992, Burke ran for the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. After a hard-fought campaign that turned negative, Burke defeated State Senator Diane Watson. In 2007, she announced that she would retire when her term expired in 2008. On July 27, 2007, the Los Angeles Times published a front-page story revealing Burke was not living in the low-income district she represented, but rather in the wealthy Brentwood neighborhood, an apparent violation of state law.
Burke responded that she was living at her Brentwood mansion because the townhouse she listed in official political filings was being remodeled. Women in the United States House of Representatives List of African-American United States Representatives Yvonne Brathwaite Burke, Africana: The Encyclopedia. Ebony. "Women Who Make State Laws": p27-34. Gray, Pamela Lee. "Yvonne Brathwaite Burke: The Congressional Career of California's First Black Congresswoman, 1972–1978." Ph. D. diss. University of Southern California, 1987. United States Congress. "Yvonne Brathwaite Burke". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Yvonne Burke's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project Appearances on C-SPAN
Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673, it was incorporated on February 14, 1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is under construction in the city and, when completed around 2020, will be the new home of both the National Football League's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers; the city is close to Los Angeles International Airport. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "". Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa".
These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders." Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, it no longer exists. In 1834, Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe, which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. Two years Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2,220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela though this land had been claimed by Avila.
Inglewood Park Cemetery, a used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, one of the premier horse racing venues in the United States. Fosters Freeze, the first soft serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again in 2009 for its visible progress. On January 12, 2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family; the raid led to the shooting death of one of an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants, it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.
The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931. "No blacks had lived in Inglewood," Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, "they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its history of restrictions." "Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents though any that occurred were minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites." In 1969, an organization called "Morningside Neighbors" changed its name to "Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration."On February 3, 1969, Harold P. Moret became Inglewood's first black police officer.
A full year Jimmy Lee Worsham became the second. He was followed by Barbara Harris, the first black female officer Otis Hendricks, Melvin Lovelace and Eugene Lindsey; the 7th black officer in the history of the City of Inglewood was Jr.. He became Inglewood's first black Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Officer, 1st Black Lieutenant and only black Deputy Chief in the history of the Department. Butts left Inglewood in September 1991 at the age of 38 to become the first person of color to command the Santa Monica Police Department as Chief of Police, the youngest to do so. Twenty years on February 1, 2011 Butts returned to Inglewood by being elected as its fourth black mayor. On July 22, 1970, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents. At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.
On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary, in 1971, Waddingham wrote, "Stormy r
Northwestern University is a private research university based in Evanston, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida. C.. Along with its undergraduate programs, Northwestern is known for its Kellogg School of Management, Pritzker School of Law, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bienen School of Music, Medill School of Journalism, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program, attracting over $700 million in sponsored research each year. Northwestern has the ninth-largest university endowment in the United States, valued at $11.014 billion as of August 2018. The University's former and present faculty and alumni include 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 38 Pulitzer Prize winners, six MacArthur Genius Fellows, 16 Rhodes Scholars, 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and two Supreme Court Justices. Northwestern's School of Communication is a leading producer of Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award–winning actors, playwrights and directors.
Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the city of Evanston is named, eight other lawyers and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Old Northwest Territory, an area that includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855 and women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago; the university's law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism and marketing programs. The University is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference; the Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference.
The foundation of Northwestern University can be traced to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders, attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had been known from 1787 to 1803 as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois; the school's nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting. Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they favored a non-sectarian admissions policy, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory by bettering the economy in Evanston. John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois.
The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855. To raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition. Another building, University Hall, was built in 1869 of the same Joliet limestone as the Chicago Water Tower built in 1869, one of the few buildings in the heart of Chicago to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, Frances Willard, who gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first female students in 1869, the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882 becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with existing schools of law and dentistry in Chicago. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago.
As the university increased in wealth and distinction, enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917. Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools. In 1933 a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago rejected. Northwestern became one of the first six universities in the United States to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s. Northwestern played host to the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, demolished and relocated farther north along with the Dearborn Observatory to make room for the Technological Institute. After the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern h
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are diesel fuel. A filling station that sells only electric energy is known as a charging station, while a typical filling station can be known as a fueling or gas station, gasoline stand or SS, petrol pump or petrol bunk, petrol garage, petrol station, service station, a services, or servo, or fuel station. Fuel dispensers are used to pump petrol/gasoline, compressed natural gas, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, liquid hydrogen, alcohol fuel, biofuels, or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle. Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device, found in filling stations and can refuel certain vehicles is an air compressor, although these are just used to inflate car tyres. Many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings have electricity sockets.
The convenience stores found in filling stations sell candy, soft drinks, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items, such as milk. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business. Conversely, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount stores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises; the term "gas station" is used in the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean, where the fuel is known as "gasoline" or "gas" as in "gas pump". In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as "petrol", the term "petrol station" or "petrol pump" is used. In the United Kingdom and South Africa "garage" is still used. In Australia, the term "service station" describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, a used term is gasoline stand, although the abbreviation SS is used. In Indian English, it is called a petrol bunk.
In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world. The UK has 8,422 petrol stations as of December 2017, down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s; the USA had 114,474 filling stations in 2012, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, down from 118,756 in 2007 and 121,446 in 2002. In Canada, the number is on the decline; as of December 2008, 12,684 were in operation down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989. In Japan, the number dropped from a peak of 60,421 in 1994 to 40,357 at the end of 2009. In Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India – 60,799 Russia – there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, there are 3,916 gas stations after a 2% decrease from the previous year. Total – 8200 stations Shell – 7800 stations BP – 7000 stations Esso – 6100 stations Eni – 5500 stations Repsol – 4700 stations Q8 – 4600 stations Avia – 3000 stations PKN Orlen – 2800 stations Circle K 2700 stations The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, where Bertha Benz refilled the tank of the first automobile on its maiden trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim back in 1888.
Shortly thereafter other pharmacies sold gasoline as a side business. Since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event; the first "posto de gasolina" of South America was opened in Santos, Brazil, in 1920. It was located in the Ana Costa Ave. in front of the beach, in a corner that nowadays is located the Hotel Atlantico. It was an Esso Gas Station, brought by a taxi entrepreneur; the increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the middle class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations. The world's first purpose-built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, Missouri in 1905 at 420 S. Theresa Avenue; the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington, at what is now Pier 32. Reighard's Gas Station in Altoona, claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations"; the first "drive-in" filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the motoring public in Pittsburgh on December 1, 1913, at Baum Blvd & St Clair's Street.
Prior to this, automobile drivers pulled into any general or hardware store, or blacksmith shops in order to fill up their tanks. On its first day, the station sold 30 gallons of gasoline at 27 cents per gallon; this was the first architect-designed station and the first to distribute free road maps. The first alternative fuel station was opened in San Diego, California, by Pearson Fuels in 2003. In Russia, the first filling sta
An auxiliary ship is a naval ship designed to operate in support of combatant ships and other naval operations. Auxiliaries are not primary combatants, although they may have some limited combat capacity of a self-defence nature. Auxiliaries are important for navies of all sizes, as without them, the primary fleet vessels cannot be effective. Thus, nearly every navy maintains an extensive fleet of auxiliaries. However, the composition and size of these auxiliary fleets varies depending on the nature of each navy and its primary mission. Smaller coastal navies tend to have smaller auxiliary vessels focusing on littoral and training support roles. Larger blue-water navies tend to have large auxiliary fleets comprising longer-range fleet support vessels designed to provide support far beyond territorial waters. Replenishment One of the most direct ways that auxiliaries support the fleet is by providing underway replenishment to major fleet units; this allows the fleet to remain on station, with the replenishment vessels bringing up fuel, ammunition and supplies from shore to the fleet wherever it is operating.
Oilers are vessels designed to bring fuel oil to the fleet, while the earlier Colliers supplied coal burning steamships. Some replenishment vessels: Combat stores ship, Depot ship, General stores issue ship and Ammunition ship. Tenders are designed to support a type of smaller naval unit, like submarines and seaplanes, providing a mobile base of operations for these units. Tenders: Destroyer Tender, Submarine tender, Seaplane Tender, Torpedo boat tender and Miscellaneous Auxiliary. Transport Supporting forward operating bases requires immense transportation capacity. Transports are converted merchant ships commissioned into naval service. Tankers are transports designed to ship fuel to forward locations. Transports are employed not only carrying cargo for naval support, but in support of all forces of a nation's military. In particular, troopships are used to carry large number of soldiers to operational theatres; some transport ships are specialized, like the ammunition ships employed by the US Navy.
Large ocean tugs are used to tow large auxiliary ships, like: barges, floating repair dock and floating cranes in open sea disabled ships. Repair Repairing ships at sea or in forward areas is important as it allows these units to return to service quicker, while increasing the chance of survival for ships critically damaged in battle. Repair vessels range from small equipment ships to Auxiliary repair docks, lager Auxiliary floating drydock. Harbor Harbor support is a critical support role, with various types of vessels including tugboats, lighters, derrick-crane vessels, others, used to move ships and equipment around the port facilities, depot ships and tenders to service ships in the harbor; these vessels help maintain the harbor by dredging channels, maintaining jetties and buoys, providing floating platforms for port defense weapons. Tugboats are YTB, YTM, YTL or a Type V ship. Barges are classified as a Type B ship or YF, YFN YFR and YFRN. Support Radar picket to increase the radar detection range around a force.
Communications Relay Ships are floating communications stations. Tracking ship or Range Instrumentation Ship are equipped with antennas and electronics to support the launching and tracking of missiles and rockets. Command ship are flagships of the commander of a fleet. Wind-class icebreaker are support ships. Rescue and salvage ship and Submarine rescue ship for surface support ship for ship and submarine rescue. Barracks ship or Auxiliary Personal Living, are vessels-barges for service men to live on. Research A wide variety of vessels are employed for research, Environmental Research Ships, Hydrofoil Research Ships and survey to provide a navy with a better understanding of its operating environment, or to assist in testing new technologies for employment in other vessels. Hospital Hospital ship are able to provide care in remote locates. List of auxiliaries of the United States Navy List of auxiliary ship classes in service Cutler, Deborah W.. Dictionary of Naval Terms. Naval Institute Press.
ISBN 978-1591141501. Morris, Christopher G.. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0127356327. Media related to Auxiliary ships at Wikimedia Commons