Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City. Central Park is the most visited park in the United States, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park was established in 1857 on 778 acres of city-owned land, construction began the same year and the parks first area was opened to the public in the winter of 1858. Construction continued during the American Civil War farther north, and was expanded to its current size of 843 acres in 1873, Central Park was designated a National Historic Landmark by the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1962. The Conservancy is a organization that contributes 75 percent of Central Parks $65 million annual budget and is responsible for all basic care of the 843-acre park. Between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population, as the city expanded northward up Manhattan, people were drawn to the few existing open spaces, mainly cemeteries, to get away from the noise and chaotic life in the city. Since Central Park was not part of the original Commissioners Plan of 1811, John Randel, Jr. surveyed the grounds.
The only remaining surveying bolt from his survey is still visible, it is embedded in a rock just north of the present Dairy and the 65th Street Transverse, the bolt marks the location where West 65th Street would have intersected Sixth Avenue. The state appointed a Central Park Commission to oversee the development of the park, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux developed what came to be known as the Greensward Plan, which was selected as the winning design. The Greensward Plan called for some 36 bridges, all designed by Vaux, ranging from rugged spans of Manhattan schist or granite, to lacy Neo-Gothic cast iron, several influences came together in the design. Landscaped cemeteries, such as Mount Auburn and Green-Wood had set examples of idyllic, naturalistic landscapes, the most influential innovations in the Central Park design were the separate circulation systems for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles. The crosstown commercial traffic was entirely concealed in sunken roadways, screened with densely planted shrub belts so as to maintain a rustic ambiance, before the construction of the park could start, the area had to be cleared of its inhabitants.
Most lived in villages, such as Harsenville, the Piggery District, or Seneca Village, or in the school. Approximately 1,600 residents were evicted under the rule of eminent domain during 1857, Seneca Village and parts of the other communities were razed to make room for the park. During the parks construction, Olmsted fought constant battles with the park commissioners, between 1860 and 1873, most of the major hurdles to construction were overcome and the park was substantially completed. The work was documented with technical drawings and photographs. More gunpowder was used to clear the area than was used at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War, the parks commissioners assigned a name to each of the original 18 gates in 1862. The names were chosen to represent the diversity of New York Citys trades, for example, Mariners Gate for the entrance at 85th Street
Port of Los Angeles
The Port of Los Angeles, called Americas Port, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres of land and water along 43 miles of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles, a department of the City of Los Angeles, the Port of Los Angeles employs nearly 896,000 people throughout the LA County Region and 3.6 million worldwide. Around $1.2 billion worth of cargo comes in and out each day at the LA Port, the Ports Channel Depth is 53 feet. The port has 23 cargo terminals,270 deepwater berths,77 container cranes,9 container terminals, the LA Port imports furniture, electronics, automobile parts, and apparel. The Port exports wastepaper, resins, animal feed, the ports major trading partners are China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Vietnam. S. In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo discovered the Bay of Smokes, the south-facing San Pedro Bay was originally a shallow mudflat, too soft to support a wharf.
Visiting ships had two choices, stay far out at anchor and have their goods and passengers ferried to shore, or beach themselves. That sticky process is described in Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana, phineas Banning greatly improved shipping when he dredged the channel to Wilmington in 1871 to a depth of 10 feet. The port handled 50,000 tons of shipping that year, after Bannings death in 1885, his sons pursued their interests in promoting the port, which handled 500,000 tons of shipping in that year. The Southern Pacific Railroad and Collis P. Huntington wanted to create Port Los Angeles at Santa Monica, the Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis and U. S. Senator Stephen White pushed for support of the Port of Los Angeles at San Pedro Bay. The Free Harbor Fight was settled when San Pedro was endorsed in 1897 by a commission headed by Rear Admiral John C, with U. S. government support, breakwater construction began in 1899, and the area was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909.
The Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners was founded in 1907, in 1912 the Southern Pacific Railroad completed its first major wharf at the port. During the 1920s, the port surpassed San Francisco as the West Coasts busiest seaport, in the early 1930s, a massive expansion of the port was undertaken with the construction of a breakwater three miles out and over two miles in length. In addition to the construction of this outer breakwater, a breakwater was built off Terminal Island with docks for seagoing ships. It was this improved harbor that hosted the events for the 1932 Summer Olympics. During World War II the port was used for shipbuilding, employing more than 90,000 people. In 1959, Matson Navigation Companys Hawaiian Merchant delivered 20 containers to the port, the opening of the Vincent Thomas Bridge in 1963 greatly improved access to Terminal Island and allowed increased traffic and further expansion of the port
San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains are a mountain range located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, United States. The mountain range is part of the Transverse Ranges and lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east. This range lies in, and is surrounded by, the Angeles National Forest, the highest peak in the range is Mount San Antonio, commonly referred to as Mt. Baldy. Mount Wilson is another peak, famed for the Mount Wilson Observatory. The observatory may be visited by the public, on October 10,2014, President Obama designated the area the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. Much of the range features rolling peaks, the range lacks craggy features, but contains a large number of canyons and is generally very rugged and difficult to traverse. The San Gabriel Mountains are in effect a large block that was uplifted and dissected by numerous rivers. North of San Fernando, the San Gabriel Mountains crest abruptly up to almost 4,000 feet and Big Tujunga Canyons cut through the range just east of San Fernando, carrying runoff into the San Fernando Valley.
Little Tujunga Canyon Road bridges the range in area, connecting the San Fernando Valley to the Santa Clara River valley in the north. Towering over Big Tujunga Canyon north of Big Tujunga Reservoir is Mount Gleason, which at 6,502 feet, is the highest in this region of the San Gabriels. South of the gorge are the foothills of the mountains, which rise abruptly 4,000 feet above the Los Angeles Basin and give rise to the Arroyo Seco. Southeast of Big Tujunga Canyon, the front range of the San Gabriels gradually grows in elevation. On the north the range is dissected by the canyon of the West Fork San Gabriel River. On the north slopes of the San Gabriel crest, the ranks of mountains drop down incrementally to the floor of the Mojave Desert in a much more gradual manner than the sheer southern flank. The Angeles Crest Highway, one of the routes across the San Gabriels. Little Rock, Big Rock and Sheep Creeks drain off the part of the mountains. To the east, the San Andreas Fault cuts across the range, forming a series of long and narrow depressions, including Swarthout Valley, South of Mount San Antonio, San Antonio Creek drains the mountains, cutting the deep San Antonio Canyon.
However, there are several notable peaks in this region, including Telegraph Peak, at 8,985 feet, Cucamonga Peak, at 8,859 feet
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of an iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the course of a river. At these times the channel is narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, as the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream, often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall.
Waterfalls normally form in an area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed, a river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls, young Wrote Waterfalls and process this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists.
Ledge waterfall, Water descends vertically over a cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. Block/Sheet. Classical, Ledge waterfalls where fall height is equal to stream width. Curtain, Ledge waterfalls which descend over a larger than the width of falling water stream
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member governing body of Los Angeles County, California. Members of the Board are officially nonpartisan, and are elected by constituents of their respective districts, as of 2016, they are, Supervisors are elected to four-year terms by a vote of Los Angeles County citizens who reside in the supervisorial district. Supervisors must reside and be voters in the district they represent, supervisorial terms begin the first Monday in December after the election. To curb the powers of the five supervisors, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure B in March 2002 with a majority of 64%, if a supervisor fills a vacancy, the unexpired term counts towards the term limit if there are more than two years left to serve. The provisions of the measure were not retroactive, meaning that the term limit clock for supervisors who were serving at the time the measure passed would start with the next election. Don Knabe, Mike Antonovich, and Yvonne Brathwaite Burke could continue to serve until 2016, while Gloria Molina, Los Angeles County is divided into 5 supervisorial districts, with each Supervisor representing a district of approximately 2 million people.
Los Angeles County follows usual California practice in that it did not subdivide into separate counties or increase the number of supervisors as its population soared after 1920. The only county with more than five supervisors is San Francisco, as a result, the concentration of local administrative power in each county supervisor is high, each one represents more than 2 million people. Despite the Countys diverse population, the Board had lacked any Latino representation until 1991, a local nickname some use for the Board is the five little kings. Unseating an incumbent supervisor is extraordinarily difficult, due largely to the prohibitive cost of mounting a challenge in districts of such enormous geographical. Like other elected officials, supervisors enjoy built-in advantages of incumbency, the chair of the Board of Supervisors has the option of calling himself or herself mayor. The title has drawn criticism as it can lead to confusion with the mayor of the city of Los Angeles. However, those who support the use of the say that all five members of the Board of Supervisors act as mayors or chief executives for the millions of people who live in unincorporated areas.
Only Mike Antonovich used the title when chairing the Board, primarily to represent and promote Los Angeles County when dealing with international diplomacy. Otherwise, all other chairs have used the chair, chairman, or chairwoman. Members of the Board of Supervisors sit on the board of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the change was made in response to several candidates either dropping out or declining to accept the position to replace former Chief Administrative Officer David Janssen. The Board meets every Tuesday at 9,30 a. m. at the Board Hearing Room at the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in downtown Los Angeles, on Tuesdays following a Monday holiday, Board meetings begin after lunch, at 1,00 p. m. Board meetings are conducted in accordance with Roberts Rules of Order, the Brown Act, the Chief Executive Officer, the County Counsel and the Executive Officer, or their deputies, attend each Board meeting
A picnic table is a modified table with attached benches, designed for eating a meal outdoors. Picnic tables are used for dining, doing crafts, picnic tables can be found outdoors in many public parks, residential back yards, rest areas, amusement parks, and many other places. Picnic tables are used indoors when it is desired to have attached seating to tables. This is most common in school cafeterias, community centers, each table usually seats from six to eight people, though smaller and larger capacity tables are available. Picnic tables have been around for hundreds of years with a few changes, picnic tables are traditionally made of wood, but modern tables are often made from plastic, concrete, or metal. Wooden tables are constructed using lumber boards, protection for the wood is necessary to protect it from cracking, warping, or rotting due to moisture. The table-top and bench-top boards are attached to the trusses or beams using wood screws or nails, the legs can be secured with carriage bolts fastened by nuts and washers.
Blow molded plastic picnic tables are becoming popular because they are lighter and less expensive than wooden tables. They are more durable than wooden tables, and last longer, metal picnic tables are becoming more popular in public parks because they are heavy and durable, and require little maintenance. Metal tables are sometimes attached onto concrete pads when theft is a concern, stone or concrete picnic tables are the most durable variety, but suffer from the drawbacks of high price, and being fixed in place and immobile. A childrens picnic table is a picnic table designed to be used by up to four children. They are almost always constructed of plastic or wood, and are used for eating and playing
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration. Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California. As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks.
The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U. S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol.
The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224
Japanese gardens are traditional gardens whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetic and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape. Ancient Japanese art inspired past garden designers, by the Edo period, the Japanese garden had its own distinct appearance. The idea of unique gardens began during the Asuka period. Japanese merchants witnessed the gardens that were being built in China, the tradition of Japanese garden art is still popular around the world, with many eastern and western practitioners expressing themselves through the medium. Japanese gardens first appeared on the island of Honshu, the central island of Japan. Japanese gardens have their roots in the Japanese religion of Shinto, with its story of the creation of eight islands, and of the shinchi. Prehistoric Shinto shrines to the kami, the gods and spirits, are found on beaches, prehistoric shrines often took the form of unusual rocks or trees marked with cords of rice fiber and surrounded with white stones or pebbles, a symbol of purity.
The white gravel courtyard became a feature of Shinto shrines, Imperial Palaces, Buddhist temples. Japanese gardens were strongly influenced by the Chinese philosophy of Daoism and Amida Buddhism. Daoist legends spoke of five mountainous islands inhabited by the Eight Immortals, each Immortal flew from his mountain home on the back of a crane. The islands themselves were located on the back of a sea turtle. In Japan, the five islands of the Chinese legend became one island, called Horai-zen, replicas of this legendary mountain, the symbol of a perfect world, are a common feature of Japanese gardens, as are rocks representing turtles and cranes. The earliest recorded Japanese gardens were the gardens of the Japanese Emperors. They are mentioned in several passages of the Nihon Shoki. In the spring of the year 74 AD, the chronicle recorded, The Emperor Keikō put a few carp into a pond, and rejoiced to see them morning and evening. The following year, The Emperor launched a boat in the pond of Ijishi at Ihare, and went aboard with his imperial concubine.
And in 486, The Emperor Kenzō went into the garden, the Chinese garden had a very strong influence on early Japanese gardens. In or around 552 AD, Buddhism was officially installed from China, via Korea, between 600 and 612, the Japanese Emperor sent four legations to the Court of the Chinese Sui Dynasty
Los Angeles International Airport
It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually. LAX is in the southwestern Los Angeles area along the Pacific Ocean between the neighborhood of Westchester to its north and the city of El Segundo to its immediate south. It is owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports, an agency of the government of Los Angeles, formerly known as the Department of Airports. In 2015, LAX handled 74,936,256 passengers, the airport holds the claim for the worlds busiest origin and destination airport, and has for many years. To wit, relative to airports, many more travelers begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection. The airport was the third busiest by aircraft movements. It is the airport to rank among the top five U. S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic. It is notable for being one of the few U. S. airports with four parallel runways, LAX serves as a hub for Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, and Virgin America.
The airport serves as a city for Allegiant Air, Air New Zealand, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines. LAX serves as either a hub or focus city for more Mainline US Carriers than any airport in the Country and is the only airport that all three legacy carriers have designated a hub. As the largest international airport on the U. S, West Coast, LAX is a major gateway to and from Europe, Latin America and Oceania. With its deep connections to Asia and Latin America in particular, in 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport. The fields of wheat and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings and it was named Mines Field for William W. Mines, the real estate agent who arranged the deal. 1, was erected in 1929 and is in the National Register of Historic Places, Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937. The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949, in the 1930s the main airline airports were Burbank Airport in Burbank and the Grand Central Airport in Glendale.
Mines Field did not extend west of Sepulveda Boulevard, Sepulveda was rerouted circa 1950 to loop around the west ends of the extended east–west runways, which by November 1950 were 6,000 feet long. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda Boulevard to revert to straight, for the next few years the two runways were 8,500 feet long. Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the stations at the airports
Santa Ana Mountains
The Santa Ana Mountains are a short peninsular mountain range along the coast of Southern California in the United States. They extend for approximately 61 miles southeast of the Los Angeles Basin largely along the border between Orange and Riverside counties, the range starts in the north at the Whittier Fault and Santa Ana Canyon, through which the Santa Ana River flows. To the north of the canyon are the smaller Chino Hills in Los Angeles County, the northernmost summit of the Santa Anas, at 3,045 feet, is Sierra Peak. From there, the summits are Pleasants Peak,4,007 feet, Bedford Peak,3,800 feet. The next two peaks, Modjeska,5,496 feet, and Santiago,5,689 feet, located approximately 20 mi east of Santa Ana, is visible from much of Southern California. South of Saddleback are Trabuco Peak,4,613 feet, Los Pinos Peak,4,510 feet, Elsinore Peak,3,575 feet is included in a subrange called the Elsinore Mountains, which are west of Lake Elsinore. San Mateo Peak 3,591 feet marks the highpoint of this range.
Margarita Peak,3,189 feet, and Redonda Mesa,2,825 feet are part of the Santa Margarita Mountains, southeast of the Elsinore Mountains is the Santa Rosa Plateau, named for the Rancho Santa Rosa that once encompassed it. From the foot of the escarpment, the mountains and canyons of De Luz, Sandia Creek and others below it, the range ends roughly at the Santa Margarita River. Much of the range is within the Trabuco Ranger District of the Cleveland National Forest, the Santa Anas include a number of high-mountain streams that flow for all or most of the year, although once out of the foothills these waterways are ephemeral. The northern side of the range is defined by the Santa Ana River, Santiago Creek drains much of the northern part of the range and empties into the Santa Ana River near downtown Orange. Water from the north-east side of the range empties into Temescal Creek which flows north to the Santa Ana River, the southeast end of the range is marked by the Santa Margarita River, which originates east of the Santa Anas and flows southwest to the Pacific.
Runoff from the southeast side of the drains into Murrieta Creek. Irvine Lake, the largest body of water in Orange County, is in the northwest part of the range near Villa Park. The lake is formed by the Santiago Dam, which impounds Santiago Creek, the climate is Mediterranean, with warm dry summers and cool wet winters. Annual precipitation totals range from 20 to 30 inches in the parts of the range above 3,000 feet. Most of the falls between November and March. The western slope is generally moister than the eastern slope, snow only falls in winter on the highest peaks
The Hollywood Sign is a landmark and American cultural icon located in Los Angeles, California. It is situated on Mount Lee, in the Hollywood Hills area of the Santa Monica Mountains, the sign overlooks Hollywood, Los Angeles. HOLLYWOOD is spelled out in 45-foot -tall white capital letters and is 350 feet long and it was originally created in 1923 as an advertisement for a local real estate development, but it garnered increasing recognition after the sign was left up. The sign was a frequent target of pranks and vandalism, but it has undergone restoration. The sign is protected and promoted by The Trust For Public Land, an organization, while its site. From the ground, the contours of the give the sign a wavy appearance. When observed at an altitude, the letters appear nearly level. The sign makes frequent appearances in popular culture, particularly in establishing shots for films, signs of similar style, but spelling different words, are frequently seen as parodies. The sign was erected in 1923 and originally read HOLLYWOODLAND and its purpose was to advertise the name of a new segregated housing development in the hills above the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. H. J.
Whitley had already used a sign to advertise his development Whitley Heights and he suggested to his friend Harry Chandler, the owner of the Los Angeles Times newspaper, that the land syndicate in which he was involved make a similar sign to advertise their land. Real estate developers Woodruff and Shoults called their development Hollywoodland and advertised it as an environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills. They contracted the Crescent Sign Company to erect 13 letters on the hillside, the sign company owner, Thomas Fisk Goff, designed the sign. Each letter was 30 feet wide and 50 feet high, the sign would flash in segments, HOLLY, WOOD, and LAND would first light up individually, the whole sign would light up. Below the Hollywoodland sign was a searchlight to attract more attention, the poles that supported the sign were hauled to the site by mules. Cost of the project was $21,000, equivalent to $295,189 in 2016, the sign was officially dedicated in 1923. Over the course of more than half a century, the sign, designed to stand for only 18 months, sustained extensive damage, while Kothe was not injured, his 1928 Ford Model A was destroyed, as was the original 50 foot tall illuminated letter H.
In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce began a contract with the City of Los Angeles Parks Department to repair, the contract stipulated that LAND be removed to spell Hollywood and reflect the district, not the Hollywoodland housing development. The Parks Department dictated that all subsequent illumination would be at the Chambers expense, the 1949 effort gave it new life, but the signs unprotected wood and sheet metal structure continued to deteriorate