An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Mexborough is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England. It lies on the estuary of the River Dearne, on the A6023 road, between Denaby Main. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Mexborough has a population of 14,750, increasing to a ward population of 15,244 at the 2011 Census; the name Mexborough combines the Old English suffix burh meaning a fortified place with an Old English or Old Norse personal name, which may be Meke, Meoc, or Mjukr. Mexborough is located at the north eastern end of a dyke known as the Roman Ridge, thought to have been constructed either by the Brigantian tribes in the 1st century AD as a defence against the Roman invasion of Britain, or after the 5th century to defend the British kingdom of Elmet from the Angles; the earliest known written reference to Mexborough is found in the Domesday Book of 1086, which states that before the Norman Conquest of England the area had been controlled by the Saxon lords Wulfheah and Ulfkil. Following the Conquest the area fell under the control of the Norman Baron Roger de Busli.
The remains of an earthwork in Castle Park are thought to have been a motte and bailey castle constructed in the 11th century shortly after the Conquest. St. John the Baptist C of E church includes elements. A few other pre-1800 buildings remain, including several public houses: the Ferryboat Inn, the George and Dragon, the Bull's Head and the Red Lion. Most of the buildings in the town are post-1800. Throughout the 18th, 19th and much of the 20th century the town's economy was based around coal mining, quarrying and the production of ceramics, it soon became a busy railway junction; these industries led to an increase in an increase in the mortality rate. Although the town boasted a cottage hospital, the lack of suitable facilities led to Lord Montagu donating land for a new hospital to be built. Lord Montagu laid the first stone at the site in 1904; the site is still a working hospital, now forms part of the Doncaster and Bassetlaw NHS trust. The industries which led to the creation of Montagu Hospital not only brought problems to the town, but led to an increase in population and, for some, an increase in wealth and opportunity.
Many more public houses and other businesses were created. It was in one of these public houses, the Montagu Arms, that Stan Laurel stayed overnight after performing at the town's Prince of Wales Theatre on 9 December 1907. During the second half of the 19th century, like many other industrial towns, a Cooperative Society was formed in Mexborough; this was modelled on the consumer cooperative set up by the Rochdale Pioneers in 1844. In 1861 nine working men met together at the home of James Simpson in Mexborough and decided to form the Mexborough Working Men's Industrial Society; the aim of the Society was to supply the necessary things of life. Membership grew and by the 1890s it stood at 1,200. In its heyday, there were ten shops. By 1903 land had been purchased in the middle of Mexborough on which to build a large and grand new central store, but suddenly in 1904 the Mexborough Cooperative Society went into liquidation. Soon after they were taken over by the Barnsley British Co-operative Society.
One of Mexborough's landmarks is associated with the Cooperative Society. This is the former Barnsley British Cooperative Society flour mill which stands on the north side of the River Don Navigation close to the Church of St John the Baptist, it started off as the "Don Roller Mills". It was owned by James White who sold it to the Barnsley British Cooperative Society in 1912. For over a hundred years, the railway locomotive maintenance and stabling depot was a major employer; the South Yorkshire and Goole Railway arrived in Mexborough in 1850. The extensive coal traffic generated by the local collieries required railway locomotives to haul them and these locomotives required driving, refuelling and stabling. Mexborough was chosen as the site for a large 15-road depot. In its heyday, it had an allocation of about 150 locomotives. In the 1920s it was the stabling point for the LNER Garratt the most powerful locomotive in the UK; the depot closed in 1964. Following the demise of the coal mining industry in the 1980s Mexborough, like many ex-mining towns and villages, is still in the process of economic and social recovery.
The history of the town is charted on the Mexborough & District Heritage Society's extensive website: The Rock Pottery, it is believed, traded during its early years as Beevers & Ford. In 1839 it was purchased by James Reed, succeeded ten years in 1849 by his son John. Reed junior changed the name of the business to the "Mexborough Pottery" and the pottery was extended still further and more kilns constructed; when the Rockingham Pottery closed John Reed bought most of its moulds and produced many items from them, but with differing transfer prints and plain green with raised leaf design impressed with "Reed". Before 2010 Mexborough was in the Barnsley Mexborough constituency. Since it has been in the Doncaster North constituency, whose current MP is Ed Miliband, former leader of the Labour Party. Local party Mexborough First holds all three seats in the Mexborough ward on Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council; the town is served by Mexborough railway station for trains going towards Sheffield.
Mexborough has a bus station. Mexborough has one secondary school (Laurel Acade
Maggie May (musical)
Maggie May is a musical with a book by Alun Owen and music and lyrics by Lionel Bart. Based on "Maggie May", a traditional ballad about a Liverpool prostitute, it deals with trade union ethics and disputes among Irish-Catholic dockers in Liverpool, centring on the life of streetwalker Margaret Mary Duffy and her sweetheart, a freewheeling sailor; the show includes bittersweet ballads, robust chorus numbers, some rock'n' roll, making it one of the most musically diverse British scores of the 1960s. Steven Suskin, in reviewing a newly released CD, wrote: the show begins with a "rather weird folk-ballad", has "a couple of gentle lullaby-like ballads...raucous production numbers... a tongue-twister, set to an violent waltz", along with a distinctive version of the title song "which mixes a sailor's chanty with — what, Dixieland?". The West End production opened on September 22, 1964 at London's Adelphi Theatre, where it ran for 501 performances; the cast included Rachel Roberts, Kenneth Haigh, Andrew Keir, Barry Humphries, John Junkin, Geoffrey Hughes.
Georgia Brown replaced Roberts in the title role. The musical won the Novello Award for outstanding score of the year and the Critics' Poll as best new British musical. Patrick Casey is a young sailor from a Catholic Liverpool-Irish family, his father was a famous trades union leader, killed during a strike. Patrick rejects his father's advice in order to live a life of exploration and adventure as an ocean going seaman. Back in Liverpool, his childhood sweetheart, Margaret Duffy, has become a popular dockland prostitute known as Maggie May. All the sailors are devoted to her because of her generous nature. Patrick returns to Liverpool to work on the docks, is greeted by the other dock workers, he tells a tale about his visit to an African country, where he was expected to participate in a militia to put down demonstrations by exploited African workers, but refused. The other dockers see him as a potential leader in their struggles, but he refuses to become involved and attempts to revive his relationship with Maggie.
As Maggie starts to hope for a new life with Patrick, she discovers he has been drawn into plans for a dock strike, leading to an argument between them. To get back at Patrick, Maggie becomes involved with a corrupt local deal-maker. Patrick discovers that a shipment at the docks comprises weapons for police in apartheid South Africa, he and other workers decide to sabotage the weapons. Maggie breaks with Willie, she and Patrick commit to each other; the sabotage plan is betrayed and Patrick is killed in a fight over the weapons. Maggie is left devastated and with no option. Overture/The Ballad Of The "Liver" Bird Lullaby/I Love A Man Casey Shine You Swine Day Don’t Do Dat T’Day I Told You So Right Of Way Stroll On Away from Home Maggie, Maggie May D'Land of Promises Carrying On Union Cha-Cha It’s Yourself The World’s a Lovely Place I'm Me D’Same Size Boots It's Yourself Finale/The Ballad of the'Liver' Bird "Maggie, Maggie May", "The Land of Promises", "It's Yourself" and "There's Only One Union" were recorded by American singer, Judy Garland.
Garland was friends with Lionel Bart, rumored to be Judy's manager at the time. The songs were recorded in London and released on the Capitol Records Label in September 1964 as an EP. Garland subsequently recorded several of the songs again while performing with her daughter, Liza Minnelli at the London Palladium in November, 1964. Shirley Bassey released "It's Yourself" as her penultimate Columbia single in 1965
Cleopatra (1963 film)
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, with a screenplay adapted by Mankiewicz, Ranald MacDougall and Sidney Buchman from the book The Life and Times of Cleopatra by Carlo Maria Franzero, from histories by Plutarch and Appian, it stars Elizabeth Taylor in the eponymous role. Richard Burton, Rex Harrison, Roddy McDowall, Martin Landau are featured in supporting roles, it chronicles the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome. The film achieved notoriety during its production for its massive cost overruns and production troubles, which included changes in director and cast, a change of filming locale, sets that had to be constructed twice, lack of a firm shooting script, personal scandal around co-stars Taylor and Burton, it was the most expensive film made up to that point and bankrupted 20th Century Fox. Cleopatra was the highest-grossing film of 1963, earning box-office of $57.7 million in the United States and Canada, yet lost money due to its production and marketing costs of $44 million, making it the only film to be the highest-grossing film of the year to run at a loss.
It received nine nominations at the 36th Academy Awards, including for Best Picture, won four: Best Production Design, Best Cinematography, Best Visual Effects and Best Costume Design. After the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, Julius Caesar goes to Egypt, under the pretext of being named the executor of the will of the young Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII and his sister Cleopatra's father. Cleopatra convinces Caesar to restore her throne from her younger brother. Caesar, in effective control of the kingdom, sentences Pothinus to death for arranging an assassination attempt on Cleopatra, banishes Ptolemy to the eastern desert, where he and his outnumbered army would face certain death against Mithridates. Cleopatra is crowned Queen of Egypt, begins to develop megalomaniacal dreams of ruling the world with Caesar, who in turn desires to become King of Rome, they marry, when their son Caesarion is born, Caesar accepts him publicly, which becomes the talk of Rome and the Senate. After he is made dictator for life, Caesar sends for Cleopatra.
She wins the adulation of the Roman people. The Senate grows discontented amid rumors that Caesar wishes to be made king, anathema to the Romans. On the Ides of March in 44 BC, a group of conspirators assassinate Caesar and flee the city, starting a rebellion. An alliance between Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, Mark Antony, Caesar's right-hand man and general as well as Marcus Ameilius Lepidus put down the rebellion and split up the republic between themselves. Cleopatra is angered after Caesar's will recognizes Octavian instead of Caesarion as his official heir, angrily returns to Egypt. While planning a campaign against Parthia in the east, Antony realizes he needs money and supplies, cannot get enough from anywhere but Egypt. After refusing several times to leave Egypt, Cleopatra meets him in Tarsus; the two begin a love affair, with Cleopatra assuring Antony that he is much more than a pale reflection of Caesar. Octavian's removal of Lepidus forces Antony to return to Rome, where he marries Octavian's sister, Octavia, to prevent conflict and enraging Cleopatra.
Antony and Cleopatra marry, with Antony divorcing Octavia. Octavian, reads Antony's will to the Roman senate, revealing that the latter wishes to be buried in Egypt. Rome turns against Antony, Octavian's call for war against Egypt receives a rapturous response; the war is decided at the naval Battle of Actium on September 2, 31 BC, where Octavian's fleet, under the command of Agrippa, defeats the Antony-Egyptian fleet. Cleopatra assumes orders the Egyptian forces home. Antony follows, soon defeated. Several months Cleopatra manages to convince Antony to resume command of his troops and fight Octavian's advancing army. However, Antony's soldiers abandon him during the night. Antony tries to goad Octavian into single combat, but is forced to flee into the city; when Antony returns to the palace, not believing that Antony is worthy of his queen, convinces him that she is dead, whereupon Antony falls on his own sword. Apollodorus confesses that he misled Antony and assists him to the tomb where Cleopatra and two servants have taken refuge.
Antony dies in Cleopatra's arms. Octavian and his army march into Alexandria with Caesarion's dead body in a wagon, he discovers the dead body of Apollodorus. Octavian receives word that Antony is dead and Cleopatra is holed up in a tomb. There he offers her his word that he will allow her to rule Egypt as a Roman province in return for her agreeing to accompany him to Rome. Cleopatra knows her son is dead and agrees to Octavian's terms, including a pledge not to harm herself. After Octavian departs, she orders her servants in coded language to assist with her suicide. Octavian realizes that she is going to kill herself and he and his guards burst into Cleopatra's chamber and find her dressed in gold, dead, along with her servants, while an asp crawls along the floor; as the story of Cleopatra had proved a hit in 1917 for silent-screen legend Theda Bara, was remade in 1934 with Claudette Colbert, 20th Century Fox executives hired veteran Hollywood producer Walter Wanger in 1958 to shepherd another remake of Cleopatra into production.
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The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Look Back in Anger (1959 film)
Look Back in Anger is a 1959 British drama film starring Richard Burton, Claire Bloom and Mary Ure and directed by Tony Richardson. The film is based on John Osborne's eponymous play about a love triangle involving an intelligent but disaffected young man, his upper-middle-class, impassive wife, her snooty best friend. Cliff, an amiable Welsh lodger, attempts to keep the peace; the character of Ma Tanner, only referred to in the play, is here brought to life by Edith Evans as a dramatic device to emphasise the class difference between Jimmy and Alison. The film and play are classic examples of the British cultural movement known as kitchen sink realism. Jimmy and Alison Porter, a young married couple, live in a Midlands industrial town in a shabby attic flat, which they share with Jimmy’s best friend and business partner, Cliff. Despite his working-class background, Jimmy graduated from university, but has not pursued a professional career, he and Cliff make a meager living running a sweet-stall in the local market.
Jimmy’s inability to climb the socioeconomic ladder, coupled with other injustices he sees around him make him angry at society the upper classes. He takes out his frustrations by mocking and dominating his wife Alison, a submissive girl from an upper-class family. Jimmy's love for Alison is mixed with contempt at her privileged life, as he feels she never had to experience want, pain or suffering, he verbally abuses her, including telling her. Unbeknown to Jimmy, Alison is pregnant, having mixed feelings about the pregnancy and her marriage. Jimmy is most comfortable around working-class people such as Cliff and Ma Tanner, an elderly woman, a mother figure for him and loaned him the money to open his stall. While Jimmy is visiting with Ma Tanner at a local pub, Alison unsuccessfully attempts to tell him about her pregnancy, but cannot get his attention. Jimmy becomes annoyed with Alison for not being more sociable with Ma Tanner. Tensions heighten between the couple when Alison invites her assertive friend Helena, whom Jimmy loathes, to temporarily stay with them.
After witnessing Jimmy's treatment of Alison, Helena convinces Alison to leave Jimmy on the same day that Ma Tanner has a fatal stroke. While Jimmy keeps vigil at Ma Tanner's hospital deathbed, Alison moves out and departs with her kindly father, Colonel Redfern, who has come to collect her. A grieving Jimmy returns to the flat to find Alison gone, learns for the first time that she is pregnant, he starts an emotional tirade with Helena, who first slaps him but kisses him passionately, the two begin an affair. Months Jimmy and Helena have settled into a comfortable relationship, get along better than he and Alison did, but Jimmy is still hurt at Alison’s departure. Alison, now living in her parents' comparatively luxurious home, is having a precarious pregnancy, raising the possibility that Jimmy's wish for her to suffer tragedy might come true. Cliff decides to strike out on his own, Jimmy and Helena see him off at the train station. After Cliff's train departs and Helena see Alison sitting disconsolately in the station.
Alison explains to Helena that she has lost the baby and Helena, realizing that she was wrong to break up their marriage, informs Jimmy that she is leaving him. Jimmy and Alison reconcile. Richard Burton as Jimmy Porter Claire Bloom as Helena Charles Mary Ure as Alison Porter Edith Evans as Ma Tanner Gary Raymond as Cliff Lewis Glen Byam Shaw as Colonel Redfern Phyllis Neilson-Terry as Mrs. Redfern Donald Pleasence as Hurst, the market inspector George Devine as Doctor Walter Hudd as Actor Nigel Davenport as 1st Commercial Traveller Alfred Lynch as 2nd Commercial Traveller Toke Townley as Spectacled Man S. P. Kapoor as Kapoor The film was nominated in 4 categories in the 1959 BAFTA Awards. Best British Actor; the eventual winners in these categories were Peter Sellers. Burton was nominated as Best Motion Picture Actor – Drama in the 1959 Golden Globes; the eventual winner was Anthony Franciosa in Career. Interiors were shot at Elstree Studios in September 1958; some establishing shots were shot in Derby but the market scenes were shot in Deptford market.
Deptford and Dalston are in fact in the London area. The first market scenes were shot in the centre of Romford Market, Essex; the scenes showing the street outside Jimmy and Alison Porter's flat were filmed in Harvist Road, London N7. This can not be referenced. I was present as my uncle and his family lived in the street and we watched the filming from my uncle's house. Harvist Road was demolished by Islington Borough Council and rebuilt as the Harvist Estate. Look Back in Anger was produced by the Canadian impresario Harry Saltzman, seen an obvious choice since he was a fan of the play and it was he who urged Osborne and Richardson to set up Woodfall Film Productions; the film was to be Woodfall's first production. Osborne insisted, against resistance from Saltzman, that Richardson was the right man to direct the film, he had no track record in feature films. The original backers, J. Arthur Rank, pulled out of the deal because of the choice of director. Saltzman and Richardson persuaded Richard Burton to take on the title role, at a much lower fee than his accustomed Hollywood payoff.
History does not r
Royal Central School of Speech and Drama
The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama was founded by Elsie Fogerty in 1906 to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students. It became a constituent of the University of London in 2005 and its prominent alumni include Cush Jumbo, Laurence Olivier, Vanessa Redgrave, Judi Dench, Harold Pinter, Martin Freeman and Kit Harington; the school offers undergraduate, research degrees, short courses in acting, actor training, applied theatre, theatre crafts and making, drama therapy, musical theatre, producing, research, stage management, teacher training, technical arts and writing. On 9 October 2008 the school announced that Harold Pinter, the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature and Central alumnus, had agreed to become its president and to receive an honorary fellowship in the school's graduation ceremony on 10 December 2008, but Pinter had to receive it in absentia, because of ill health, he died two weeks later. Michael Grandage, a Central graduate and artistic director of the Donmar Warehouse, has now been appointed President.
Elsie Fogerty founded The Central School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art at the Royal Albert Hall in 1906. Fogerty was a specialist in speech training and held a firm belief in the social importance of education, she was committed to advancing the study of theatre as an academic discipline. In 1957 the school moved from the Royal Albert Hall, having acquired the lease of the Embassy Theatre at Swiss Cottage and its associated buildings. By 1961 three distinct departments had been established within Central; the stage department was running its three-year course for actors, with alumni including Laurence Olivier and Peggy Ashcroft a part of its history, a two-year course for stage managers. The teacher training department was preparing students for its own diploma, a recognised teaching qualification, for the London University Diploma in Dramatic Art; that diploma had been instituted in 1912 as a result of Fogerty's campaign for the recognition of drama and drama teaching as subjects worthy of serious academic study.
By this time, the school was as known for its speech therapy department as for its work in training actors. In 1972 Central became grant-aided by the Inner London Education Authority. In 1989 it was incorporated as a higher education college in its own right and funded directly by government. Central had been offering degrees since 1986, firstly validated by the Council for National Academic Awards and from 1992 by the Open University. In 2004 the Privy Council granted the Central the power to award its own taught degrees. In 2005 students from the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art transferred to Central after a 100-year history of significant contributions to stage and screen. In the same year, the school was designated as the Higher Education Funding Council for England's Centre for Excellence in Training for Theatre. With effect from September 2005 Central became a college of the University of London realising the ambitions articulated a hundred years earlier by its founder Elsie Fogerty.
Apart from its notable alumni, who include Laurence Olivier, Vanessa Redgrave, Judi Dench, Cameron Mackintosh, Harold Pinter, Jason Isaacs and James Fox, the school has had some notable staff. In the 1960s Yat Malmgren taught movement, based on principles derived from Laban. On 29 November 2012 the adjective Royal was bestowed on the school by Elizabeth II in recognition of its reputation as a "world-class institution for exceptional professional training in theatre and performance studies", it is entitled to use it in official documentation, although it continues to be colloquially referred to as "Central". The school's Patron, Princess Alexandra of Kent, played a role in recommending the institution for the adjective; the school is located at Swiss Cottage in North London, an area, being redeveloped as a "civic and cultural quarter" which includes a new extension building for the school, replacing 1960's accommodation. The school's theatre is located inside the new building, awarded a BREEAM rating of "very good".
On 9 October 2008, the school announced that Harold Pinter, who attended the school in 1950–51, had agreed to become its president, succeeding Labour Party politician Peter Mandelson, who had rejoined the government of Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Current president of Central is Michael Grandage, Artistic Director of the Donmar Warehouse and alumnus of the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama Current Principal Gavin Henderson is an English arts administrator and trumpeter. Deputy Principal / Deputy CEO / Clerk to Deborah Scully; these included Registrar at Southwark College, London. Deputy Principal and Professor of Theatre, Simon Shepherd, joined Central in 2001. A Professor of Drama at Golds