The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history; the operation began the liberation of German-occupied France from Nazi control, laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, codenamed Operation Bodyguard, to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings; the weather on D-Day was far from the operation had to be delayed 24 hours. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in command of German forces and of developing fortifications along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an Allied invasion; the amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault—the landing of 24,000 US, Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight.
Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah, Gold and Sword. Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions at Utah and Omaha; the men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled, using specialised tanks; the Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day. Carentan, St. Lô, Bayeux remained in German hands, Caen, a major objective, was not captured until 21 July. Only two of the beaches were linked on the first day, all five beachheads were not connected until 12 June.
German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were at least 10,000, with 4,414 confirmed dead. Museums and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year. After the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin began pressing his new allies for the creation of a second front in western Europe. In late May 1942 the Soviet Union and the United States made a joint announcement that a "... full understanding was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a second front in Europe in 1942." However, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill persuaded US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to postpone the promised invasion as with US help, the Allies did not have adequate forces for such an activity. Instead of an immediate return to France, the western Allies staged offensives in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, where British troops were stationed. By mid-1943 the campaign in North Africa had been won.
The Allies launched the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, subsequently invaded the Italian mainland in September the same year. By Soviet forces were on the offensive and had won a major victory at the Battle of Stalingrad; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference in Washington in May 1943. Initial planning was constrained by the number of available landing craft, most of which were committed in the Mediterranean and Pacific. At the Tehran Conference in November 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin that they would open the long-delayed second front in May 1944. Four sites were considered for the landings: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula and the Pas-de-Calais; as Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, it would have been possible for the Germans to cut off the Allied advance at a narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected. With the Pas-de-Calais being the closest point in continental Europe to Britain, the Germans considered it to be the most initial landing zone, so it was the most fortified region.
But it offered few opportunities for expansion, as the area is bounded by numerous rivers and canals, whereas landings on a broad front in Normandy would permit simultaneous threats against the port of Cherbourg, coastal ports further west in Brittany, an overland attack towards Paris and into Germany. Normandy was hence chosen as the landing site; the most serious drawback of the Normandy coast—the lack of port facilities—would be overcome through the development of artificial Mulberry harbours. A series of specialised tanks, nicknamed Hobart's Funnies, were created to deal with conditions expected during the Normandy Campaign, such as scaling sea walls and providing close support on the beach; the Allies planned to launch the invasion on 1 May 1944. The initial draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion.
On 31 December 1943 Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions with two m
Adam Adamant Lives!
Adam Adamant Lives! is a British television series that ran from 1966 to 1967 on BBC 1, starring Gerald Harper in the title role. Proposing that an adventurer born in 1867 had been revived from hibernation in 1966, the show was a comedy adventure that took a satirical look at life in the 1960s through the eyes of an Edwardian; the main character went through a number of possible names: "Cornelius Chance", "Rupert De'Ath", "Dick Daring", "Dexter Noble", "Aurelian Winton", "Magnus Hawke" and "Darius Crud" before Sydney Newman settled on Adam Adamant, named after the generic mineral term adamantine, since medieval times, has referred to diamond. In the opening episode, "A Vintage Year for Scoundrels", Adam Llewellyn De Vere Adamant—to give him his full name—is a swashbuckling Victorian gentleman adventurer who, in 1902, goes to rescue his kidnapped girlfriend Louise, but is lured into a trap whereupon he is captured and condemned to be frozen forever in a block of ice by his nemesis, the Face, whose identity is concealed behind a leather mask and who speaks in a sinister whispering voice.
The Face grants his helpless prisoner one last request, Adam asks to see Louise. Adam is found in 1966, when a building is being knocked down, he is revived. On emerging from a hospital and collapsing on the London streets, Adam is rescued by Georgina Jones and taken to her flat. Though in many ways a typical swinging sixties woman, Georgina had grown up idolising Adam through tales of his turn-of-the-century exploits, she tries to get in on all his cases, despite his efforts to stop her, manages to get a job at the scene in question at a moment's notice so she can interfere in the case. The part went to Ann Holloway in the untransmitted pilot episode, but was recast with Juliet Harmer as it was felt that Holloway's performance did not fit the series. Adam is an expert swordsman, he is not the only British hero with such a weapon. He was a Colonel and has been on the volunteer strength of the 51st Yeomanry since 1895 – though he is listed on their official records as being "missing, presumed killed" since 1902.
He is a good boxer and demonstrates proficiency in jujitsu, introduced to England several years before he was frozen. Adam became embroiled in the criminal world of the 1960s when Georgina was threatened after being witness to the murder of her grandfather by protection racketeers at a disco. Though there is no indication of where his money comes from or how he supports himself, Adam rebuilt his old home, the long demolished 26A Albany Street, on the top of a multi-storey car park, which he had bought, at 17 Upper Thames Street in central London, it is accessed by a lift hidden on the other side of a sliding wall, activated from the outside by pressing a cleverly hidden call button. He purchased a Mini Cooper S with the personalised numberplate AA 1000; the car is dark green and tan, it has a sun-roof, electric windows, a posh interior. It was a special conversion: a "Mini de Ville" by Harold Radford Coach Builder LTD, he does a job for the British Government, as in "More Deadly Than the Sword".
When he is knocked unconscious, Adam dreams of how he was caught by the Face and of Louise telling him: "So clever, but oh so vulnerable." This is apt, as many women take advantage of his Victorian naïveté. During the second episode, "Death Has a Thousand Faces", the events of which are set in Blackpool, he acquires a manservant in the form of former music hall artiste and present Punch and Judy man William E. Simms; the character was to have been played by John Dawson, who hurt his back lifting an actress during rehearsals for "The Sweet Smell of Disaster" and was unable to continue. In terms of fashion, the series captured well the gradual shift in 1966/67 from the "mod" styles of "Swinging London" to the more Bohemian styles that characterised the late sixties. Adam has his 100th birthday in the final episode, "A Sinister Sort of Service", gets a telegram from the Queen, as well as a birthday cake bearing one hundred candles; the opening episode of Series 2, "A Slight Case of Reincarnation" set in 1902, reminded viewers of the Face, who had not been seen since "A Vintage Year for Scoundrels".
The Face appeared in four more episodes during Series 2—namely "Face in a Mirror", "Tunnel of Death", "The Resurrectionists" and "A Sinister Sort of Service"—in which he would urge on the main villain of each story, but while Adam would defeat the villain on each occasion, the Face himself would never be captured or vanquished, always escaping to fight another day and vowing vengeance on Adam when they met next time. Though he didn't need them, Gerald Harper wore false eyebrows based on the make-up lady's own eyebrows, he wore a wig. Harper was a bit shortsighted and wore glasses, which he removed as soon as
Frederick John Inman known as John Inman, was an English actor and singer best known for his role as Mr. Humphries in Are You Being Served?, a British sitcom between 1972 and 1985. He was well known character actor in the United Kingdom as a pantomime dame. Born in 1935, he made his West End debut in the 1960s, his television debut in an episode of A Slight Case of... entitled The Enemy Within in 1965, next appearing in an episode of Two in Clover in 1970. After a successful pilot of Are You Being Served?, Inman played the camp Mr. Humphries in the sitcom from 1972 to 1985; this role won him awards, including BBC TV Personality of the Year. In his years, Inman became a well known pantomime dame. Inman was born in Preston and was said to be a cousin of actress Josephine Tewson, though she has denied they are related. At the age of 12, Inman moved with his parents to Blackpool where his mother ran a boarding house, while his father owned a hairdressing business; as a child, he enjoyed dressmaking.
He was educated at Claridge House in Preston, a secondary modern. Inman always wanted to be an actor, his parents paid for him to have elocution lessons at the local church hall. At the age of 13 he made his stage debut in the Pavilion on Blackpool's South Pier, in a melodrama entitled Freda. Aged 15, he took a job at the pier, clearing up and playing parts in plays. After leaving school, Inman worked for two years at Fox's, a gentlemen's outfitters in Blackpool, specialising in window dressing. Aged 17, he moved to London to join retailer Austin Reed in Regent Street. Four years he left Austin Reed to become a scenic artist with Kenneth Kendall's touring company at a theatre in Crewe, so that he could earn his Equity Card, required at the time for professional actors. Inman made his West End debut in the 1960s when he appeared in Ann Veronica at the Cambridge Theatre, he played in Salad Days at the Windmill Theatre in 1975, as Lord Fancourt Babberley in Charley's Aunt at the Adelphi Theatre in 1979.
He played in many summer shows, established himself as a dame in pantomime, appearing as one of the two ugly sisters alongside comedian Barry Howard. His other stage appearances included his own show Fancy Free and Pyjama Tops, My Fat Friend and Bedside Manners. Inman made his television debut in the sitcom A Slight Case Of... in 1965 in 1966 he appeared in two episodes of the BBC sitcom Hugh and I in 1970 he appeared in one episode of the ITV sitcom Two in Clover. In 1972, he was asked by David Croft to play a part in a Comedy Playhouse pilot called Are You Being Served?. This was a sitcom set in a department store, written by Croft with Jeremy Lloyd, based on the latter's experiences working at Simpsons of Piccadilly. Playing a minor role with only a few lines, he was soon asked to "camp it up", despite initial reluctance from the BBC to include such a camp character; the pilot was broadcast in September 1972. The broadcast was followed by the five episodes of the first series in early 1973.
The first series showing opposite Coronation Street on ITV attracted little attention, but repeats that year were successful. Inman played the camp Mr Wilberforce Claybourne Humphries and his earlier career in the clothes retail business was good preparation for this role in a menswear department. Inman developed a characteristic limp-wristed mincing walk, a high-pitched catchphrase, "I'm free!", which soon entered popular culture. Inman reported that four or five members of the group Campaign for Homosexual Equality picketed one of his shows in protest as they believed his persona did not help their cause. Inman said, but I don't think. In fact there are people far more camp than Mr. Humphries walking around this country. Anyway, I know for a fact that an enormous number of viewers like Mr. Humphries and don't care whether he's camp or not. So far from doing harm to the homosexual image, I feel I might be doing some good". Both Inman and David Croft stated that the character was "just a mother's boy", that his sexual orientation was never explicitly stated.
Inman continued to play in live shows after his success as Mr. Humphries, began to incorporate camp mannerisms to those performances too, once saying "Even when I'm not playing Mr Humphries, say at a summer season, I camp it up a bit. If I don't the audience are disappointed". Are You Being Served? Ran for 10 series until 1985. At its height, in the mid to late 1970s, it attracted British audiences of up to 22 million viewers. Inman's portrayal of Mr Humphries won him the BBC TV Personality of the Year in 1976 and he was voted the funniest man on television by TV Times readers; the series became popular in the United States, where Inman became a gay cultural icon. Once, in San Francisco, a passing cyclist spotted Inman and fell off his bicycle in surprise, crying "Mr Humphries, I love you!"From 1980 to 1981, Inman played Mr Humphries in the Australian version of Are You Being Served?, the only cast member of the original Are You Being Served? Series to do so, he made many appearances on The Good Old Days.
During the 69-episode, 13-year run of Are You Being Served?, Inman appeared in the 1977 film of the series, in which the characters visited the fictional Spanish holiday resort of "Costa Plonka". Odd Man Out, his own sitcom, Inman played the owner of a fish and chip shop who inherits half of a rock factory. Inman a
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for promoting British interests worldwide, it was created in 1968 by merging the Commonwealth Office. The head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary"; this is regarded as one of the four most prestigious positions in the Cabinet – the Great Offices of State – alongside those of Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary. The FCO is managed from day to day by a civil servant, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who acts as the Head of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service; this position is held by Sir Simon McDonald, who took office on 1 September 2015. Safeguarding the UK's national security by countering terrorism and weapons proliferation, working to reduce conflict. Building the UK's prosperity by increasing exports and investment, opening markets, ensuring access to resources, promoting sustainable global growth.
Supporting British nationals around the world through modern and efficient consular services. The FCO Ministers are as follows: Eighteenth centuryThe Foreign Office was formed in March 1782 by combining the Southern and Northern Departments of the Secretary of State, each of which covered both foreign and domestic affairs in their parts of the Kingdom; the two departments' foreign affairs responsibilities became the Foreign Office, whilst their domestic affairs responsibilities were assigned to the Home Office. The Home Office is technically the senior. Nineteenth centuryDuring the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach The Times newspaper and ask for continental intelligence, superior to that conveyed by official sources. Examples of journalists who specialized in foreign affairs and were well connected to politicians included: Henry Southern, Valentine Chirol, Harold Nicolson, Robert Bruce Lockhart. Twentieth centuryDuring the First World War, the Arab Bureau was set up within the British Foreign Office as a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department.
During the early cold war an important department was the Information Research Department, set up to counter Soviet propaganda and infiltration. The Foreign Office hired its first woman diplomat, Monica Milne, in 1946; the FCO was formed on 17 October 1968, from the merger of the short-lived Commonwealth Office and the Foreign Office. The Commonwealth Office had been created only in 1966, by the merger of the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Colonial Office, the Commonwealth Relations Office having been formed by the merger of the Dominions Office and the India Office in 1947—with the Dominions Office having been split from the Colonial Office in 1925; the Foreign and Commonwealth Office held responsibility for international development issues between 1970 and 1974, again between 1979 and 1997. From 1997, this became the responsibility of the separate Department for International Development; the National Archives website contains a Government timeline to show the departments responsible for Foreign Affairs from 1945.
When David Miliband took over as Foreign Secretary in June 2007, he set in hand a review of the FCO's strategic priorities. One of the key messages of these discussions was the conclusion that the existing framework of ten international strategic priorities, dating from 2003, was no longer appropriate. Although the framework had been useful in helping the FCO plan its work and allocate its resources, there was agreement that it needed a new framework to drive its work forward; the new strategic framework consists of three core elements: A flexible global network of staff and offices, serving the whole of the UK Government. Three essential services that support the British economy, British nationals abroad and managed migration for Britain; these services are delivered through UK Trade & Investment, consular teams in Britain and overseas, UK Visas and Immigration. Four policy goals: countering terrorism and weapons proliferation and their causes preventing and resolving conflict promoting a low-carbon, high-growth, global economy developing effective international institutions, in particular the United Nations and the European Union.
In August 2005, a report by management consultant group Collinson Grant was made public by Andrew Mackinlay. The report criticised the FCO's management structure, noting: The Foreign Office could be "slow to act". Delegation is lacking within the management structure. Accountability was poor; the FCO could feasibly cut 1200 jobs. At least £48 million could be saved annually; the Foreign Office commissioned the report to highlight areas which would help it achieve its pledge to reduce spending by £87 million over three years. In response to the report being made public, the Foreign Office stated it had implemented the report's recommendations. In 2009, Gordon Brown created the position of Chief Scientific Adviser to the FCO; the first science adviser was David C. Clary. On 25 April 2010, the department apologised after The Sunday Telegraph obtained a "foolish" document calling for the upcoming September visit of Pope Benedict XVI to be marked by the launch of "Benedict-branded" condoms, the opening of an abortion clinic and the blessing of a same-sex marriage.
In 2012, the Foreign Office was criticised by Gerald Steinberg, of the Jerusalem-based research institute NGO Monitor, saying that the Foreign Office and the Department for International Development provided more than £500,000 in funding to Palestinian NGOs which he said "promote political attacks on Israel." In response, a spokesman for the Foreign Office said "we are careful about who and what we fund. The obje
Invasion of Normandy
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944. The invaders were able to establish a beachhead as part of Operation Overlord after a successful "D-Day," the first day of the invasion. Allied land forces came from the United States, Britain and Free French forces. In the weeks following the invasion, Polish forces and contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands participated in the ground campaign; the Normandy invasion began with overnight parachute and glider landings, massive air attacks and naval bombardments. In the early morning, amphibious landings commenced on five beaches codenamed Sword, Gold and Utah, with troops from the United States landing on Omaha and Utah, Great Britain landing on Gold and Sword and Canada landing on Juno. During the evening the remaining elements of the airborne divisions landed. Land forces used on D-Day sailed from bases along the south coast of England, the most important of these being Portsmouth.
Allied forces rehearsed their D-Day roles for months before the invasion. On 28 April 1944, in south Devon on the English coast, 749 U. S. soldiers and sailors were killed when German torpedo boats surprised one of these landing exercises, Exercise Tiger. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allied forces conducted a deception operation, Operation Fortitude, aimed at misleading the Germans with respect to the date and place of the invasion. There were several leaks prior to or on D-Day. Through the Cicero affair, the Germans obtained documents containing references to Overlord, but these documents lacked all detail. Double Cross agents, such as the Spaniard Juan Pujol, played an important role in convincing the German High Command that Normandy was at best a diversionary attack. U. S. Major General Henry Miller, chief supply officer of the US 9th Air Force, during a party at Claridge's Hotel in London complained to guests of the supply problems he was having but that after the invasion, which he told them would be before 15 June, supply would be easier.
After being told, Eisenhower reduced Miller to lieutenant colonel and sent him back to the U. S. where he retired. Another such leak was General Charles de Gaulle's radio message after D-Day. He, unlike all the other leaders, stated; this had the potential to ruin the Allied deceptions Fortitude South. In contrast, Gen. Eisenhower referred to the landings as the initial invasion. Only ten days each month were suitable for launching the operation: a day near the full moon was needed both for illumination during the hours of darkness and for the spring tide, the former to illuminate navigational landmarks for the crews of aircraft and landing craft, the latter to expose defensive obstacles placed by the German forces in the surf on the seaward approaches to the beaches. A full moon occurred on 6 June. Allied Expeditionary Force Supreme Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower had tentatively selected 5 June as the date for the assault; the weather deteriorated in early June. On 4 June, conditions were unsuitable for a landing.
The Allied troop convoys at sea were forced to take shelter in bays and inlets on the south coast of Britain for the night. It seemed possible that everything would have to be cancelled and the troops returned to their embarkation camps; the next full moon period would be nearly a month away. At a vital meeting on 5 June, Eisenhower's chief meteorologist forecast a brief improvement for 6 June. Commander of all land forces for the invasion General Bernard Montgomery and Eisenhower's Chief of Staff General Walter Bedell Smith wished to proceed with the invasion. Commander of the Allied Air Forces Air Chief Marshal Leigh Mallory was doubtful, but Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief Admiral Bertram Ramsay believed that conditions would be marginally favorable. On the strength of Stagg's forecast, Eisenhower ordered the invasion to proceed; as a result, prevailing overcast skies limited Allied air support, no serious damage would be done to the beach defences on Omaha and Juno. The Germans meanwhile took comfort from the existing poor conditions, which were worse over Northern France than over the English Channel itself, believed no invasion would be possible for several days.
Some troops stood down and many senior officers were away for the weekend. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel took a few days' leave to celebrate his wife's birthday, while dozens of division and battalion commanders were away from their posts conducting war games just prior to the invasion; the Allies assigned codenames to the various operations involved in the invasion. Overlord was the name assigned to the establishment of a large-scale lodgement on the northern portion of the Continent; the first phase, the establishment of a secure foothold, was codenamed Neptune. According to the D-Day Museum: The armed forces use codenames to refer to the planning and execution of specific military operations. Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of northwest Europe; the assault phase of Operation Overlord was known as Operation Neptune. Operation Neptune began on D-Day and ended on 30 June 1944. By
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
The Reckless Moment
The Reckless Moment is a 1949 American film noir melodrama directed by Max Ophüls, produced by Walter Wanger, released by Columbia Pictures with Burnett Guffey as cinematographer. It starred Joan Bennett and James Mason, The film is based on The Blank Wall, a novel written by Elisabeth Sanxay Holding; the Deep End is based on the same source material. While her husband is away on business, Lucia confronts Darby, a low-life Los Angeles criminal, demands he stop seeing her 17 year-old daughter, Bea, he with the caveat that Lucia pay him. She responds by telling him he has simplified the situation, that when she tells Bea "how you feel about her" the girl will be glad to break off with him; when Lucia returns home she is confronted by Bea - Darby had telephoned to tell her of her mother's visit. She refuses to believe. Lucia forbids her daughter to see Darby again but, that evening, Bea sneaks out to the family's boathouse to meet him, she assures him she does not accept her mother's version of things, but he indicates he could do with some money and that it does not mean the two could not continue to be together.
Bea is repulsed by this and, during an ensuing struggle, she hits him and he goes down to his knees. Unknown to her, he shakily accidentally falls and subsequently dies. Having discovered Bea missing, Lucia has been searching for her; when she comes upon the distraught girl, who has just come indoors after her ordeal and reveals it to her mother, Lucia goes to the boathouse. The next morning, she finds him lying dead by a jetty, she disposes of the body in a swamp. Another L. A. criminal and smooth-talking Donnelly, the partner of Nagel, a brutal loan shark, shows up in possession of letters Bea had written Darby. Nagel has been holding the writings as collateral. Lucia must now come up with $5,000 to keep Bea's relationship becoming known; as Lucia struggles to secure these funds, Donnelly is falling in love with her. He tries to allow her more time, he tells her he has declined his'cut' and that if she can get half the money, he may be able to mollify Nagel. If he could, he says, he would pay the blackmailer off himself.
After pawning much of her jewelry, Lucia has only $800. When she meets Donnelly to hand this over, he announces that she is in the clear, a man has been arrested in relation to Darby's murder. Lucia is stricken with guilt because she knows Darby was not murdered, he will not accept her story and says that while the man in custody may be innocent of this he is "guilty of a hundred other things" and it does not matter, she needs to think of her family. Donnelly learns that the suspect has been released; when Lucia gets home, her housekeeper says. He lets. Donnelly attacks his partner. Afterwards, Donnelly talks about his warm feelings for Lucia, he asks her for a drink and, while she is gone, Donnelly drives away with Nagel in the car. Lucia follows in her vehicle. While driving, Donnelly reaches into Nagel's pocket to retrieve Bea's letters; when Lucia finds him, he tells her to not assist him, it will be better if the authorities find him this way. He gives her the letters. At home, as Lucia is trying to compose herself, her two children return from an evening out.
Her son talks about "seeing a terrible accident". Bea tells Lucia how the police mentioned that, just before dying, the man pinned beneath the vehicle admitted to killing Darby. James Mason as Martin Donnelly Joan Bennett as Lucia Harper Geraldine Brooks as Bea Harper Henry O'Neill as Tom Harper Shepperd Strudwick as Ted Darby David Bair as David Harper Roy Roberts as Nagel Frances E. Williams as Sybil William Schallert as a police lieutenant Kathryn Card as a loan processor This was Mason's third U. S. film, after having appeared in director Ophüls in Caught in Vincente Minnelli's Madame Bovary. The Reckless Moment was filmed in Newport Beach and Los Angeles, California, it was first released in Detroit, Michigan, on October 29, 1949. While the movie was the last one that Max Ophüls filmed in the United States, it was the last movie adaptation of any of Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s books while she was alive. Other films based on her stories include Vocalizing, The Bride Comes Home, The Price of Pleasure.
A characteristic of Ophüls' films is his use of the Baroque film style. Throughout the movie, major plot points occur while the characters are doing day to day things; the characters are put under duress while talking on the telephone or driving a car. This creates a contrast between the tension of the dialogue and the ease of the character’s movements; the film made a loss of $565,775. When the film was first released in 1949, the film critic for The New York Times, Bosley Crowther, praised the actors but wrote, "But it isn't all right with this picture. Although it is rather well staged, with credible location settings in Balboa and Los Angeles, it is a feeble and listless drama with a