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Kenneth Noland

Kenneth Noland was an American painter. He was one of the best-known American Color Field painters, although in the 1950s he was thought of as an abstract expressionist and in the early 1960s he was thought of as a minimalist painter. Noland helped establish the Washington Color School movement. In 1977, he was honored by a major retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York that traveled to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. and Ohio's Toledo Museum of Art in 1978. In 2006, Noland's Stripe Paintings were exhibited at the Tate in London. A son of Harry Caswell Noland, a pathologist, his wife, Kenneth Clifton Noland was born in Asheville, North Carolina, he had four siblings: David, Bill and Harry Jr. Noland enlisted in the U. S. Air Force in 1942 after completing high school. A veteran of World War II, Noland took advantage of the G. I. Bill to study art at the experimental Black Mountain College in his home state of North Carolina. At Black Mountain, where two of his brothers studied art, Noland studied with Ilya Bolotowsky, a professor who introduced him to neoplasticism and the work of Piet Mondrian.

There, Noland studied Bauhaus theory and color under Josef Albers and became interested in Paul Klee Klee's sensitivity to color. In 1948 and 1949 Noland worked with Ossip Zadkine in Paris, had his first exhibition of his paintings there. After returning to the U. S. he taught in Washington, D. C. at Catholic University and the Institute of Contemporary Arts. In the early 1950s he met Morris Louis in D. C. while teaching night classes at the Washington Workshop Center for the Arts. He became friends with Louis, after being introduced by Clement Greenberg to Helen Frankenthaler and seeing her new paintings at her studio in New York City in 1953, he and Louis adopted her "soak-stain" technique of allowing thinned paint to soak into unprimed canvases. Most of Noland's paintings fall into one of four groups: circles, chevrons and shaped canvases, his preoccupation with the relationship of the image to the containing edge of the picture led him to a series of studies of concentric rings or bullseyes referred to as targets, like the one reproduced here called Beginning from 1958, used unlikely color combinations.

This led Noland away from Morris Louis in 1958. In 1964, he was included in the exhibition Post-Painterly Abstraction curated by Clement Greenberg, which traveled the country and helped to establish Color Field painting as an important new movement in the contemporary art of the 1960s. Noland pioneered the shaped canvas with a series of symmetrical and asymmetrical diamonds or chevrons. In these paintings, the edges of the canvas become as structurally important as the center. During the 1970s and 1980s his shaped canvases were irregular and asymmetrical; these resulted in complex structures of sophisticated and controlled color and surface integrity. Instead of painting the canvas with a brush, Noland's style was to stain the canvas with color; this idea sought to remove the artist through brushstrokes. This made the piece about the art, not the artist, he emphasized spatial relationships in his work by leaving unstained, bare canvas as a contrast against the colors used throughout his paintings.

Noland used simplified abstraction. Noland taught. Noland was married to: Cornelia Langer, a daughter of a Republican U. S. senator from William Langer. The couple married in 1950 and divorced, they had a son, William. Stephanie Gordon, a psychologist, lived with Noland from November 1964 until June 1970, they married in April 1967 and divorced in June 1970. Peggy L. Schiffer, an art historian and daughter of Dr. Morton A. Schiffer. Married circa 1970, the Nolands had Samuel Jesse. Paige Rense, editor in chief of Architectural Digest, whom he married in Bennington, Vermont on April 10, 1994. Noland was her fifth husband. Noland had an affair in the 1960s with socialite Mary Pinchot Meyer. Noland died of kidney cancer at his home in Port Clyde, Maine, on January 5, 2010 at the age of 85. Noland had his first solo exhibition at Galerie Raymond Creuze in Paris in 1948. In 1957, he had his first New York solo exhibition at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery. In 1964, Noland occupied half the American pavilion at the Venice Biennale.

In 1965, his work was exhibited at the Washington Gallery of the Jewish Museum. Noland's final solo exhibition, Kenneth Noland Shaped Paintings 1981-82, opened on October 29, 2009 at the Leslie Feely Fine Art Gallery on E.68th St. in New York City and was scheduled to close on January 9, 2010, though the closing date was extended to January 16. In 2010, Noland was honored with a solo presentation of his work at the Guggenheim Museum, entitled Kenneth Noland, 1924–2010: A Tribute. In addition, his work has been the subject of solo exhibitions at a range of international institutions, including the Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, New York Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois Australian National Gallery, Canberra Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland Butler Institute of American Art, Ohio St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio Columbus Gallery of Fine


A hotfix or quick-fix engineering update is a single, cumulative package that includes information, used to address a problem in a software product. Hotfixes are made to address a specific customer situation; the term "hotfix" referred to software patches that were applied to "hot" systems. For the developer, a hotfix implies that the change may have been made and outside normal development and testing processes; this could increase the cost of the fix by requiring rapid development, overtime or other urgent measures. For the user, the hotfix could be considered riskier or less to resolve the problem; this could cause an immediate loss of services, so depending on the severity of the bug, it may be desirable to delay a hotfix. The risk of applying the hotfix must be weighed against the risk of not applying it, because the problem to be fixed might be so critical that it could be considered more important than a potential loss of service. Similar use of the terms can be seen in hot-swappable disk drives.

The more recent usage of the term is due to software vendors making a distinction between a hotfix and a patch. A hotfix package might contain several "encompassed" bug fixes, raising the risk of possible regression. An encompassed bug fix is a software bug fix, not the main objective of a software patch, but rather the side effect of it; because of this, some libraries for automatic updates like StableUpdate offer features to uninstall the applied fixes if necessary. Most modern operating systems and many stand-alone programs offer the capability to download and apply fixes automatically. Instead of creating this feature from scratch, the developer may choose to use a proprietary or open-source package that provides the needed libraries and tools. There are a number of third-party software programs to aid in the installation of hotfixes to multiple machines at the same time; these software products help the administrator by creating a list of hotfixes installed on multiple machines. Microsoft Corporation once used the terms "hotfix" or "QFE" but has stopped in favor of new terminology: updates are either delivered in the General Distribution Release channel or the Limited Distribution Release channel.

The latter is synonymous with QFE. GDR updates receive extensive testing whereas LDR updates are meant to fix a certain problem in a small area and are not released to the general public. GDR updates may be received from the Windows Update service or the Microsoft Download Center but LDR updates must be received via Microsoft Support; the game company Blizzard Entertainment has a different use of the term hotfix for their games, including World of Warcraft and Diablo III: A hotfix is a change made to the game deemed critical enough that it cannot be held off until a regular content patch. Hotfixes require only a server-side change with no download and can be implemented with no downtime, or a short restart of the realms. Patch Service pack

Munna Kasi

Munna Kasi known as Venkata Surya Narayana Murthy Kasi, is an Indian film music composer, who works predominantly in Telugu cinema and in Kannada and Hindi cinema. Munna Kasi’s first composition was for Abheera, a cartoon animation serial, telecast in Maa TV in the year 2011, he wrote the title song, composed tunes and music for Abheera, which ran for a year in Maa TV and Maa Juniors. His formal debut in filmdom was Junior SVR starrer Mr.7 in 2012. Munna Kasi was born in Visakhapatnam, he completed his school education and graduation in Narsipatnam and pursued his MBA from Dr N. S. Kolla School of Business, Visakhapatnam, he is an accomplished MBA gold medalist Munna Kasi shared a strong passion for music right from childhood. He considers himself a diehard fan of music maestro Ilayaraja and was inspired by his compositions, right from a young age. After completion of MBA in 2007, he left to Dubai where he worked as a radio jockey and music composer for international jingles in Dubai radio station.

Realizing that his passion was to make music, he pursued his passion. An accomplished keyboard player, he offered live music for plays in Vizag. After working for Abheera for Maa TV in 2011, he has created fusion albums along with playback singer Sai Shivani in the same year. After composing tunes for Mr. 7, his debut project, producer Anil Sunkara gave him an opportunity in his film Action 3D. He has penned a song ‘Neelone e Kalaham’ along with late Uday Kiran for his last film Chitram Cheppina Katha. Munna Kasi rendered his voice for a song'Udayinche Kiranamla' in this film, as a tribute for Uday Kiran; when Ram Gopal Varma’s landmark film Shiva released in 1989, Munna Kasi says he was only a kid, but he became a big fan of RGV and music director Ilayaraja, when he watched the film after completing his schooling. Munna Kasi’s dream came true when Ram Gopal Varma selected him for Spot and he has teamed up with Ramu for films like Sridevi and Attack. Munna Kasi made his directorial debut with a Musical Horror Movie Heza and the trailer is released on 4 July 2019.

Mumait Khan is making her comeback after a longtime with her scary look. With the uncompromised support of the Producer KVSN Murthy, Co-producer VN Voleti,. Https:// YT1K4e6ZPic

Programming language

A programming language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions, rather than general programming languages. Early ones preceded the invention of the digital computer, the first being the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, during the Islamic Golden Age. Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos; the programs for these machines did not produce different behavior in response to different inputs or conditions. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, more are being created every year. Many programming languages are written in an imperative form while other languages use the declarative form.

The description of a programming language is split into the two components of syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by a specification document while other languages have a dominant implementation, treated as a reference; some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common. A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm; some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms. Traits considered important for what constitutes a programming language include: Function and target A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs, which involves a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and control external devices such as printers, disk drives, so on. For example, PostScript programs are created by another program to control a computer printer or display.

More a programming language may describe computation on some abstract, machine. It is accepted that a complete specification for a programming language includes a description idealized, of a machine or processor for that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer. Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages allow humans to communicate instructions to machines. Abstractions Programming languages contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution; the practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle. This principle is sometimes formulated as a recommendation to the programmer to make proper use of such abstractions. Expressive power The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they are capable of expressing.

All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms. ANSI/ISO SQL-92 and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing complete, yet called programming languages. Markup languages like XML, HTML, or troff, which define structured data, are not considered programming languages. Programming languages may, share the syntax with markup languages if a computational semantics is defined. XSLT, for example, is a Turing complete language using XML syntax. Moreover, LaTeX, used for structuring documents contains a Turing complete subset; the term computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with programming language. However, the usage of both terms varies among authors, including the exact scope of each. One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages. Languages used in computing that have a different goal than expressing computer programs are generically designated computer languages. For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as computer languages to emphasize that they are not meant to be used for programming.

Another usage regards programming languages as theoretical constructs for programming abstract machines, computer languages as the subset thereof that runs on physical computers, which have finite hardware resources. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formal specification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution, he argues that textual and graphical input formats that affect the behavior of a computer are programming languages, despite the fact they are not Turing-complete, remarks that ignorance of programming language concepts is the reason for many flaws in input formats. Early computers, such as Colossus, were programmed without the help of a stored program, by modifying their circuitry or setting banks of physical controls. Programs could be written in machine language, where the programmer writes each instruction in a numeric form the hardware can execute directly. For example, the instruction to add the value in two memory location might consist of 3 numbers: an "opcode" that selects the "add" operation, two memory locations.

The programs, in decimal or binary form, were read in from punched cards, paper tape, magnetic tape or toggled in on switches on the front panel of the computer. Mac

Kar seva

Kar seva is one of the main teachings of Sikhism which means selfless service of others. A tradition set forth with the clear understanding that there is God within all of us, thus by serving humanity you are serving God's creation. Kar Seva is performed further by offering service for a religious cause for constructing a place of worship serving the One Creator. A volunteer for kar seva is called a kar sevak. Kar seva is a Sikh tradition. However, in recent times, the Hindu organisation Vishva Hindu Parishad has used it in its Ayodhya campaign. Kar Seva is derived from Sanskrit words kar, meaning hands or work, seva, meaning service. In Punjabi, the word seva means "to worship, to adore, to pay homage through the act of love." In the writings of Sikh gurus, these two meanings of seva have been merged. Seva is expected to be a labour of love performed without desire and intention, with humility. Kar seva is translated as "voluntary labour." According to tradition, Guru Hargobind had the Akal Takht at the Golden Temple built through kar seva.

When the Mughal emperor Jahangir visited the site, he offered help for the construction. The Guru is said to have politely refused the offer stating that the Akal Takht should be constructed by the followers of the faith through their own hands. Since it involves voluntary work by the community, kar seva is considered the most respected method for constructing Sikh gurdwaras. On 4 June 1984, the Golden Temple faced a military action by the Indian government for clearing it of the militant separatists lodged there; the temple was damaged in particular the Akal Takht. The Government decided to repair the damaged Akal Takht under the leadership of the Home Minister Buta Singh; the reconstruction was labelled kar seva and ostensibly organised by the nihang leader Jathedar Baba Santa Singhji Budahdal, but carried out by the Public Works Department and its contractors. The High Priests of the Golden Temple excommunicated Santa Singh; the reconstruction was dubbed sarkar seva. When the rebuilt temple was handed over to the High Priests, they decided to pull it down and rebuild it.

Subsequently, it was rebuilt through traditional kar seva. In May 2008, the Outlook magazine reported that hundreds of historic gurdwaras were being demolished and replaced by new "garish, marble gurudwaras." It was said that the large amounts of money collected for the rebuilding of the Akal Takht made the babas aware of the money available from donations and led to these reconstructions. A main organiser of kar seva for Sikh gurudwaras is the "Kar Seva" organisation of Harbans Singh and others based in the Bangla Sahib gurdwara in Delhi, it has several offices in Punjab and Haryana, organises the construction and refurbishment of a large number of gurdwaras in India. The organisation is said to extensive financial donations from abroad; the Guru Nanak Nishkam Sevak Jatha based in Birmingham, UK, organises kar seva in the UK as well as India. It was established by Baba Puran Singh in 1976, who moved from Kericho, Kenya to the UK a few years earlier; the group constructed the Guru Nanak Gurdwara in Birmingham and several others in the UK as well as India.

Its projects include the refurbishment of the gold exterior of the Darbar Sahib in Amritsar. In February 1989, the Vishva Hindu Parishad resolved to build a Rama temple at the disputed Babri Masjid site in Ayodhya, the birth spot of Rama; the VHP used the erstwhile Sikh system of kar seva to mobilise activists. The first instance of kar seva was called for 10 November 1989, along with a foundation-laying ceremony; the kar seva was halted after one day. The second round of kar seva was called for 30 October 1990. A massive mobilisation was carried out throughout the country, along with support from the Bharatiya Janata Party. However, the efforts were thwarted by the heavy security arrangements of the Government of Uttar Pradesh. A third round of kar seva was called for 6 December 1992; this time, with a sympathetic Government run by the Bharatiya Janata Party, the kar sevaks stormed the mosque and demolished it. Sewa Day

Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Super Market of Massachusetts, Inc.

Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Super Market of Massachusetts, Inc. 366 U. S. 617, is a United States Supreme Court case that declared that a kosher butcher store had to abide by the state laws that banned them from selling on Sunday. The owners of the Crown Kosher Super Market of Massachusetts were Orthodox Jews whose religion forbids them to shop or sell from sundown on Friday until sundown on Saturday and requires them to eat only kosher food, were keeping their store open on Sunday at times when it was against the Massachusetts state law; the lawsuit was in a Federal District Court to make certain sections of the Massachusetts Sunday Closing Laws unconstitutional. "the selling or delivering of kosher meat by any person who, according to his religious belief, observes Saturday as the Lord's day by closing his place of business during the day until six o'clock in the afternoon, or the keeping open of his shop on the Lord's day for the sale of kosher meat between the hours of six o'clock and ten o'clock in the forenoon."

The store had been open for business all day on Sundays and had done about a third of its weekly business then. It was closed from sundown on Fridays until sundown on Saturdays; the store had claimed that it was economically impractical for it to keep open on Saturday nights and until 10 a.m. on Sundays. Many who bought at the store would not have been able to get meat from Friday afternoon until Monday. ACLU Side: Herbert B. Ehrmann, with Samuel L. Fein on the brief. Opposing Side: Joseph H. Elcock, Jr. Asst. Attorney General of Massachusetts. With him on the brief were Edward J. McCormack, Jr. John Warren McGarry, Arthur E. Sutherland, Jr. and S. Thomas Martinelli; the court 6-3 approved the state law, due to the laws not being religious. "An examination of recent Massachusetts legislative history bolsters the State's position that these statutes are not religious. "In general, Sunday laws protect the public by guaranteeing one day in seven to provide a period of rest and quiet. Health and good order of society are thereby promoted.

Such provision is civil in character, the statutes are not regarded as religious ordinances." On the issue of free exercise of religion they stated: "Secondly, appellees Orthodox Jewish customers allege that, because their religious beliefs forbid their shopping on the Jewish Sabbath, the statutes' effect is to deprive them, from Friday afternoon until Monday of each week, of the opportunity to purchase the kosher food sanctioned by their faith. The orthodox rabbis allege that the statutes' effect complicates their task of supervising the condition of kosher meat, because the meat delivered on Friday would have to be kept until Monday. Furthermore, appellees contend that, because of all this, the statutes discriminate against their religion; these allegations are similar, although not as grave, as those made by appellants in Braunfeld v. Brown, ante, p. 366 U. S. 599. Since the decision in that case rejects the contentions presented by these appellees on the merits, we need not decide whether appellees have standing to raise these questions."

Justices William O. Douglas, William J. Brennan, Jr. and Potter Stewart dissented from the opinion. This was one of the four cases decided in 1961; the other three were Braunfeld v. Brown, Two Guys from Harrison-Allentown, Inc. v. McGinley and McGowan v. Maryland McGowan v. Maryland: another blue law court case List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 366 Text of Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Super Market of Massachusetts, Inc. 366 U. S. 617 is available from: CourtListener Google Scholar Justia Oyez See Gallager v. Crown Kosher Super Market Case summary at