1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Marvelwood School is a college preparatory private boarding school located in Kent, United States. Marvelwood was founded in 1956 by Robert A. Ian Hanna in Cornwall, Connecticut. Bodkin remained headmaster until 1981, he was succeeded by Peter B. Tacy until 1989, H. Mark Johnson until 1997, Anne Davidson Scott until 2005, Scott E. Pottbecker until 2011, Arthur F. Goodearl until 2018. Blythe Everett is the current Interim Head of School. Ian Hanna named the school after his relative Donald Grant Mitchell, an American novelist, best known under the pseudonym Ik Marvel; the family owned an estate in New Haven, Connecticut called Marvelwood. Marvelwood was founded in 1956 in Cornwall, Connecticut, on a campus occupied by Rumsey Hall School. In 1995, Marvelwood moved from its cramped campus in Cornwall to the former Kent School girls' campus about 10 miles away on Skiff Mountain in Kent, CT; the Marvelwood student body consists of boarding students, with only about 13% of students commuting from home.
Of those boarding students, about 30% are international, coming from countries such as China, South Korea, France, Russia and Vietnam. The school offers many ESL classes to accommodate foreign speakers. Marvelwood works locally with Institute for Bird Populations. Cornell University's Feeder Watch survey uses Marvelwood's weather data. In an effort to go green and help increase the use of alternative energy throughout Connecticut, Marvelwood was selected as a test site for two wind turbines that will be installed on campus; these will help determine which source of renewable energy is most efficient for the state of Connecticut to use, as well as provide energy for the school. Former Headmaster Scott E. Pottbecker said, "the turbines are more of an educational opportunity than a source of power for the school." Music on the Mountain Currently in its third year, Music on the Mountain was created as a way to showcase talented performers. Held about once per month, Music on the Mountain is an open mic event hosting a range of student and local performers.
The types of performers vary immensely, from musicians to comedians and dancers. Jake Burton - founder of Burton Snowboards Robb Demarest - lead investigator of the Sci-Fi channel program "Ghost Hunters International" John P. Hammond - blues singer and guitarist Arthur Levering - modern composer of classical music Marvelwood School Official Website Town of Kent Official Website
Macedonia Brook State Park
Macedonia Brook State Park is a public recreation area covering 2,302 acres in the town of Kent, United States. Visitors can camp in a 51-site campground, picnic and hike the blue-blazed Macedonia Ridge Trail, which crosses Cobble Mountain and other peaks; the park's first 1,552 acres were a gift made in 1918 by the White Memorial Foundation. Macedonia Brook State Park Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Macedonia Brook State Park Map Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Historic American Landscapes Survey No. CT-2, "Macedonia Brook State Park", 8 data pages
New England town
The New England town referred to as a town in New England, is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U. S. states. New England towns overlay the entire area of a state, similar to civil townships in other states where they exist, but they are functioning municipal corporations, possessing powers similar to cities in other states. New Jersey's system of powerful townships, boroughs and cities is the system, most similar to that of New England. New England towns are governed by a town meeting legislative body; the great majority of municipal corporations in New England are based on the town model. S. County government in New England states is weak at best, in some states nonexistent. Connecticut, for example, does Rhode Island. Both of those states retain counties only as geographic subdivisions with no governmental authority, while Massachusetts has abolished eight of fourteen county governments so far.
With few exceptions, counties serve as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Towns are laid out so that nearly all land within the boundaries of a state is allocated to a town or other corporate municipality. All land is incorporated into the bounds of a municipal corporation's territory, except in some sparsely populated areas of the three northern New England states. Towns are municipal corporations, with their powers defined by a combination of municipal corporate charter, state statutes, the state constitution. In most of New England, the laws regarding their authority have been broadly construed. In practice, most New England towns have significant autonomy in managing their own affairs, with nearly all of the powers that cities have in most other U. S. states. New Hampshire and Vermont follow Dillon's Rule, which holds that local governments are creatures of the state. Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority.
Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings. A town always contains a built-up populated place with the same name as the town. Additional built-up places with different names are found within towns, along with a mixture of additional urban and rural territory. There is no territory, not part of a town between each town. In most parts of New England, towns are not laid out on a grid. Vermont is the leading exception to this, much of the interior of Maine was laid out as surveyed townships; the town center contains a town common used today as a small park. All residents live within the boundaries of a municipal corporation. Residents receive most local services at the municipal level, county government tends to provide few or no services. Differences among states do exist in the level of services provided at the municipal and county level, but most functions handled by county-level government in the rest of the United States are handled by town-level government in New England.
In Connecticut, Rhode Island, most of Massachusetts, county government has been abolished, counties serve as dividing lines for the judicial system. In other areas, some counties provide other limited administrative services. In many cases, the house numbers on rural roads in New England reset to zero upon crossing a town line. Residents identify with their town for purposes of civic identity, thinking of the town in its entirety as a single, coherent community. There are some cases where residents identify more with villages or sections of a town than with the town itself in Rhode Island, but this is the exception, not the rule. More than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are identified as towns. Other forms of municipalities that exist are based on the town concept, as well—most notably cities. Most New England cities have adopted a city form of government, with a council and a mayor or manager. Municipal entities based on the concept of a compact populated place are uncommon, such as a Vermont village or Connecticut borough.
In areas of New England where such forms do exist, they remain part of the parent town and do not have all of the corporate powers and authority of an independent municipality. Towns date back to the time of the earliest English colonial settlement, which predominated in New England, they pre-date the development of counties in the region. Areas were organized as towns as they were settled, throughout the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. Town boundaries were not laid out on any kind of regular grid, but were drawn to reflect local settlement and transportation patterns affected by natural features. In early colonial times, recognition of towns was informal connected to local church divisions. By 1700, colonial governments had become more involved in the official establishment of new towns. Towns were governed by a town meeting form of government, as many still are today. Towns were the only form of incorporated municipality in New England; the city form of government was not introduced until much later.
Boston, for instance, was a town for the first two centuries of its existence. The entire land areas of Connecticut an
The Housatonic River is a river 149 miles long, in western Massachusetts and western Connecticut in the United States. It flows south to southeast, drains about 1,950 square miles of southwestern Connecticut into Long Island Sound, its watershed is just to the west of the watershed of the lower Connecticut River. Birds and fish who live in and around the river contain significant levels of PCBs and present health risks. Indigenous people began hunting at least 6,000 years ago. By 1600, the inhabitants were Mohicans and may have numbered 30,000; the river's name is derived from the Mohican phrase "usi-a-di-en-uk", translated as "beyond the mountain place" or "river of the mountain place". It is referred to in the deed by which a group of twelve colonists called "The Proprietors" captured the land now called Sherman and New Fairfield as "Ousetonack". Samuel Orcutt, a 19th-century historian, explained the term's pronunciation as "more properly... Howsatunnuck" and noted an early spelling in the form of "Oweantinock".
Prior to the 18th century, the river was alternatively known as the Pootatuck River. Accounts differ on the origin of this name, with some claiming that Pootatuck is an Algonquian term translating to "river of the falls" while others relate the term was eponymous, reflecting the name of the tribe that had their principal village along the river in the area of Newtown, Connecticut. "Pootatuck River" came to refer a lesser tributary in the Housatonic watershed which empties into the Housatonic River at Sandy Hook, Connecticut. The river passes through land, occupied by native people of Algonquian lineage living in villages of two to three hundred families housed in hide wigwams; these native inhabitants burned the forests along the Housatonic Valley in the autumn to keep the underbrush down, a practice, customary throughout Connecticut prior to European settlement. One notable native was Chief Squantz of the Schaghticoke tribe, who still hold a portion of the former reservation on the west side of the Housatonic River, in what is now called the town of Kent.
English settlement of the northern Housatonic Valley began in 1725 in Massachusetts. By 1734, Mohicans established the Indian Town of Stockbridge, which grew over 15 years but failed, with land pressures increasing; the river has been a source of power for paper, iron and electricity industries. At Great Barrington, a grist mill built by David Ingersoll in 1739 used the river for power; the paper industry grew using the river's power from circa 1800. The river was dammed with the advent of industry. In 1900, there were 30 dams on the river in Pittsfield. Many have been removed, but many remain, such as the Woods Pond dam in Lenox, Columbia Mill dam in Lee, Willow Mill dam in South Lee, Glendale dam in Stockbridge, Rising Pond dam in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Inspired by the river during his honeymoon, the American classical music composer Charles Ives wrote "The Housatonic at Stockbridge" as part of his composition Three Places in New England during the 1910s, drawing his text from a poem of the same name by Robert Underwood Johnson.
The town of Stockbridge is located in southwestern Massachusetts. The river enters Stockbridge on the east side of town before turning south toward Connecticut. There is an American nuclear weapon test of the same name, although it is not known if the name originated from the river or some other source; the United States Navy named a ship for the Housatonic River. The USS Housatonic has the distinction of being the first ship in history to be sunk by a submarine, the confederate vessel CSS H. L. Hunley. Three wooden covered bridges cross the Housatonic River. Two are in Connecticut: one known as Bull's Bridge, which spans the river between Gaylordsville and Kent, another at Cornwall, known as the West Cornwall Covered Bridge. Reinforced with present-day materials, both bridges carry normal vehicle traffic, albeit in only one direction at a time; the third bridge, Old Covered Bridge located in Sheffield, was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1998. The Housatonic River, its Naugatuck River tributary, hosted the southernmost Atlantic salmon spawning runs.
The Salmon Creek tributary of the Housatonic River may have been named for this salmonid, which can reach up to 30 pounds. From circa 1932 until 1977, the river received PCB pollution discharges from the General Electric plant at Pittsfield, Massachusetts; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency designated the Pittsfield plant and several miles of the Housatonic as a Superfund site in 1997, ordered GE to remediate the site. EPA and GE began a cleanup of the area in 1999. Most of the PCBs used in the United States during this period were made by Monsanto. Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260, made by Monsanto, was a primary contaminant of the pollution in the Housatonic River. Although the water quality has improved in recent decades, remediation has taken place, the river continues to be contaminated by PCBs. Additional remediation is planned, as of 2018; the highest concentrations of PCBs in the Housatonic River are found in Woods Pond in Lenox, just south of Pittsfield, where they have been measured up to 110 mg/kg in the sediment.
About 50% of all the PCBs in the river are estimated to be retained in the sediment behind Woods Pond dam. This is estimated to be about 11,000 pounds of PCBs. Former filled oxbows are polluted. Birds, such as ducks, fish that live in and around the river contain significant levels of PCBs and can present health risks if consumed; the Connecticut segment of the river is polluted with
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
3 ft gauge railways
Three foot gauge railways have a track gauge of 3 ft or 1 yard. This gauge is a narrow gauge and is found throughout North and South America. In Ireland, many secondary and industrial lines were built to 3 ft gauge, it is the dominant gauge on the Isle of Man, where it is known as the Manx Standard Gauge. Modern 3 ft gauge railways are most found in isolated mountainous areas, on small islands, or in large-scale amusement parks and theme parks; this gauge is popular in model railroading, model prototypes of these railways have been made by several model train brands around the world, such as Accucraft Trains, Aristo-Craft Trains, Bachmann Industries, Delton Locomotive Works, LGB, PIKO. Heritage railway List of track gauges Swedish three foot gauge railways