Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Churchill Downs, located on Central Avenue in south Louisville, United States, is a Thoroughbred racetrack most famous for annually hosting the Kentucky Derby. It opened in 1875, held the first Kentucky Derby and the first Kentucky Oaks in the same year. Churchill Downs has hosted the renowned Breeders' Cup on nine occasions, most on November 2 and 3, 2018. Churchill Downs Incorporated operates the racetrack. With the infield open for the Kentucky Derby, the capacity of Churchill Downs is 170,000. In 2009, the Horseplayers Association of North America introduced a rating system for 65 Thoroughbred racetracks in North America. Churchill Downs was ranked number 5 on this list. In 2014, prior to the start of their spring meet, Churchill Downs announced an increase in parimutuel takeout rates; as a result of the takeout increase, Churchill Downs was ranked number 22 in the 2014 Horseplayers Association of North America Track Ratings. The track is named for John and Henry Churchill, who leased 80 acres of land to their nephew, Colonel Meriwether Lewis Clark Jr..
Clark was president of the Louisville Jockey Club and Driving Park Association, which formed in 1875. His father-in-law, Richard Ten Broeck, was an accomplished horse breeder and trainer, introduced Clark to horse racing, attending the English Derby at Epsom Downs outside London. Churchill Downs filled a void in Louisville left by the closing of Oakland and Woodlawn, two earlier race courses; the then-rural location was along Louisville and Nashville Railroad tracks, allowing for easy transport of horses. Clark, who preferred longer races to the short ones that had become popular by the 1890s, was running short of funds, in 1894 sold the track to a syndicate led by William E. Applegate; the new ownership would soon institute many changes, such as commissioning the famous twin spire grandstand in 1895, shortening the length of the signature race to its modern 1 1⁄4 miles in 1896, adorning the winner of the Derby with a garland of roses, a tradition that began in 1896. In early 1902, who had made his fortune as a bookmaker, turned over the day-to-day operation of the track to Charles F. Grainger the mayor of Louisville, in an effort to move Churchill Downs away from being known for gambling.
Among the new people Applegate brought on board to help him run the rack was Col. Matt Winn of Louisville. Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America. During that early period, a new clubhouse was built in order to promote social interaction, new events such as steeplechases, automobile races, band concerts were held at the track; the State Fair was held on the grounds, featuring the odd spectacle of two locomotives being intentionally crashed head-on in the infield. On June 5, 1907, African American jockey James Lee set a record that has never been beaten when he won the entire six-race card at Churchill Downs. In 1908, parimutuel betting machines were introduced as gambling began to be less controversial again, the wagering portion of the track's business became more profitable. Churchill Downs was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986. On Friday, June 19, 2009, Churchill Downs hosted its first-ever night race with an attendance of over 27,000.
Churchill Downs ventured into the music business, organizing the inaugural HullabaLOU Music Festival, held on the weekend of July 23–25, 2010. The track had planned to make this an annual event to compete with other summer music festivals. HullabaLOU attracted 78,000 people but that fell short of the more than 100,000 expected by the company; the company attributed this to the brutal heat, but others cited high ticket prices in a poor economy. The entertainment division was discontinued. On Wednesday, June 22, 2011, an EF2 tornado hit the Louisville area, striking the stables and chapel at Churchill Downs, though only at EF1 intensity at the time. Several stables were badly damaged. Over 200 horses had to be evacuated from the damaged stables and be relocated to other stables that were not damaged by the tornado; the tornado did not cause any damage to the clubhouse. Thurby is a portmanteau for Thursday plus Derby, this name for the Thursday racing in Derby week has been recognized by Churchill Downs since 2014.
The twin spires atop the grandstands are the most recognizable architectural feature of Churchill Downs and are used as a symbol of the track and the Derby. They were designed by architect Joseph Dominic Baldez and built in 1895. Today, Churchill Downs covers 147 acres; the usual number of people seated at the derby is 50,000 people, though crowds can reach over 150,000 on Derby day. The dirt oval main track, on which the Derby is run, is one mile in circumference and is 79–80 feet wide, with a 120-foot-wide section for the starting gate. A turf track, inside the main track, is 7⁄8 mile in 80-foot wide. From 2001 to 2005, Churchill Downs underwent $121 million renovation; the clubhouse was replaced, 79 luxury suites were added, the historic twin spires were refurbished. One of the additions in the clubhouse was a 36-foot mural by Pierre Bellocq depicting all 96 jockeys to win the Kentucky Derby from 1875 to 2004. In summer 2008 the same artist added another mural depicting all of the trainers and updating the Jockey's painting, adding Calvin Borel and Edgar Prado to it.
These updates are done yearly to accommodate new winning jockeys. The new design has been somewhat controversial since the new suites block fu
Shawnee Park is a municipal park in Louisville, Kentucky. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. Along with the rest of the city's Olmsted-designed park system, Shawnee Park was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Shawnee Park was proposed in 1890 to be one of the three flagship parks in Louisville's new park system. All three were located on the geographic edges of the city, in Shawnee's case it was the western edge bordering the Ohio River; the land at the time was still used for truck farms, but it was clear residential development was imminent without the park. Shawnee was the slowest of the parks to develop, as much of the land was owned by investors who figured they could increase the sale price by holding out; the city had to condemn the properties to acquire the land for park, won its case in 1895. In 1896, the city began to create access to the park, another area in which Shawnee was lagging behind the other two parks. River Park Drive was paved in 1899, but the Broadway entrance remained unfinished until 1914.
The Olmsted firm advised the city not to build a golf course at Shawnee Park due to the "grave danger to visitors in the park and the children" but demand was such that the course was built anyway in 1927. All three parks had the intended effect of spurring residential development near them; the interest was so great that developers found themselves advertising the parks rather than their own developments, as the highest prices would exist for the park perceived to be best. Dozens of subdivisions were built near Shawnee Park, the neighborhood itself came to be called Shawnee. Shawnee Park was restricted to whites from 1924 to 1954, although park officials and police had a de facto policy of denying blacks access to the park for some years prior to that; the only sizable park blacks were allowed access to was nearby Chickasaw Park, which many people entered by traveling through Shawnee. Although now overshadowed by the Louisville Waterfront Park, Shawnee boasts an expansive Great Lawn, useful for formal gatherings.
The Great Lawn, the principal feature of the park, is enclosed by plantings and a circular drive, lined with trees. Louisville's Riverwalk Trail, which passes through Shawnee Park, extends across Louisville's waterfront, an extensive flat pedestrian pathway; the one-way distance between the Belvedere and Shawnee Park is 6.2 miles. Cherokee Park Iroquois Park City of Parks List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area List of parks in the Louisville metropolitan area Metro Parks page Shawnee Park – The Cultural Landscape Foundation Satellite image of Shawnee Park
An obstacle course is a series of challenging physical obstacles an individual, team or animal must navigate while being timed. Obstacle courses can include running, jumping, crawling and balancing elements with the aim of testing speed and agility. Sometimes a course involves mental tests; the military/Army obstacle course is used as a way to familiarize recruits with the kind of tactical movement they will use in combat, as well as for physical training, building teamwork, evaluating problem solving skills. Typical courses involve obstacles the participants must climb over, crawl under, hang, etc. Puddles of muddy water, ropes/nets, "no touch" restrictions are used to make the course more difficult. Specialized courses are made to focus on specific needs, such as night movement and bayonet training. Military courses can contain climbing walls and rappelling walls. At the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, officer cadets in first year participate in an obstacle course, designed by senior cadets.
The obstacle course lasts a little over an hour and consists of thirteen obstacles built by each squadron located around the RMC grounds. Obstacles such as a 12-foot wall and truck pulling are designed to test teamwork and physical fitness of First Years; the First Year flights are judged on the time. The annual obstacle course race is memorialized by a sculpture by John Boxtel, "To Overcome", a gift of the class of 1991. Officer Cadets in third year take a physical education courses Obstacle Course and Water Borne Training. In the Obstacle course, cadets design obstacles with the available equipment and are evaluated on their leadership and innovation in the design of an obstacle course for their classmates. In the WB training, cadets learn about aquatic obstacle courses training and improve their basic swimming skills. At the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Cadets must take and pass the Indoor Obstacle Course Test; the test consists of 11 obstacles that must be navigated sequentially and is a vigorous test of total body fitness and high intensity cardio-vascular capacity.
First year Cadets take the IOCT as part of mandatory gymnastics training, while Third Year Cadets must pass the IOCT as a stand-alone test of fitness. Inflatable obstacle courses can have participants go through a variety of areas like the Bish Bash, a tall loose structure to push or wade through, nets to crawl under, walls to climb over and holes to jump through; some larger inflatables have more areas. An assault obstacle course can be done outside; the outside course is messy and filled with mud and muddy water. An inside course is similar to an inflatable course, but it is used in physical education lessons or holiday camps, using gym equipment or whatever is at hand. Several indoor commercial indoor recreation and trampoline park companies have begun to include obstacle courses at their facilities, in many cases because of demand generated by television shows such as American Ninja Warrior, according to The Wall Street Journal. Rugged Maniac, a 5K obstacle course racing company, was featured on season 5 of Shark Tank on ABC.
The owners received $1.75 million from Mark Cuban to invest into their company. Superstars featured an obstacle course featured as the final event. Chakravyuh Challenge an annual obstacle course race event hosted along the exotic backwaters of Kerala, India; the circuit itself is designed by former Indian Navy commandos. Battle of the Network Stars featured an obstacle course as one of its many events. Survivor makes extensive use of obstacle courses for its challenges. Gladiators had an indoor obstacle course called "The Eliminator" at the end of each episode; the Peruvian children's series Nubeluz featured a mini-obstacle course called "El Circuito Glufico" as one of its many games in rotation. Viking: The Ultimate Obstacle Course is a Japanese endurance game show. Show jumping is an obstacle course for horse riding. Nickelodeon's Double Dare bonus round is an obstacle course. Sasuke known outside Japan as Ninja Warrior, is a Japanese obstacle course show aired on G4. On an episode of Total Drama Island, the campers build bikes and use them to compete in an obstacle course.
The Nickelodeon TV show GUTS used obstacle courses for most of its challenges, including the final, the Aggro Crag. The Disney Channel Games and Disney's Friends for Change Games use obstacle courses to determine the winner of their weekly competitions; the game shows Wipeout on ABC and Total Wipeout on BBC One both revolve around the objective of completing obstacle courses. The Physical Ability round in The Krypton Factor involves the constants completing an obstacle course, it is referred to as one of the most memorable memorials of the show. For the original series, the obstacle course was a real army assault course in Bury; the Canadian show Splatalot on YTV consists of a medieval-themed obstacle course teens must complete to capture a crown as their objective. Steve Austin's Broken Skull Challenge, a competition reality show, features an obstacle course known as the Skullbuster as its final event. Obstacle training centrums are popular in The Netherlands since 2012. There have been researches explaining the popularity due to the social aspect of the challenges.
That is why companies like UNITEDFIT have included the social aspect to their training for an obstacle course. Aerial adventure park Assault course Dog agility Outdoor gym Obstacle racing Parkour Ropes course Steeplechase Georges Hébert
Great Steamboat Race
The Great Steamboat Race is an annual steamboat race, taking place the Wednesday before the first Saturday of May, three days before the Kentucky Derby, as part of the Kentucky Derby Festival. The race was first run in 1963 and it takes place on the Ohio River in the span that runs between Louisville and Jeffersonville, Indiana; until 2009, the race was traditionally between the Belle of Louisville and the Delta Queen, although other steamboats have participated. Since 2009, the Delta Queen has been retired and the Belle of Cincinnati has taken its place in the competition. In 2012, the Belle of Louisville and Belle of Cincinnati were joined in the race by the American Queen; the race is scheduled annually as part of the Kentucky Derby Festival. The event pits at least two riverboats against each other in the span of the Ohio River that runs between Louisville and Jeffersonville, Indiana. Spectators can watch the event aboard a competing vessel; the race began underneath the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge, which served as the start/finish line.
Both steamboats raced to Six Mile Island. The distance is 14 miles, with boats averaging a speed of 7 miles per hour; the competitors were traditionally the Belle of Louisville and the Delta Queen, although other additional or substitutionary vessels competed. The annual winner received the Golden Antlers, which would remain with the winner until the next race. 2008 was the last year to feature the Delta Queen as a competitor prior to it being renovated into a dry-dock hotel. In 2009, the event organizers changed the format prompting the Belle of Cincinnati's Capt. Kerry Snowden to note that "here are no rules in riverboat racing, so whatever goes, goes"; the new format features a series of tasks that the crews must perform for points prior to the race. Because the Cincinnati is a diesel ship with more power, it is required to travel further to Harrods Creek; the boat with the most points after the race is determined to be the winner and is presented with the Silver Antlers, which take the place of the Golden Antlers that were retired when the Queen stopped competing.
The 2012 race featured, for the first time since 2008, once again two steam-powered boats as competitors, as well as the diesel-powered Belle of Cincinnati. The American Queen, returned to overnight steamboat service in April 2012, competed in the three-way race on May 2, 2012 and finished as second; the first Great Steamboat Race was held in 1963 between the Belle of Louisville and the Delta Queen, establishing the traditional rivalry until 2008 when the Queen was retired. The Queen won the first race; as of the Delta Queen's last race in 2008, the Louisville won 22 races compared to the Queen's 20 wins. The Louisville's winning record compared to the Queen's larger size and more powerful engines has helped fuel the unproven speculation that the race is predetermined. Several other riverboats have participated in the race: Julia Belle Swain competed in 1975 and 1976, the latter of which it won. Natchez IX of the New Orleans Steamboat Company in 1982, which it won. Spirit of Jefferson raced in 1999 in the Louisville's stead while the Louisville was recovering from sabotage.
It has been used as an observation boat for the race. Belle of Cincinnati was a contestant in 2002, followed as an observation boat in latter years. Since 2009, it has replaced the Delta Queen as the annual competitor, it is diesel-powered and has been used as an observation boat for the race. American Queen competed for the first time in 2012, in a 3-way race with the Louisville and Cincinnati, finishing 2nd. American Duchess competed for the first time in 2018, in a 3-way race with the Cincinnati and Louisville, finishing 1st. Popular viewing areas for the race are the old Water Tower in Louisville, along Utica Pike in Jeffersonville near Duffy's Landing. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Thunder Over Louisville May 2 WHAS11 article 2007 results as well as details of judges decision Official Site There is an additional Official History page Brightcove review of the race Done by Curious Travelers May 1, 2007 Courier-Journal article Features a map of the race.
Directory of steamboats/riverboats in the U. S. and Europe American Queen Web site Belle of Louisville Web site Belle of Cincinnati Web site Delta Queen Web site
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display, a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light and floating materials, they may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, yellow, blue and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may be shot into the air by a mortar; the most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes variously colored.
A skyrocket is a common form of firework. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States; such rocket technology has been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. Fireworks were invented in medieval China around the early 9th century. One of the cultural practices for fireworks was to scare away evil spirits. Cultural events and festivities such as the Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is exporter of fireworks in the world. Colored fireworks were invented in Europe in the 1830s. Modern skyrocket fireworks were invented in the early 20th century; the earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to about the early 9th-century medieval Chinese Tang Dynasty. The fireworks were used to accompany many festivities; the art and science of firework making has developed into an independent profession.
In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of complex techniques in mounting firework displays. Chinese people believed that the fireworks could expel evil spirits and bring about luck and happiness. During the Song Dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors, grand displays of fireworks were known to be held. In 1110, a large fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song and his court. A record from 1264 states that a rocket-propelled firework went off near the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng and startled her during a feast held in her honor by her son Emperor Lizong of Song. Rocket propulsion was common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu. In 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of its uses from China. A Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote of rockets and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources, such as his references to fireworks as "Chinese flowers".
In regards to colored fireworks, this was derived and developed from earlier Chinese application of chemical substances to create colored smoke and fire. Such application appears in the Huolongjing and Wubeizhi, which describes recipes, several of which used low-nitrate gunpowder, to create military signal smokes with various colors. In the Wubei Huolongjing, two formulas appears for firework-like signals, the sanzhangju and baizhanglian, that produces silver sparkles in the smoke. In the Huoxilüe by Zhao Xuemin, there are several recipes with low-nitrate gunpowder and other chemical substances to tint flames and smoke; the Chinese pyrotechnics have been written about by foreign authors such as Antoine Caillot who wrote "It is certain that the variety of colours which the Chinese have the secret of giving to flame is the greatest mystery of their fireworks." Or Sir John Barrow who wrote "The diversity of colours indeed with which the Chinese have the secret of cloathing fire seems to be the chief merit of their pyrotechny."Fireworks were produced in Europe by the 14th century, becoming popular by the 17th century.
Lev Izmailov, ambassador of Peter the Great, once reported from China: "They make such fireworks that no one in Europe has seen." In 1758, the Jesuit missionary Pierre Nicolas le Chéron d'Incarville, living in Beijing, wrote about the methods and composition on how to make many types of Chinese fireworks to the Paris Academy of Sciences, which revealed and published the account five years later. Amédée-François Frézier published his revised work Traité des feux d'artice pour le spectacle in 1747, covering the recreational and ceremonial uses of fireworks, rather than their military uses. Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 to celebrate the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, declared the previous year. Improper use of fireworks may be dangerous, both to bystanders. For this reason, the use of fireworks is legally restricted. Display fireworks are restricted by law for use by professionals