The Breeders Cup World Championships is an annual series of Grade I Thoroughbred horse races, operated by Breeders Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was an event, starting in 2007. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, the attendance at the Breeders Cup varies, depending mainly on the capacity of the host track. Santa Anita Park set the highest two-day attendance figure of 118,484 in 2016, the lowest two-day attendance was 69,584 in 2007 at Monmouth Park. The attendance typically only trails the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, with the addition of three races for 2008, a total of $25.5 million was awarded over the two days, up from $23 million in 2007. With the subsequent removal of two races, the purses for the thirteen races totaled $24.5 million in 2014, plus awards for foal. Prior to the 2016 running, the purses were raised from $26 million to $28 million. The purse of the Classic was raised from $5 million to $6 million, each Breeders Cup race presents four Breeders Cup trophies to the connections of the winner and a garland of flowers draped over the withers of the winning horse.
Many Breeders Cup winners will go on to win the Eclipse Award in their respective division, for example, of the eleven flat racehorse categories, seven of the Eclipse winners in 2015 had won a Breeders Cup race, while three others were in the money. In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, three Breeders Cup races are ranked among the top Grade 1 races in the world, the Classic, the Turf, the Distaff is ranked second among the top Grade 1 races for fillies and mares. The event was created as a championship for North American Thoroughbred racing. The races are operated by Breeders Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982, the first event was in 1984. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was an event, starting in 2007. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, in 2006 Greg Avioli began serving as interim President and CEO of the Breeders Cup, and he became the official CEO in April 2007. This is a time for the Breeders Cup, said Avioli.
Before the Breeders Cup expanded to two days, it was considered to be the richest day in sports. Beginning in 2008, the day of the Breeders Cup became the second-richest. In 2008, a total of $17 million was awarded on that day, the richest single day in sports is now another Thoroughbred racing event, Dubai World Cup Night
Kentucky Three-Day Event
The Rolex Kentucky Three Day Event is an eventing competition held at the Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington, Kentucky. Rolex Kentucky is a CCI**** eventing competition, four stars is the highest level of competition in the sport, the same level of competition as Eventing at the Olympics and the World Equestrian Games. The event is sponsored by Rolex watches and is known by many equestrians simply as Rolex, prize money of $350,000 is distributed among the top placings with $110,000 as well as a Rolex watch awarded to the first place horse and rider. Although the events name continues to reflect its roots as a three-day competition, due to large number of entries, both Thursday and Friday are devoted to Dressage. Cross-country is on Saturday, and show-jumping is on Sunday, Rolex is held the last weekend of April, the week before the Kentucky Derby. It is one of the three events in the Rolex Grand Slam of Eventing, in 1974, Bruce Davidson and the United States Equestrian Team won individual and team gold at the World Championships held in Burghley and Bowers took 2nd place.
This gave the United States the right to hold the next World Championships four years later, the Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington, Kentucky was due to open around the same time, and plans were made to hold the World Championships there. Equestrian Events, Inc. was formed to as an organization to help plan the competition. The first horse trials at the Kentucky Horse Park was held in 1976, in 1977, the National Pony Club Rally and the North American Junior Three-Day Event Championships were held there. The 1978 event had more than 170,000 spectators and added more than $4 million to the local economy, the event was broadcast worldwide, as well as nationally on CBS. The success of the World Championships helped to convince the EEU to continue the event annually, the event is broadcast worldwide in 18 languages. Although the event began as an advanced three-day, and included open intermediate and preliminary competitions, today it holds the highest level. Intermediate-level competition was held in 1979 and from 1985 to 1981, an Advanced-level CCI was held from 1980 to 1999 up to the *** level, with Advanced Horse Trials held from 1992 to 1996.
The CCI**** was begun in 1998, and has been held annually since, since 2000, the CCI**** is the only competition held during this time, and the preliminary, and CCI*** levels are not offered. Rolex Kentucky had hoped to continue the format, despite the other major events around the world switching to the short format. However, in 2006 it was announced that, due to lack of funds and interest from upper level riders, all competition run before 2005 was run classic format, and the 2006 event onward will be run in the short format. The CCI**** competition was first suggested in 1994 by Denny Emerson, American riders trained in England when they were preparing for international competition, as the country had the only two annual CCI**** at that time and Burghley. The USET began making plans in 1996, and held the countrys first and this sport takes many different precautions concerning the horses health
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
The American Saddlebred is a horse breed from the United States. This breed was referred to as the Horse America Made, descended from riding-type horses bred at the time of the American Revolution, the American Saddlebred includes the Narragansett Pacer, Canadian Pacer and Thoroughbred among its ancestors. Developed into its modern type in Kentucky, it was known as the Kentucky Saddler. In 1891, a registry was formed in the United States. Throughout the 20th century, the popularity continued to grow in the United States. Averaging 15 to 16 hands in height, Saddlebreds are known for their sense of presence and style, as well as for their spirited, yet gentle and they may be of any color, including pinto patterns, which have been acknowledged in the breed since the late 1800s. The breed does have a predisposition to lordosis, a curvature of the spine, as well as occupational predispositions to upper respiratory. Since the mid-1800s, the breed has played a prominent part in the US horse show industry, American Saddlebreds often compete in five primary divisions, Five-Gaited, Three-Gaited, Fine Harness and Pleasure.
In these divisions they are judged on performance, presence, American Saddlebreds stand 15 to 17 hands high, averaging 15 to 16 hands, and weigh between 1,000 and 1,200 pounds. The croup is level with a high-carried tail, enthusiasts consider them to be spirited, yet gentle, animals. Any color is acceptable, but most common are chestnut, brown, some are gray, roan and pinto. The first-known pinto Saddlebred was a stallion foaled in 1882, in 1884 and 1891, two additional pintos, both mares, were foaled. These three horses were recorded as spotted, but many other pinto Saddlebreds with minimal markings were recorded only by their base color, without making note of their markings. This practice continued into the 1930s, at which time breeders came to be accepting of colored horses and began recording markings. The Saddlebred has been called the worlds most beautiful horse by admirers, the United States Equestrian Federation describes the Saddlebred as follows, He carries himself with an attitude that is elusive of description—some call it class, quality, style, or charm.
This superior air distinguishes his every movement, Saddlebreds are popularly known as show horses, with horses being shown saddle seat in both three-gaited and five-gaited classes. The former are the three common gaits seen in most breeds, the walk and canter, the latter includes the three regular gaits, plus two four-beat ambling gaits known as the slow gait and the rack. The slow gait today is a gait in which the lateral pairs of legs leave the ground together, but strike the ground at different times
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to use, such as in sports. Domed and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting enough sunlight to stay healthy. But artificial turf does have its downside, limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome. The specific product used was developed by Monsanto and called AstroTurf, AstroTurf remains a registered trademark, but is no longer owned by Monsanto. The first generation systems of the 1960s have been largely replaced by the second generation. That accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man responsible for major league baseball.
Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a school recreation area in Rhode Island. The material came to prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, more than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, for most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on green-painted dirt and dead grass. The solution was to install a new type of grass on the field, ChemGrass. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game, there was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield.
The outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break, the team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, and on 19 July 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed. The Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in a stadium, as they used it in the infield
A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. A recital is a concert by a soloist or small group which follows a program, a recitalist is a musician who gives frequent recitals. The invention of the piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. The performance may be by a musician, sometimes called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts, informal names for a concert include show and gig. Regardless of the venue, musicians perform on a stage. Concerts often require live event support with professional audio equipment, before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, individual performers, concerts by a small jazz combo or small bluegrass band may have the same order of program and volume—but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress, hairstyle.
For example, concert goers in the 1960s often had hair, sandals. Regular attendees to a concert venue might have a style that comprises that venues scene. Other Types of concerts, To plan or arrange by mutual agreement, some performers or groups put on very elaborate and expensive shows. To create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, some singers, especially popular music, augment concert sound with pre-recorded accompaniment, back-up dancers, and even broadcast vocal tracks of the singers own voice. Activities during these concerts can include dancing, sing-alongs, and moshing, concerts involving a greater number of artists, especially those that last for multiple days, are known as festivals. Unlike other concerts, which remain in a single genre of music or work of a particular artist, festivals often cover a broad scope of music. Due to their size, festivals are almost exclusively held outdoors, new platforms for festivals are becoming increasingly popular such as Jam Cruise, which is a festival held on a cruise ship, as well as Mayan Holidaze, which is a destination festival held in Tulum.
Often concert tours are named, to differentiate different tours by the same artist, different segments of longer concert tours are known as legs. In the largest concert tours it is becoming common for different legs to employ separate touring production crews and equipment
John Henry (horse)
John Henry was an American Thoroughbred race horse who had 39 wins, with $6,591,860 in earnings. This total is the equivalent to almost 15 million dollars in 2015 and he was twice voted the Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year in 1981 and 1984, with his 1981 selection unanimous. In all, he won seven Eclipse awards, John Henry was listed as #23 - Top 100 U. S. The horse was named after the folk hero John Henry, as a colt, John Henry had a habit of tearing steel water and feed buckets off stall walls and stomping them flat. This reminded his then-owners of the legendary John Henry, who was known as a steel-drivin man and he was gelded both for his temperament as well as his lack of good breeding, which meant that he would have been unlikely to be in much demand as a breeding stallion. A Golden Chance Farm foal, John Henry was from breeding that might best be described as plebeian and his sire, Ole Bob Bowers, once sold for just $900 and was not in much demand by breeders. His dam, Once Double, was a runner and producer, but was sired by Double Jay.
John Henry was sold as a yearling for $1,100 at the Keeneland January Mixed sale to John Callaway who is credited with giving John Henry his name. Besides being back at the knee and plainly bred and he had a series of trainers, making his mark as a workmanlike racehorse who earned money in minor stakes, allowance races, and mid-level claiming races. One such allowance race took place at Saratoga Race Course on August 8,1978, the race is of note in that John Henry finished behind Darby Creek Road who won in a track record time of 1,20 2/5 for seven furlongs. Also of note was the fact that unknown to all attending that day, in 1978, New York City businessman Sam Rubin and his wife Dorothy paid $25,000 sight unseen for the three-year-old John Henry. The horse broker who picked out the horse for Rubin was Louisville trainer and broker, Rubin asked McGee if he was sure this horse was sound. McGee said he could see potential in John Henry, Racing under the Rubins Dotsam Stable banner, he was first conditioned by trainer Robert Donato, a former policeman, who saw his grass potential.
Under him, John Henry won 6 of 19 starts and $120,000, starting the year as a cheap claimer, the following year, the Rubins and Donato had a disagreement on policy and parted ways. John Henry was given to a new trainer, Lefty Nickerson, under him, he won 4 of 11 races in 1979. When the grass season was over in New York, Rubin decided to send the horse to California, Nickerson suggested his good friend Ron McAnally as trainer. Under McAnally, John Henry won six races in a row. Initially the plan was to him under McAnally out west and Nickerson in the east
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Indoor American football
In the United States, indoor football is football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varied, the rules of football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena. The indoor football season typically begins in mid- to late-winter and ends by mid-summer, the first documented indoor football games were those played at Madison Square Garden in 1902 and 1903, known as the World Series of Pro Football. The games were played on a 70-yard by 35-yard dirt field, poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years. The first major football game was the 1932 NFL Playoff Game. A dirt floor was brought in, and to compensate for the 80-yard length of the field, in the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center. The Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one. The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, which had played at Municipal Stadium from 1959–1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia.
The game drew just over 6,000 fans and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, the end zones were slightly shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten. He devised his game while watching indoor soccer, another game derived from a sport played outdoors, when the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity. He staged a test game in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a league for a demonstration season in the spring of 1987. This resulted in the field being 50 yards long with eight-yard end zones, and the field being slightly over half as wide as a standard football field. Although it was not as much of an issue as it is now, Foster adopted artificial turf for the field, Foster adopted a modified version of eight-man football. He mandated a system that required at least six players go both ways, playing on both offensive and defensive downs. This had the desirable effect of limiting team payrolls. The placing of rebound nets around the ends of the surface and passed balls bounced off these nets.
This means that on every kicking play except an extra point attempt, either team may have a shot to regain the ball and advance it, only kicked or passed balls touching the slack nets behind the goalposts are ruled dead at that point. To further an offensive passing advantage over the defense, Foster imposed restrictions on the defensive formation
Cigar retired as the leading money earner in Thoroughbred racing history and was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame. Cigar was foaled at Country Life Farm near Bel Air, Maryland and he was sired by a leading sire in North America, Palace Music. His dam, Solar Slew, was by the 1977 Triple Crown winner, Cigar was a half-brother to Corridora Slew by Corridor Key and several other lesser performed horses. Madeleine A. Paulson was the owner of Cigar. In his 2003 book, Legacies of the Turf, noted race historian Edward L. Cigar was named after an intersection for airplanes. Owner Allen Paulson was a figure in American aviation who had owned the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. He named many of his horses after the names given to intersections on aeronautical navigational charts. Cigar did not race as a two-year-old, under his first trainer, Alex Hassinger, Jr. he won twice in nine starts at age three, but failed to win in stakes competition. He did finish second in the Grade III Volante Handicap at the Oak Tree Racing Association fall meeting at Santa Anita, during this period, Hassinger switched from racing him on dirt to racing him on turf tracks, but the horse remained a low-grade stakes/high-class allowance horse.
As a three-year-old, Cigar earned $89,175, the following year, Cigar was sent to an east-coast trainer, Bill Mott, who gave him the first half of the year off, only bringing him back to racing in July. Cigar finished third in allowance races at Saratoga Race Course and Belmont Park before starting on dirt in a race at Aqueduct Racetrack at 1-mile. Cigar won that race by 8 lengths on October 28,1994, after Cigars dominating performance in the allowance race, Mott stepped him way up in class and ran him in the Grade I NYRA Mile, against top New York stakes winner Devil His Due. This race concluded his campaign, which Cigar finished with two wins from six starts and earnings of $180,838. Cigar started 1995 in a 1 1⁄16 mile allowance race at Gulfstream Park in January and he faced champion Holy Bull in the Donn Handicap at Template, Rac miles. Holy Bull was favored based on his dominant 1994 campaign, Cigar won the race easily, but little attention was paid to the victory due to the breakdown of Holy Bull, which signaled the end of his racing career.
Cigar’s winning streak stood at four and he ran once more at Gulfstream, in the Gulfstream Park Handicap at 1¼ miles. Next Cigar went to Oaklawn Park in Hot Springs, Arkansas to face 1994 Breeders Cup Classic winner Concern in the Oaklawn Handicap at 1⅛ miles and he won by 2½ lengths in a good time,1,47 1/5. Next was the Pimlico Special at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore at 1 3/16 miles, Cigar again defeated Devil His Due and Concern, running a very fast 1,53 3/5
Harness racing is a form of horse racing in which the horses race at a specific gait. They usually pull a cart called a sulky, although in Europe racing under saddle is conducted. Orlov trotters race separately in Russia, the light cold-blooded Coldblood trotters and Finnhorses race separately in Finland and Sweden. Today, most harness races are won by Standardbreds who post times of 2 minutes or less, the horses have proportionally shorter legs than Thoroughbreds, and longer bodies. Standardbreds generally have a placid disposition, due to the admixture of non-Thoroughbred blood in the breed. The founding sire of todays Standardbred horse was Messenger, a gray Thoroughbred brought to America in 1788 and purchased by Henry Astor, from Messenger came a great-grandson, Hambletonian 10, who gained a wide following for his racing prowess. However, it is his line for which he is most remembered. The lineage of virtually all North American Standardbred race horses can be traced from four of Hambletonian 10 sons, races can be conducted in two differing gaits – trotting and pacing.
The difference is that a trotter moves its legs forward in diagonal pairs, in continental Europe, races are conducted exclusively among trotters, whereas in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States races are held for pacers. Pacing races constitute 80% to 90% of the harness races conducted in North America, Pacing horses are faster and less likely to break stride. One of the reasons pacers are less likely to break stride is that they often wear hobbles, the belief that hobbles are used to create this gait is a common misunderstanding. The pace is a natural gait for many horses, and hobbles are an aid in supporting the gait at top speed, most harness races start from behind a motorized starting gate. The horses line up behind a slow-moving, hinged gate mounted on a motor vehicle, at the line, the wings of the gate are folded up and the vehicle accelerates away from the horses. This enables handicaps to be placed on horses with several tapes, many European – and some Australian and New Zealand – races use a standing start.
The sulky is a light, two-wheeled cart equipped with bicycle wheels, the driver carries a light whip chiefly used to signal the horse by tapping and to make noise by striking the sulky shaft. There are strict rules as to how and how much the whip may be used, in some jurisdictions, for exercising or training, the drivers use what is known as a jog cart, which is a sulky that is heavier and bulkier than a racing unit. The Prix dAmérique is considered to be the number-one trotting race in the world and it is held annually at the gigantic Vincennes hippodrome in eastern Paris late in January. The purse for the race in 2016 is 1 million euros, the horses are entered in the race based on life-time earnings, unless they have qualified by performing well in the preceding six qualifying races