A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground, they consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an indicator; the device gives some indication of distance. Another common type are stationary "walk through" metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a person's body; the simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, this produces a magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field, the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.
The first industrial metal detectors were developed in the 1960s and were used extensively for mineral prospecting and other industrial applications. Uses include detecting land mines, the detection of weapons such as knives and guns, geophysical prospecting and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are used to detect foreign bodies in food, in the construction industry to detect steel reinforcing bars in concrete and pipes and wires buried in walls and floors. Towards the end of the 19th century, many scientists and engineers used their growing knowledge of electrical theory in an attempt to devise a machine which would pinpoint metal; the use of such a device to find ore-bearing rocks would give a huge advantage to any miner who employed it. Early machines were crude, used a lot of battery power, worked only to a limited degree. In 1874, Parisian inventor Gustave Trouvé developed a hand-held device for locating and extracting metal objects such as bullets from human patients. Inspired by Trouvé, Alexander Graham Bell developed a similar device to attempt to locate a bullet lodged in the chest of American President James Garfield in 1881.
The modern development of the metal detector began in the 1920s. Gerhard Fischer had developed a system of radio direction-finding, to be used for accurate navigation; the system worked well, but Fischer noticed there were anomalies in areas where the terrain contained ore-bearing rocks. He reasoned that if a radio beam could be distorted by metal it should be possible to design a machine which would detect metal using a search coil resonating at a radio frequency. In 1925 he applied for, was granted, the first patent for a metal detector. Although Gerhard Fischer was the first person granted a patent for a metal detector, the first to apply was Shirl Herr, a businessman from Crawfordsville, Indiana, his application for a hand-held Hidden-Metal Detector was filed in February 1924, but not patented until July 1928. Herr assisted Italian leader Benito Mussolini in recovering items remaining from the Emperor Caligula's galleys at the bottom of Lake Nemi, Italy in August 1929. Herr's invention was used by Admiral Richard Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition in 1933, when it was used to locate objects left behind by earlier explorers.
It was effective up to a depth of eight feet. However, it was one Lieutenant Józef Stanisław Kosacki, a Polish officer attached to a unit stationed in St Andrews, Scotland, during the early years of World War II, who refined the design into a practical Polish mine detector; these units were still quite heavy, as they ran on vacuum tubes, needed separate battery packs. The design invented by Kosacki was used extensively during the Second Battle of El Alamein when 500 units were shipped to Field Marshal Montgomery to clear the minefields of the retreating Germans, used during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy; as the creation and refinement of the device was a wartime military research operation, the knowledge that Kosacki created the first practical metal detector was kept secret for over 50 years. Many manufacturers of these new devices brought their own ideas to the market. White's Electronics of Oregon began in the 1950s by building a machine called the Oremaster Geiger Counter.
Another leader in detector technology was Charles Garrett. With the invention and development of the transistor in the 1950s and 1960s, metal detector manufacturers and designers made smaller lighter machines with improved circuitry, running on small battery packs. Companies sprang up all over the United States and Britain to supply the growing demand. Modern top models are computerized, using integrated circuit technology to allow the user to set sensitivity, track speed, threshold volume, notch filters, etc. and hold these parameters in memory for future use. Compared to just a decade ago, detectors are lighter, deeper-seeking, use less battery power, discriminate better. Larger portable metal detectors are used by archaeologists and treasure hunters to locate metallic items, such as jewelry, coins and other various artifacts buried beneath the surface; the biggest technical change in detectors was the development of the induction-balance system. This system involved two coils that were electrically
Old State Capitol (Kentucky)
The Old State Capitol known as Old Statehouse, was the third capitol of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The building is located in the Kentucky capital city of Frankfort and served as home of the Kentucky General Assembly from 1830 to 1910; the current Kentucky State Capitol was built in 1910. The Old State Capitol has served as a museum and the home of the Kentucky Historical Society since 1920, it has been restored to its American Civil War era appearance and was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971; the Kentucky legislature voted for its construction in 1827. The building was designed in the Greek Revival style by Gideon Shryock, an early Lexington, Kentucky architect; the Old State Capitol was his first building and he was only twenty-five years old. Shryock chose the Greek Revival style to symbolically link Kentucky, a young republic, with ancient Greece, the prototype of popular democratic government, he wanted the front of the building to duplicate the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene.
Greek temples had no windows, therefore the front of the capitol is devoid of fenestration. Other architectural features include a self-supporting stone stairway and a domed lantern above it to bring in sunlight. A bitterly contested 1899 state governor election came to a climax when Democratic claimant William Goebel of Covington, Kentucky was assassinated at the capitol on his way to be inaugurated. A plaque reading "William Goebel fell here. 30th, 1900" exists near the front entrance of the building. Kentucky Historical Society, Old State Capitol Kentucky Historical Society page on the Old State Capitol
Kentucky Supreme Court
The Kentucky Supreme Court was created by a 1975 constitutional amendment and is the state supreme court of the U. S. state of Kentucky. Prior to that the Kentucky Court of Appeals was the only appellate court in Kentucky; the Kentucky Court of Appeals is now Kentucky's intermediate appellate court. Criminal appeals involving a sentence of death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment of twenty years or more are heard directly by the Kentucky Supreme Court, bypassing the Kentucky Court of Appeals. All other cases are heard on a discretionary basis on appeal from the Kentucky Court of Appeals; the Kentucky Supreme Court promulgates the Rules of Rules of Evidence. Through two of its subagencies, the Kentucky Office of Bar Admissions and Kentucky Bar Association, it is the final arbiter for bar admissions and discipline. In the event that two or more justices of the Kentucky Supreme Court recuse themselves from a case, the Governor of Kentucky appoints Special Justices to sit for that particular case.
The court meets in a courtroom located on the second floor of the Kentucky State Capitol in Frankfort. The second floor of the capitol building is home to offices for the justices and Supreme Court personnel; the Administrative Office of the Courts, under the aegis of the Kentucky Supreme Court, serves as the administrative support agency for Kentucky courts and Circuit Court Clerks. The role of the AOC is similar to that of the Legislative Research Commission for the Kentucky General Assembly. In its short history, the Kentucky Supreme Court has not produced much jurisprudence of note. A study published in 2007 by the Supreme Court of California found that of all state supreme courts in the United States, the decisions of the Kentucky Supreme Court were the least followed by other states' appellate courts. Notable decisions of the Kentucky Supreme Court include Kentucky v. Wasson, 842 S. W.2d 487, in which the court invalidated the criminalization of same-sex sodomy as a state equal protection violation.
This Kentucky decision, based on the Kentucky Constitution, was made at a time when the applicable federal equal protection precedent was Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U. S. 186, which held that federal constitutional protection of the right of privacy was not implicated in laws penalizing homosexual sodomy. In 2003, the United States Supreme Court reversed itself and overturned Bowers, issuing a decision in Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U. S. 558. While some thought the Kentucky Supreme Court Wasson opinion to have been progressive, others criticized the opinion for having no basis in the 1890 Kentucky Constitution. Courts of Kentucky List of Justices of the Kentucky Supreme Court Website of the Kentucky Supreme Court Database of Kentucky Supreme Court Opinions
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region, it has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2017 U. S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 321,959, anchoring a metropolitan area of 512,650 people and a combined statistical area of 856,849 people. Lexington ranks 10th among US cities in college education rate, with 39.5% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree. It is the location of the Kentucky Horse Park, The Red Mile and Keeneland race courses, Rupp Arena, Transylvania University, the University of Kentucky, Bluegrass Community and Technical College; this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans.
European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century. Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia, 17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs. Upon hearing of the colonists' victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington, it was the first of many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town. The risk of Native American uprisings against colonialism delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and erected a blockhouse, they built a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan's Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginia's newly organized Fayette County.
Colonists defended it against the British Army and allied Shawnee uprising in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly; the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide "The Travelling Church", a group migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County, Virginia to Kentucky in 1781, it is the third-oldest in the United States. In 1806, Lexington was a rising city of the vast territory to the west of the Appalachian Mountains. In the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies; the growing town was devastated by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the congregation of Christ Church Episcopal.
London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims. Additional cholera outbreaks occurred in the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by people using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years; the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease. Planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked as domestic servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, in a wide variety of trades. Plantations raised commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, thoroughbred horse breeding and racing became established in this part of the state. In 1850, one-fifth of the state's population were slaves, Lexington had the highest concentration of slaves in the entire state, it had a significant population of free blacks, who were of mixed race. By 1850, First African Baptist Church, led by London Ferrill, a free black from Virginia, had a congregation of 1,820 persons, the largest of any, black or white, in the entire state.
Many of 19th-century America's leading political and military figures spent part of their lives in the city, including U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate President Jefferson Davis. S. Senator and Vice President John C. Breckinridge. S. Senator, Secretary of State Henry Clay, who had a plantation nearby. Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln was born and raised in Lexington, the couple visited the city several times after their marriage in 1842. During the 19th century, migrants moved from central Kentucky to Missouri, they established their traditional crops and livestock in Middle Tennessee and an area of Missouri along the Missouri River. While Kentucky stayed in the Union during the American Civil War, the residents of different regions of the state had divided loyalties. In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Addiction Research Center was created as a small research unit at the U. S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington. Founded as one of the first drug rehabilitation clinics in the nation, the ARC was affiliated with a federal prison.
Expanded as the first alcohol and drug rehabilitation hospital i
Henry Clay (Niehaus)
Henry Clay is a 1929 bronze sculpture depicting the lawyer and politician of the same name by Charles Henry Niehaus, installed in the United States Capitol, in Washington D. C. as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. It is one of two statues donated by the state of Kentucky; the statue was accepted into the collection by Virgil Chapman on March 3, 1929. The statue is one of eight. A plaster version of the work, painted to resemble bronze, is located in the Kentucky State Capitol in Frankfort. A gift from the Kentucky State Bar Association, it was dedicated on November 19, 1930. Media related to Henry Clay by Charles Henry Niehaus at Wikimedia Commons
William Justus Goebel was an American politician who served as the 34th Governor of Kentucky for four days in 1900 after having been mortally wounded by an assassin the day before he was sworn in. Goebel remains the only state governor in the United States to be assassinated while in office. A skilled politician, Goebel was well able to broker deals with fellow lawmakers, able and willing to break the deals if a better deal came along, his tendency to use the state's political machinery to advance his personal agenda earned him the nicknames "Boss Bill", "the Kenton King", "Kenton Czar", "King William I", "William the Conqueror". Goebel's abrasive personality made him many political enemies, but his championing of populist causes, like railroad regulation won him many allies and supporters; this conflict of opinions came to a head in the Kentucky gubernatorial election of 1899. Goebel, a Democrat, divided his party with self-serving political tactics at a time when Kentucky Republicans were gaining strength, having elected the party's first governor four years previously.
These dynamics led to a close contest between William S. Taylor. In the politically chaotic climate that resulted, Goebel was assassinated. Everyone charged in connection with the murder was either acquitted or pardoned, the identity of his assassin remains uncertain. Wilhelm Justus Goebel was born January 4, 1856, in Albany Township, Bradford County, the son of Wilhelm and Augusta Goebel, immigrants from Hanover, Germany; the first of four children, he weighed less than three pounds. His father served as a private in Company B, 82nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War, Goebel's mother raised her children alone, teaching them much about their German heritage. Wilhelm spoke only German until the age of six, but embraced the culture of his birth country as well, adopting the English spelling of his name. Discharged from the army in 1863, Goebel's father moved his family to Kentucky. William attended school in Covington and was apprenticed to a jeweler in Cincinnati, Ohio.
After a brief time at Hollingsworth Business College, he became an apprentice in the law firm of John W. Stevenson, who had served as governor of Kentucky from 1871 to 1877. Goebel became Stevenson's partner and executor of his estate. Goebel graduated from Cincinnati Law School in 1877 enrolled at Kenyon College in Gambier, but withdrew to support his family on the death of his father. Goebel was in private practice for several years, before partnering with Kentucky state representative John G. Carlisle for five years, he rejoined Stevenson in Covington as a partner. Goebel was never known as a genial person in public, he belonged to few social organizations, greeted none but his closest friends with a smile or handshake. He was linked romantically with a woman, is the only governor of Kentucky who never married, his physical features bespoke his taciturn nature. Journalist Irvin S. Cobb remarked that Goebel's appearance was "reptilian", while others commented on his contemptuous lips, sharp nose, humorless eyes.
Neither was Goebel a gifted public speaker, eschewing flowery imagery and relying on his deep, powerful voice and forceful delivery to drive home his points. While lacking in the social qualities common to politicians, one characteristic served Goebel well in the political arena – his intellect. Goebel was well-read, supporters and opponents both conceded that his mental prowess was impressive. Cobb concluded that he had never been more impressed with a man's intellect than he had been with Goebel's. In 1887, James W. Bryan vacated his seat in the Kentucky Senate to pursue the office of lieutenant governor. Goebel decided to seek election to the vacant seat representing the Covington area, his platform of railroad regulation and championing labor causes, combined with the influence of Stevenson, his former partner, should have given Goebel an easy victory, but this was not to be. A third political party, the Union Labor party, had risen to power in the area with a platform similar to Goebel's.
However, while Goebel had to stick close to his allies in the Democratic party, the Union Labor party courted the votes of both Democrats and Republicans, made the election close – decided in Goebel's favor by a mere fifty-six votes. With only the two years remaining in former senator Bryan's term to distinguish himself before a re-election bid, Goebel took aim at a large and popular target: the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. A proposal from pro-railroad legislators in the Kentucky House of Representatives to abolish Kentucky's Railroad Commission was passed and sent to the Senate. Senator Cassius M. Clay responded by proposing a committee to investigate lobbying by the railroad industry. Goebel served on the committee. Goebel helped defeat the bill to abolish the Railroad Commission in the Senate; these actions made him a hero in his district. He ran for a full term as senator unopposed in 1889, won another term in 1893 by a three-to-one margin over his Republican opponent. In 1890, Goebel was a delegate to Kentucky's fourth constitutional convention, which produced the current Kentucky Constitution.
Despite the high honor of being chosen as a delegate, Goebel showed little interest in participating in the process of creating a new constitution. The convention was in session for 250 days, he did, however secure the inclusion of the Railroad Commission in the new constitution. As a constitutional entity, the Commission could only be abo
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter