Kenya the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with 47 semiautonomous counties governed by elected governors. At 580,367 square kilometres, Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population of more than 47.6 million people, Kenya is the 29th most populous country. Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third largest city and an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Eldoret. Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west, Tanzania to the south, the Indian Ocean to the southeast. According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, the Cushites first settled in the lowlands of Kenya between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, a phase referred to as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Nilotic-speaking pastoralists started migrating from present-day southern Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC.
European contact began in 1500 with the Portuguese Empire, though effective colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and the subsequent Kenya Colony, which began in 1920. Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, the subsequent declaration of independence in 1963. After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations; the current constitution was adopted in 2010 to replace the 1963 independence constitution. Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government. Kenya is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, COMESA, International Criminal Court, other international organisations. With a GNI of 1,460, Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy.
Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa, with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub. Agriculture is the largest sector: tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export; the service industry is a major economic driver tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa. Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union; the Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The earliest recorded version of the modern name was written by German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf in the 19th century. While travelling with a Kamba caravan led by the legendary long-distance trader Chief Kivoi, Krapf spotted the mountain peak and asked what it was called. Kivoi told him "Kĩ-Nyaa" or "Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa" because the pattern of black rock and white snow on its peaks reminded him of the feathers of the male ostrich.
The Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, while the Embu call it "Kirenyaa." All three names have the same meaning. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kegnia; some have said. An 1882 map drawn by Joseph Thompsons, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, indicated Mt. Kenya as Mt. Kenia; the mountain's name was accepted, pars pro toto, as the name of the country. It did not come into widespread official use during the early colonial period, when the country was referred to as the East African Protectorate; the official name was changed to the Colony of Kenya in 1920. Fossils found in Kenya have shown. Recent findings near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are possible direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens, lived in Kenya in the Pleistocene epoch. During excavations at Lake Turkana in 1984, paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey, assisted by Kamoya Kimeu, discovered the Turkana Boy, a 1.6-million-year-old Homo erectus fossil.
Previous research on early hominids is identified with Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey, who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. Work at the former site was undertaken by Glynn Isaac. East Africa, including Kenya, is one of the earliest regions where modern humans are believed to have lived. Evidence was found in 2018, dating to about 320,000 years ago, at the Kenyan site of Olorgesailie, of the early emergence of modern behaviours including: long-distance trade networks, the use of pigments, the possible making of projectile points, it is observed by the authors of three 2018 studies on the site, that the evidence of these behaviours is contemporary to the earliest known Homo sapiens fossil remains, they suggest that complex and modern behaviours had begun in Africa around the time of the emergence of the species Homo sapiens. The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers; these people were largely replaced by agropastoralist Cushitic from the Horn of Africa.
During the early Holocene, the regional climate shifted from dry to wetter conditions, providing an opportunity for the development of cultural traditions such as agriculture and herding, in a more favourable environment. Around 500 BC, Nil
The Ben Nye Makeup Company was started in 1967 by Hollywood film industry makeup artist Ben Nye. Its current CEO is Dana Nye; the company is a family-owned business, dedicated to serving professionals throughout the world. In 2017, The Ben Nye Makeup Company celebrated their 50 year anniversary. Ben Nye Makeup Company's range of professional cosmetic and special effects products are used in television and film performance. Ben Nye Makeup Company produces products such as foundations, cosmetic powders, concealers, face paints, body paints, fake blood, liquid latex, fixing sprays and tools. Since its early emergent years, Ben Nye was a renowned makeup artist known by many popular films and performances such as Diary of Anne Frank, Sound of Music, the Planet of the Apes, The King and I, the most pivotal Oscar award winner— Gone with the Wind. In this late 1930s film that Ben Nye recognized there was no range of colors for ethnic actors, he started designing foundations and contour shades for brown and olive complexions, including Oscar winner, Hattie McDaniel, who portrayed Mammy in GWTW.
He was known as a creative director, an innovator, prided himself in realism with films that included special effects, battle wounds and prosthetics for characters such as the Fly, Abraham Lincoln and Queen Victoria. Ben Nye was born Benjamin Emmet Nye Sr. in Nebraska. While Ben Nye products are known as a professional brand and not considered an "everyday makeup", they have a full range of beauty products. Influencers such as the Kardashians have been associated with Ben Nye and makeup artists Joyce Bonelli, Mary Phillips, Mario Dedivanovic have featured Ben Nye’s powders on makeup tutorials featuring Kardashians. Since word got out, Ben Nye’s Colorless Powder and Banana Powder have sold with YouTube beauty bloggers promoting the product and endorsing it. Ben Nye’s powders remain high on the market for everyday people, entertainment performance. In addition to film and television productions, Ben Nye products are used for professional operas, stage productions and haunted houses. Performers at Universal Studios, Walt Disney World and with Cirque du Soleil are regular users of Ben Nye.
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Thomas Wright Thornburg King, better known as Wright King, was an American film and television actor, a native of Okmulgee in east central Oklahoma. His career spanned the years from 1949 until his retirement in 1987. King studied acting at the St Louis School of Theater, where he graduated in 1941, before enlisting in the United States Navy during World War II where he served in the South Pacific campaign. King made his small screen debut in 1949 as Midshipman Bascomb in the television series, Captain Video and His Video Rangers. Throughout his career, he worked in the United Kingdom. King was cast in numerous westerns and is known for his role in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire, starring Vivien Leigh. Prior to that, he had appeared in the original stage production, a performance, lauded by drama critic Harold Hobson. In 1958 King appeared as The Kiowa Kid/Nevada Jones on the TV western Cheyenne in the episode "Ghost of the Cimarron."Other noteworthy film credits included roles in Cast a Long Shadow, King Rat, Planet of the Apes, Finian's Rainbow and Invasion of the Bee Girls.
In 1974, he played U. S. Senator Richard B. Russell Jr. of Georgia in the TV movie The Missiles of October, a dramatization of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. He appeared in the television series Johnny Jupiter, was in two episodes of the TV series The Silent Service and was the partner of Steve McQueen for a season of Wanted Dead or Alive, he appeared with Richard Boone in Have Gun Will Travel in the episode "Helen of Abajinan". King married June Ellen Roth in 1948; the couple had their first child the next year. He died in Canoga Park, Los Angeles on 25 November 2018 at the age of 95. Wright King on IMDb Wright King at AllMovie Wright King at the TCM Movie Database Wright King at the Internet Broadway Database Wright King at Find a Grave
Jerry Petrowski is an American politician and a former ginseng and beef farmer. He is a Republican member of the Wisconsin State Senate, representing the 29th Senate District since 2012, a former State Representative, representing the 86th Assembly District from 1999 to 2012. Petrowski was born on June 1950 in Wausau, Wisconsin, he graduated from Newman High School before attending the University of Wisconsin–Marathon County and Northcentral Technical College, all in Wausau. Petrowski served in the United States Army Reserve for six years after high school. Following his service, he worked as a machinist and became a small business owner and ginseng and beef farmer. Petrowski has been a lifelong resident of the 29th Senate District. Petrowski represented the 86th Assembly District in the Wisconsin State Assembly from 1999 to 2012. From 2003 to 2007 he served as the Majority Caucus Sergeant at Arms in the State Assembly. Petrowski was a candidate in the recall election to replace fellow Republican State Senator Pam Galloway of the 29th Senate District, who had resigned after being targeted for recall.
On June 5, 2012, Petrowski was elected to the Wisconsin State Senate, defeating Representative Donna Seidel with 61.34% of the vote. Petrowski is the Chair of the Senate Transportation, Public Safety and Veterans and Military Affairs Committee, Vice Chair of the Senate Economic Development and Local Government Committee, is a voting member of the Senate Agriculture, Small Business, Tourism Committee, the Senate Financial Institutions and Rural Issues Committee, the Joint Legislative Council. Petrowski serves on the Governor’s Council on Highway Safety, Transportation Projects Commission, Rustic Roads Board, Scenic Byway Advisory Committee, Council on Military and State Relations, the State Council on Interstate Compact on Educational Opportunity for Military Children and the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point College of Natural Resources Advisory Board. Petrowski and his wife, have four children and three grandchildren. Official website
George M. Santangelo is an American genomicist and data scientist, he is the director of the Office of Portfolio Analysis at the National Institutes of Health. Santangelo received his bachelor's degree from the University of Pennsylvania, his Ph. D. from Yale University. In 2011, he was appointed as director of the newly formed Office of Portfolio Analysis at the National Institutes of Health. Santangelo oversees a team of analysts, data scientists, software developers to enable data-driven decision-making. Menon, B. B.. "Reverse recruitment: The Nup84 nuclear pore subcomplex mediates Rap1/Gcr1/Gcr2 transcriptional activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102: 5749–5754. Doi:10.1073/pnas.0501768102. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 556015. PMID 15817685. Santangelo, G. M.. "Glucose Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 70: 253–282. Doi:10.1128/MMBR.70.1.253-282.2006. ISSN 1092-2172. PMC 1393250. PMID 16524925. Hutchins, B. Ian. Vaux, David L. "Relative Citation Ratio: A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level".
PLOS Biology. 14: e1002541. Doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002541. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 5012559. PMID 27599104
Cortical thymic epithelial cells form unique parenchyma cell population of the thymus which critically contribute to the development of T cells. Thymus tissue is compartmentalized into cortex and medulla and each of these two compartments comprises its specific thymic epithelial cell subset. CTECs reside in the outer part- cortex, which serves as a developmental site for T cells. Precursors of T cells originate in the bone marrow from which they migrate via bloodstream into thymic cortex, where they encounter stromal cells including cTECs, which form the microenvironment crucial for proliferation and development of T cells by expression of DLL4, cytokines IL-7, TGFβ or stem cell factor and chemokines CCL25, CXCL12 or CCRL1 etc. Essential part of T cell development forms process called VDJ recombination, mediated by RAG recombinases, that stochastically changes DNA sequences of T cell receptors and endows them with diverse recognition specificity. Thanks to this process, T cells can recognize vast repertoire of pathogens, but self-peptides or their TCRs don´t respond to any surrounding signals.
Major role of thymic epithelial cells is to test, whether TCRs are "functional" and on the other hand "harmless" to our body. While cTECs control the functionality of TCRs during the process called positive selection, Medullary thymic epithelial cells that home in the inner part of the thymus- medulla, present on their MHC molecules self-peptides, generated by protein Autoimmune regulator, to eliminate T cells with self-reactive TCRs via processes of central tolerance e.g. negative selection and protect the body against development of autoimmunity. Major function of cTECs is to positively select those T cells that are capable to recognize and interact with MHC molecules on their surface. Once T cell precursors enter the thymic cortex, they start their transformation from double negative stages to a double positive stage that expresses recombined TCR; this stage undergoes above mentioned selection process. Interaction between TCR of double positive T cell and MHC I molecule leads to loss of CD4 expression and double positive T cell becomes CD8 single positive T cell, engagement of MHC II molecule leads to the development into CD4 single positive T cell.
It was described that CD8/CD4 restriction is influenced by transcription factors Runx3, in the case of CD8 restriction, Th-POK which directs the development into CD4 T cell lineage and represses the expression of Runx3. More than 90% of double positive T cells are unable to reach this interaction and they die by neglect. Besides double positive-single positive transition, TCR-MHC interaction triggers the expression of CCR7, chemokine receptor which recognizes chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, that are produced by mTECs in the medulla, positively selected T cells start to migrate to medulla via their gradient, it is incompletely understood whether presence of peptide ligands on MHC molecules of cTECs plays some role in positive selection. But it is that these peptide-MHC complexes are unique and different from self-peptides presented by mTECs, since cTECs developed unique proteolytic pathways. Indeed, there is slight evidence focused on unique cTEC peptide ligands its more systematic characterization is still required.
Enzymatic machinery for MHC I antigen processing and presentation in cTECs involves thymoproteasome, defined by the presence of β5t subunit encoded by Psmb11 gene. Knockout of this gene revealed only slight reduction in positive selection of CD8 T cells, but TCR repertoire of these cells was shown to be limited and they revealed impaired immunological properties e.g. bad antigen responsiveness and failure to maintain naive population in the periphery. Β5t subunit was shown to reduce chymotrypsin-like activity of thymoproteasomes, resulting in generation of low affinity peptides. Such finding was confirmed by study, focused on properties of thymoproteasome- chopped peptides. Low affinity interactions are considered to result in positive selection, whereas high affinity interactions are typical for negative selection and interaction with mTECs. MHC II processing and presentation in cTECs tooks advantage of several proteolytic pathways including cathepsin L, encoded by Ctsl gene. Cathepsin S, produced by most of the antigen- presenting cells along with mTECs is absent in cTECs.
Cathepsin L not only cleaves invariant chain as other cathepsins was shown to cleave peptides for MHC II presentation and enlarge the pool of cTEC unique peptide ligands. Ctsl knouckout mouse revealed severe reduction in frequency and repertoire of CD4 T cells and impairment of invariant chain degradation. Another study revealed that reduction of T cell repertoire wasn´t caused by absence of invariant chain degradation, rather due to alterations in repertoire of cathepsin L cleaved peptides. Thymus specific serine protease is another cTEC specific enzyme, encoded by Prss16 gene, involved in MHC II peptide processing. Prss16 knockout mice revealed reduced repertoire of positively selected CD4 T cells. Common feature of cTECs and mTECs is constitutive macroautophagy; this process involves engulfment of portion of cytoplasm that contains organelles and vesicles into autophagosome that fuses with late endosomes or lysosomes and its content is chopped to small peptides. CTECs and mTECs utilize this endogenous pathway for MHC II presentation during selection processes, instead of common loading of exogenous peptides.
Mouse with deficient macroautophagy in the thymus, revealed reduced numbers and repertoire of CD4 T cells. CTECs and mTECs ori