Third Whitlam Ministry
The Third Whitlam Ministry was the fiftieth Australian Commonwealth ministry, ran from 12 June 1974 to 11 November 1975. It was dismissed in the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Australian Labor Party Hon Gough Whitlam, QC MP: Prime Minister. Minister for the Environment Hon Dr Jim Cairns, MP: Deputy Prime Minister. Minister for Overseas Trade. Treasurer. Minister for the Environment Hon Rex Connor, MP: Minister for Minerals and Energy Hon Bill Hayden, MP: Minister for Social Security. Treasurer Senator Hon Lionel Murphy, QC: Attorney-General, Minister for Customs and Excise Senator Hon Donald Willesee: Minister for Foreign Affairs Senator Hon Ken Wriedt: Minister for Agriculture. Minister for Minerals and Energy Hon Frank Crean, MP: Treasurer. Minister for Overseas Trade. Deputy Prime Minister Hon Fred Daly, MP: Minister for Services and Property. Minister for Administrative Services Senator Hon Doug McClelland: Minister for the Media. Special Minister of State Hon Lance Barnard, MP: Minister for Defence Hon Dr Rex Patterson, MP: Minister for Northern Development, Minister for the Northern Territory.
Minister for Northern Australia. Minister for Agriculture. Hon Clyde Cameron, MP: Minister for Labour and Immigration. Minister for Science and Consumer Affairs Hon Kim Beazley, MP: Minister for Education Hon Lionel Bowen, MP: Special Minister of State. Minister assisting the Prime Minister in matters relating to the Public Service. Minister for Manufacturing Industry Senator Hon John Wheeldon: Minister for Repatriation and Compensation. Minister for Social Security. Hon Tom Uren, MP: Minister for Urban and Regional Development Senator Hon Reg Bishop: Postmaster-General Hon Les Johnson, MP: Minister for Housing and Construction. Minister for Aboriginal Affairs Hon Charles Jones, MP: Minister for Transport Hon Dr Doug Everingham, MP: Minister for Health Hon Kep Enderby, QC MP: Minister for Manufacturing Industry. Attorney-General. Minister for Customs and Excise. Minister for Police and Customs. Hon Gordon Bryant, MP: Minister for the Capital Territory Hon Dr Moss Cass, MP: Minister for the Environment and Conservation.
Minister for Environment. Minister for the Media Senator Hon Jim Cavanagh: Minister for Aboriginal Affairs. Minister for Police and Customs Hon Bill Morrison, MP: Minister for Science, Minister assisting the Minister for Foreign Affairs in matters relating to Papua New Guinea. Minister for Defence, Minister assisting the Minister for Foreign Affairs in matters relating to the Islands of the Pacific, Minister for Science and Consumer Affairs Hon Frank Stewart, MP: Minister for Tourism and Recreation, Vice-President of the Executive Council, Minister assisting the Treasurer Senator Hon Jim McClelland: Minister for Manufacturing Industry. Minister for Labour and Immigration Hon Joseph Riordan, MP: Minister for Housing and Construction Hon Joe Berinson, MP: Minister for Environment Hon Paul Keating, MP: Minister for Northern Australia The order of seniority in the Whitlam Ministry was determined by the order in which members were elected to the Ministry by the Caucus on 10 June 1974, except for the four parliamentary leaders
Jim Fraser (politician)
James Reay Fraser was a Member of the Australian House of Representatives for the Australian Capital Territory from 1951 to 1970. Fraser was born in Derby and educated at Launceston High School, he worked as a chainman and axeman and as a teacher in Victorian state schools from 1927 to 1935. He worked as a journalist until he enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force in 1942 and served in New Guinea until 1945. From 1946 to 1948 he worked as a journalist in the Department of Information in Canberra and as press secretary and private secretary to Senator Nick McKenna until 1951. Fraser became a member of the Australian Capital Territory Advisory Council in 1949 and defeated Lewis Nott for the House of Representatives seat of the Australian Capital Territory in the 1951 election, he did not have full voting rights until 1966. He put in energy looking after the interests of his constituents. In 1959, he married Helen Whitten Rowland, he died of cancer in 1970, survived by his only son Andrew.
His brother, Allan Fraser, was MP for the adjoining seat of Eden-Monaro from 1943 to 1966 and from 1969 to 1972. The Division of Fraser and the suburb of Fraser, Australian Capital Territory, both in Canberra, were named after him; the name of the Division of Fraser was changed in 2016 to Fenner, as a division in Victoria has been named after the former prime minister Malcolm Fraser from 2019
The Amateur Championship
The Amateur Championship is a golf tournament, held annually in the United Kingdom since 1885 except during the two World Wars, in 1949 when Ireland hosted the championship. It is one of the two leading individual tournaments for amateur golfers, alongside the U. S. Amateur, it has the widest international representation of any individual amateur event, with 38 golf federations from all six continents represented in the 2018 championship. Before World War II it was regarded as one of golf's major championships, but given the modern dominance of the sport by professional golfers, this is no longer the case. Two Amateur Championship winners in the post-World War II era have gone on to win professional major championships: José María Olazábal and Sergio García; the inaugural championship was held in 1885 by the Royal Liverpool Golf Club and was, for many years, regarded as an unofficial event. In 1922, the R&A decided that Allan Macfie, the winner of the event, should be added to the list of Amateur Championship winners.
The tournament was played on 20, 21 and 23 April and was "open to all amateur members of recognised golf clubs". The format was match-play. All players were included in the draw for any extra player receiving a bye. If a match was halved after the 18 holes both players progressed to the next round, playing each other again. There were 49 entries from 12 different clubs, although only 44 were included in the draw and four of these players did not turn up. Of the 22 first-round matches, 2 were halved, meaning that there were 12 matches in the second round. There were no more halved matches in the following rounds which meant that 3 players reached the semi-final stage. John Ball beat his father called John, in the third round. Allan Macfie received a bye at the semi-final stage with Horace Hutchinson beating Ball 2 up in the only semi-final match. After his morning round, Hutchinson played badly in the afternoon and Macfie won 7&6; each player paid a 1 guinea entry fee. This, together with 25 guineas from the Royal Liverpool club, was used for prizes.
The losing finalist received £10 with the remainder being used to buy plate for the winner. The final amount for the winner was about £60 or £70. By comparison the winner of the 1885 Open Championship received £10. Entry to the Championship is now given to the most-qualified 288 applicants from around the world, with half the places reserved for top players from the United Kingdom and Ireland. Qualifying rounds for all players were first introduced in 1983, when the popularity of the championship led to the number of applicants increasing to unmanageable levels. Major golf nations are allocated entries on what amounts to a quota basis for their top applicants, with each applicant's national federation cooperating with the R&A on selection. For example, the 2010 entry list included players from the British Isles, mainland Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Africa; the first stage of the Championship involves 288 players, each of whom plays two rounds of 18 holes, one on each of two courses, over the first two days.
The 64 lowest scores over the 36 holes, ties for 64th place compete in the match play stage of the Championship, on the event's principal course, are seeded by qualifying scores. Each match consists of one round of 18 holes, except for the Final, over 36 holes. Since there are more than 64 qualifiers from the stroke play stage, the first round of the match play involves a small number of matches to reduce the number of qualifiers to 64. Tied matches are broken by sudden death over extra holes; the event is played in June with a Monday to Saturday schedule. The winner receives invitations to three of the major championships, namely the following month's Open Championship, the following year's Masters Tournament and U. S. Open provided; the Amateur Championship is open to amateur golfers of any nationality in good standing with their national federations. Briton John Ball won the most career titles, with eight. Ball was still competing in the event as late as 1921 at Royal Liverpool Golf Club. In modern times, Briton Michael Bonallack's five titles lead.
The most famous American winner of the competition was Bobby Jones, whose 1930 victory was part of his Grand Slam. The courses that have hosted the Amateur the most times: 18 Royal Liverpool Golf Club 16 St Andrews Links 14 Royal St George's Golf Club 11 Prestwick Golf Club, Muirfield Sixteen players have won more than one Amateur Championship, as of 2018: 8 wins: John Ball 5 wins: Michael Bonallack 4 wins: Harold Hilton 3 wins: Joe Carr 2 wins: Horace Hutchinson, Johnny Laidlay, Freddie Tait, Robert Maxwell, Ernest Holderness, Cyril Tolley, Lawson Little, Frank Stranahan, Trevor Homer, Dick Siderowf, Peter McEvoy, Gary WolstenholmeThree players have won both the Amateur and the Open Championship: John Ball – 1888, 1890, 1892, 1894, 1899, 1907, 1910, 1912 Amateurs. 2020 - Royal Birkdale Golf Club & West Lancashire Golf Club. Official website
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
1971 Canberra flood
The 1971 Canberra flood was a flash flood that occurred on 26 January 1971, in the Woden Valley district of Canberra, Australia. The flood killed seven people including four children, affected 500 people; the insurance damage was estimated at A$9 million. It was estimated; the Yarralumla Creek drainage channel peak rate of flow measured 186,891 litres per second at the Carruthers Street pluviograph near Yarra Glen at around 8:50pm. The force of the water was strong enough to turn a bus 180 degrees on Melrose Drive south east of the intersection with Yarra Glen; the intersection was covered to a depth of an estimated 1.83m and the floodwaters spread an estimated 183m wide, east to west across the intersection of Yamba Drive, Melrose Drive and Yarra Glen. A number of people and cars were swept into the Yarralumla Creek drainage channel from a low level crossing at the junction of Yamba Drive, Melrose Drive and Yarra Glen. Yamba Drive was covered in fast flowing water to at least 275m south of the Hindmarsh Drive intersection where a white car and the driver were swept into the Long Gully drainage channel.
The 1971 Canberra flood victims names and ages: Carmel Anne Smith Margaret Mary Smith Michael John Smith Jennifer Ann Seymour Dianne Elizabeth Seymour Lon Victor Cumberland Roderick Dumaresq Simon One Australian Police Officer, Constable Jeff Brown, was six months awarded the British Empire Medal for Gallantry for rescue efforts during the event. Four Australian Police Officers were awarded the Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct for rescue efforts during the event. Following the flood seven crosses were erected near the side of the road to mark the victims. A permanent memorial was dedicated on 26 January 2010. Severe storms in Australia List of disasters in Australia by death toll Cumberland, Una. Designed to Overflow. Ginninderra Press. ISBN 1-876259-82-5. Australia. Dept. of the Interior. Report of Woden Valley flood of 26 January 1971. Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-642-98164-7. Archives ACT file 71/266 parts 1-6 National Capital Development Commission. Woden Valley floods 26 January 1971.
Archives ACT file 71/344 Department of the Interior. Land Administration Branch. Yarralumla Creek flood complaints and eye witness accounts. Archives ACT file 71/924 Department of the Interior. Woden Valley flood reports; the Canberra Times, The Tuesday it rained heartbreak. The Canberra Times, 1 Dead, 4 Missing in Storm Flash flood in Woden Valley; the Canberra Times, Search for further victims of disaster continues 4 bodies found, three people missing. The Canberra Times, Tragedy in Woden; the Canberra Times, Canberra flood. The Canberra Times, Woden flood inquiry; the Canberra Times, Coroner's verdict. BOM Pluvial period of the 1970s BOM Summary of Significant Severe Thunderstorm Events in the ACT and NSW - 1970/1979 BOM Impact of Severe Thunderstorms in Australia The Canberra Times, Finding peace at last after floods ABC News story
NSW Council for Civil Liberties
Founded in 1963, the charter of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties is to protect the equal rights of all citizens and oppose all or any abuse or excessive power by the State against its people. The Council for Civil Liberties has a committee elected by volunteers whose primary role is to influence public debate and government policy on a range of human rights issues; the goal of the Council is to secure amendments to laws, or changes in policy, where civil liberties are not being respected. Another role of the Council is to listen to individual complaints and, through volunteer efforts, help members of the public with civil liberties problems; the Council prepares submissions to government, conducts court cases defending infringements of civil liberties, engages in public debates, produces publications, conducts many other activities. Current issues range from the bill of rights, the death penalty, prisoners issues, free speech, sniffer dogs, double jeopardy, freedom of information, the right to protest, ATSI rights, asylum seekers, drug reform and privacy.
Stephen Blanks, President from October 2013 Cameron Murphy, President from October 1998 - October 2013 Kevin O'Rourke John Marsden President of NSW Council for Civil Liberties Stephen Blanks raised questions about the use of drones for police investigations of crime scenes. In June 2015 Blanks said,"There are obvious benefits for crime investigation as long as guidelines are in place which say how the information is going to be used and how inappropriate access is going to be prevented." Paul Lynch MP, Shadow Attorney General acknowledges the contribution of the NSWCCL in Parliament in November 2013 on the occasion of its 50th Anniversary. In a recent speech to the NSW Council for Civil Liberties, High Court Justice Michael Kirby delivered an important reminder to all civil libertarians: "Let there be no doubt that real terrorists are the enemies of civil liberties... "Nevertheless...we must recognise...the need to draw a distinction between'terrorists' and those who are objecting to injustice as they see it.
In his day, Mahatma Gandhi was called a terrorist. So was Nelson Mandela... " that, in responding to violent antagonists, democratic communities must do so in a way, as far as possible, consistent with the defence of civil liberties." Http://www.nswccl.org.au Official web site