A handkerchief is a form of a kerchief or bandanna a hemmed square of thin fabric or paper which can be carried in the pocket or handbag, and, intended for personal hygiene purposes such as wiping one's hands or face, or blowing one's nose. A handkerchief is sometimes used as a purely decorative accessory in a suit pocket, it is called a pocket square, it is an important accessory in many folkdances in many regions like the Balkans and the Middle East. The material of a handkerchief can be symbolic of the socioeconomic class of the user, not only because some materials are more expensive, but because some materials are more absorbent and practical for those who use a handkerchief for more than style. Handkerchiefs can be made of cotton-synthetic blend, synthetic fabric, silk, or linen. Handkerchiefs are used as an impromptu way to carry around small items when a bag or basket is unavailable, they could serve as a substitute for a bandage over a small injury. In the United Kingdom, the habit of wearing a handkerchief with tied corners on one's head at the beach has become a seaside postcard stereotype.
Signals may be sent by handkerchief, such as the American LGBT handkerchief codes. In Spanish football or in bullfighting, it is a common sight to see supporters waving white handkerchiefs as an expression of deep emotion, it is used both positively, in admiration of an exceptional performance by a team or player, or as a negative sign of disgust at an bad performance. From the late 18th century white handkerchiefs were waved by women, to demonstrate approval at public events such as processions or political rallies. Using handkerchiefs to accentuate hand movements while dancing is a feature of both West African and African-American traditional dance, in the latter case in wedding celebrations. Handkerchiefs are traditional accoutrements in certain kinds of English folk dance, such as the Morris dance. Besides their intended use, they could be used for cleaning equipment, polishing shoes, cleaning hands and face, signalling for attention, as a sweat band, neckerchief, as protection from dust inhalation, to repair footwear, cut out pieces to patch clothes, cut up as emergency firearms cleaning patches, Molotov cocktail wick, hot cooking utensil holder, a makeshift bandage, tourniquet, or arm sling.
Before people used the word handkerchief, the word kerchief alone was common. This term came from two French words: couvrir, which means “to cover,” and chef, which means “head.” In the times of ancient Greece and Rome, handkerchiefs were used the way they are today. But in the Middle Ages, kerchiefs were used to cover the head. In the 16th century, people in Europe began to carry kerchiefs in their pockets to wipe their forehead or their nose. To distinguish this kind of kerchief from the one used to cover the head, the word "hand" was added to "kerchief". King Richard II of England, who reigned from 1377 to 1399, is believed to have invented the cloth handkerchief, as surviving documents written by his courtiers describe his use of square pieces of cloth to wipe his nose, they were in existence by Shakespeare's time, a handkerchief is an important plot device in his play Othello. In addition to carrying for practical purposes, handkerchiefs have long been displayed in the top pocket of men's jackets.
Used in this way, they are referred to as a pocket pocket square. A traditional pocket square will have the hem rolled, contrary to handkerchiefs; the trend of pocket squares as a fashion accessory started during the 1920s, continued until the 1960s. During that period, actors such as Cary Grant, Fred Astaire and Gary Cooper wore them regularly; the pocket square subsequently fell into disuse until the late 2000s when it made a comeback thanks in part to popular television shows such as Mad Men. Pocket squares are made in fabrics such as silk, linen or wool; as a visible fashion item there are a wide variety of ways to fold a pocket square, ranging from the austere to the flamboyant: The Presidential, or Flat Fold the simplest, is folded at right angles to fit in the pocket. The Winged Puff, a simple and elegant fold; the Puff or the Cooper is shaped into a round puff. The Reverse Puff, or The Crown Fold, is like the Puff, except with the puff inside and the points out, like petals; the Westo Four Point fold.
The TV Fold is folded diagonally with the point inside the pocket. The One-point Fold is folded diagonally with the point showing; the Two-point Fold is folded off-center so the two points do not overlap. The Three-point Fold is first folded into a triangle the corners are folded up and across to make three points; the Four-point Fold is an off-center version of the Three-point Fold. The Cagney is a backwards version of the Four-point Fold; the Astaire is a puff with a point on either side. The Straight Shell is pleated and folded over to give the appearance of nested shells; the Diagonal Shell is pleated diagonally and folded. Napkin Sachet Facial tissue Antimacassar Dudou, sometimes described as a handkerchief blouse
A scarf, plural scarves, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck for warmth, sun protection, fashion, or religious reasons. They can be made in a variety of different materials such as linen or cotton, it is a common type of neckwear. Scarves have been worn since ancient times; the Statue of Ashurnasirpal II from the 9th century BC features the emperor wearing a shawl. In Ancient Rome, the garment was used to keep clean rather than warm, it was called a focale or sudarium, was used to wipe the sweat from the neck and face in hot weather. They were worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt. Historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors. In times, scarves were worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century; the only difference in the soldiers' scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves.
Some of the Croatian soldiers served as mercenaries with the French forces. The men's scarves were sometimes referred to as "cravats", were the precursor of the necktie; the scarf became a real fashion accessory by the early 19th century for both women. By the middle of the 20th century, scarves became one of the most essential and versatile clothing accessories for both men and women. In cold climates, a thick knitted scarf made of wool, is tied around the neck to keep warm; this is accompanied by a heavy jacket or coat. In drier, dustier warm climates, or in environments where there are many airborne contaminants, a thin headscarf, kerchief, or bandanna is worn over the eyes and nose and mouth to keep the hair clean. Over time, this custom has evolved into a fashionable item in many cultures among women; the cravat, an ancestor of the necktie and bow tie, evolved from scarves of this sort in Croatia. In India, woollen scarfs with Bandhani work use tie and dye technique used in Bhuj and Mandvi of the Kutch District of Gujarat State.
Scarves that are used to cover the lower part of face are sometimes called a cowl. Scarves can be colloquially called a neck-wrap. Scarfs can be tied in many ways including the pussy-cat bow, the square knot, the cowboy bib, the ascot knot, the loop, the necktie, the gypsy kerchief. Scarfs can be tied in various ways on the head. Several Christian denominations include a scarf known as a Stole as part of their liturgical vestments. Silk scarves were used by pilots of early aircraft in order to keep oily smoke from the exhaust out of their mouths while flying; these were worn by pilots of closed cockpit aircraft to prevent neck chafing by fighter pilots, who were turning their heads from side to side watching for enemy aircraft. Today, military flight crews wear scarves imprinted with unit insignia and emblems not for functional reasons but instead for esprit-de-corps and heritage. Students in the United Kingdom traditionally wear academic scarves with distinctive combinations of striped colours identifying their individual university or college.
Members of the Scouting movement wear a scarf-like item called a neckerchief as part of their uniform, sometimes referred to as a scarf. In some Socialist countries Young pioneers wore. Since at least the early 1900s, when the phenomenon began in Britain, coloured scarves have been traditional supporter wear for fans of association football teams across the world those in warmer climates; these scarves come in a wide variety of sizes and are made in a club's particular colours and may contain the club crest, pictures of renowned players, various slogans relating to the history of the club and its rivalry with others. At some clubs supporters will sometimes perform a'scarf wall' in which all supporters in a section of the stadium will stretch out their scarves above their heads with both hands, creating an impressive'wall' of colour; this is accompanied by the singing of a club anthem such as "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Liverpool F. C. or "Grazie Roma" at A. S. Roma; this was solely a British phenomenon, but has since spread to the rest of Europe and South America.
Some clubs supporters will perform a scarf'twirl' or'twirly' in which a group of supporters hold the scarves above their heads with one hand, twirl the scarf, creating a'blizzard' of colour. This is accompanied by a club anthem such as "Hey Jude" at Heart of Midlothian F. C. Scarf wearing is a noted feature of support for Australian rules football clubs in the Australian Football League; the scarves are in the form of alternating bars of colour with the team name or mascot written on each second bar. The craft of knitting garments such as scarves is an important trade in some countries. Hand-knitted scarves are still common as gifts as well. Printed scarves are additionally offered internationally through high fashion design houses. Among the latter are Burberry, Alexander McQueen, Cole Haan, Etro, Hermès, Nicole Miller, Emilio Pucci, Fendi, Louis Vuitton and Prada. There are three basic scarf shapes: square and rectangular; the main manufacturer of fashion scarves used today is China. The most common materials used to make fashion scarves are silk, cotton and pashmina or other cashmere wool.
Piña is a fiber made from the leaves of a pineapple plant and is used in the Philippines. It is sometimes combined with polyester to create a textile fabric. Piña's name comes from the Spanish word piña which means pineapple, although it has been in usage prior to the Spanish era in the Philippines. In February 2018, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, along with the government of Aklan, began the process of nominating Kalibo piña weaving in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Since piña is from a leaf, the leaf has to be cut first from the plant; the fiber is pulled or split away from the leaf. Most leaf fibers are somewhat stiff; each strand of the piña fiber is hand scraped and is knotted one by one to form a continuous filament to be handwoven and made into a piña cloth. Kalibo, Aklan, is the main and the oldest manufacturer/weaver of piña cloth in the Philippines which are being exported to various parts of the world most North America, Europe. Piña weaving is an age-old tradition, revived in the past 20 years.
Pineapple silk was considered the queen of Philippine fabrics and is considered the fabric of choice of the Philippine elite. During the 1996 APEC summit held in the Philippines, world leaders donned Barong Tagalog made of piña sourced from Kalibo during the group photo. Producers include La Herminia Piña Weaving Industry, Malabon Pina Producers and Weavers Association, Reycon's Piña Cloth and Industry, Rurungan sa Tubod Foundation. A major use for piña fabric is in the creation of the Barong Tagalog and other formal wear in the Philippines, it is used for other table linens, bags and other clothing items, or anytime that a lightweight, but stiff and sheer fabric is needed. Abacá Batik Inabel Malong Tapis T'nalak Textiles Ninth Edition
The baro’t saya is the national dress of the Philippines. Barong being its masculine equivalent. Both are all traditionally made of piña though other materials that are not piña are used in some baro't saya and barong; the early pre-colonial clothing of ethnic groups such as the Tagalogs and Visayans included both the baro and saya made from silk in matching colours, this style was worn by the women from the upper caste, while those of lower castes wore baro made from pounded white bark fibre. Tribes whose traditional attire resembles more ancient styles include the Tumandok of Panay— the only Visayan people who were not hispanicized. Maria Clara gown and Terno emerged from Baro't Saya. Fashion and clothing in the Philippines Barong Tagalog Maria Clara gown
Tengkolok known as destar, setanjak/tanjak, setangan kepala, is a traditional Malay male headgear. It is made from long songket cloth tied in particular style. Nowadays, it is worn in ceremonious functions, such as royal ceremony by royalties, wedding ceremony by grooms; the Malays in the state of Kelantan wear. According to the 4th edition of Kamus Dewan, the terms "tengkolok", "destar", "setanjak"/"tanjak" are synonyms. However, some people say that tengkolok and tanjak are different in term of cloth type or tying though the purpose is the same, which the tengkolok is a headgear made from cloth of good quality and its tying has many layers and tapers to tip, it is accepted. Before that time, commoners were obliged to cover their head or to tie their long hair, becoming neater and tidier when seeking an audience with sultan. Malaccan Malays managed to use a long rectangular cloth and tied into a kind of neat headgear, to wear it in formal affairs; this cloth-tying became more beautiful as the time goes and adapted depending on the status of its wearer.
Tengkolok is made in various forms, with different types and design of cloth, depending on the social status of its dress. The general term for different forms of tengkolok is "solek"; each different solek has its special name, for instance: the tengkolok worn by Yang di-Pertuan Agong during coronation ceremony since the time of independence is known as "Solek Dendam Tak Sudah". Every Malay king has their particular solek. For example, the Sultan of Selangor wears a richly golden yellow "Solek Balung Raja" when attending a coronation ceremony or his birthday ceremony
A hachimaki is a stylized headband in Japanese culture made of red or white cloth. They are worn as a symbol of effort or courage by the wearer, or to keep sweat off of one's face; the origin of hachimaki is uncertain. The most common theory states that they originated as headbands worn by samurai to line their heads with cloth; this was to make wearing the helmet more comfortable. Kamikaze pilots wore hachimaki before flying to their deaths. Hachimaki are decorated with inspirational slogans, such as "Nippon Ichi", with the rising sun motif in between the kanji. Here are some common slogans: Ichiban Goukaku Hisshō Nihon/Nippon Kamikaze Toukon Tenugui
Abacá, binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines and Costa Rica. The plant known as Manila hemp, has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems; the plant grows to 13–22 feet, averages about 12 feet. The fiber was used for making twines and ropes, it is classified as a hard fiber, along with coir and sisal. The abacá plant is stoloniferous, meaning that the plant produces runners or shoots along the ground that root at each segment. Cutting and transplanting rooted runners is the primary technique for creating new plants, since seed growth is slower. Abacá has pseudostem about 6 -- 15 inches in diameter; the leaf stalks are expanded at the base to form sheaths that are wrapped together to form the pseudostem. There are from 12 to 25 leaves, dark green on the top and pale green on the underside, sometimes with large brown patches, they are oblong in shape with a deltoid base.
They grow in succession. The petioles grow to at least 1 foot in length; when the plant is mature, the flower stalk grows up inside the pseudostem. The male flower has each about 1.5 inches long. The leaf sheaths contain the valuable fiber. After harvesting, the coarse fibers range in length from 6–12 feet long, they are composed of cellulose and pectin. The fruit, inedible and is seen as harvesting occurs before the plant fruits, grows to about 2–3 inches in length and 1 inch in diameter, it has black turbinate seeds. The abacá plant belongs to Musaceae, its scientific name is Musa textilis. Within the genus Musa, it is placed in section Callimusa, members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. Before synthetic textiles came into use, M. textilis was a major source of high quality fiber: soft and fine. Ancestors of the modern abaca are thought to have originated from the Eastern Philippines where there are lot of rains, in fact wild type of abaca can still be found in the interior forests of Catanduanes Island, not cultivated.
Today, Catanduanes has many other modern kinds of abaca. For many years, breeders from various research institutions have made the cultivated varieties of Catanduanes Island more competitive in local and international markets; this results in the optimum production of the island which had a consistent highest production throughout the archipelago. Europeans first came into contact with Abaca fibre when Magellan made land in the Philippines in 1521, as the natives were cultivating it and utilizing it in bulk for textiles already. By 1897, the Philippines were exporting 100,000 tons of abacá, it was one of the three biggest cash crops, along with tobacco and sugar. In fact, from 1850 through the end of the 19th century, sugar or abacá alternated with each other as the biggest export crop of the Philippines; this 19th-century trade was predominantly with the United States and the making of ropes was done in New England, although in time the rope-making was moved back to the Philippines. Excluding the Philippines, abacá was first cultivated on a large scale in Sumatra in 1925 under the Dutch, who had observed its cultivation in the Philippines for cordage since the nineteenth century, followed up by plantings in Central America in 1929 sponsored by the U.
S. Department of Agriculture, it was transplanted into India and Guam. Commercial planting began in 1930 in British North Borneo. In the early 1900s, a train running from Danao to Argao would transport Philippine abaca from the plantations to Cebu city for export; the train and tracks were destroyed during the Second world war, however the Abaca plantations continue and are now transported to Cebu by road. After the war, the U. S. Department of Agriculture started production in Panama, Costa Rica and Guatemala. Today, abacá is produced in the Philippines and Ecuador; the Philippines produces between 85% and 95% of the world's abacá, the production employs 1.5 million people. Production has declined because of virus diseases. Due to its strength, it is the strongest of the natural fibers, it is used by the paper industry for such specialty uses such as tea bags and decorative papers. It can be used to make handcrafts such as bags, carpets and furniture. Abacá rope is durable and resistant to salt water damage, allowing its use in hawsers, ship's lines and fishing nets.
A 1 inch rope can require 4 metric tons to break. Abacá fiber was once used for rope, but this application is now of minor significance. Lupis is the finest quality of abacá. Sinamay is woven chiefly from abacá; the inner fibers are used in the making of hats, including the "Manila hats," hammocks, cordage, coarse twines, types of canvas. It is called Manila hemp in the market although it is unlike true hemp, is known as Cebu hemp and Davao hemp. Abacá cloth is found in museum collections around the world, like the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Textile Museum of Canada. Philippine indigenous