Single point of failure
A single point of failure is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working. SPOFs are undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or reliability, be it a business practice, software application, or other industrial system. Systems can be made robust by adding redundancy in all potential SPOFs. For instance, the owner of a small tree care company may only own one woodchipper. If the chipper breaks, he may be unable to complete his current job and may have to cancel future jobs until he can obtain a replacement. Redundancy can be achieved at various levels. For instance, the owner of the tree care company may have spare parts ready for the repair of the wood chipper, in case it fails. At a higher level, he may have a second wood chipper. At the highest level, he may have enough equipment available to replace everything at the work site in the case of multiple failures; the assessment of a potential SPOF involves identifying the critical components of a complex system that would provoke a total systems failure in case of malfunction.
Reliable systems should not rely on any such individual component. In computing, redundancy can be achieved at the internal component level, at the system level, or site level. One would deploy a load balancer to ensure high availability for a server cluster at the system level. In a high-availability server cluster, each individual server may attain internal component redundancy by having multiple power supplies, hard drives, other components. System level redundancy could be obtained by having spare servers waiting to take on the work of another server if it fails. Since a data center is a support center for other operations such as business logic, it represents a potential SPOF in itself. Thus, at the site level, the entire cluster may be replicated at another location, where it can be accessed in case the primary location becomes unavailable; this is addressed as part of an IT disaster recovery program. Paul Baran and Donald Davies developed packet switching, a key part of "survivable communications networks".
Such networks – including ARPANET and the Internet – are designed to have no single point of failure. Multiple paths between any two points on the network allow those points to continue communicating with each other, the packets "routing around" damage after any single failure of any one particular path or any one intermediate node. Network protocols used to prevent SPOF: Intermediate System to Intermediate System Open Shortest Path First Shortest Path Bridging In software engineering, a bottleneck occurs when the capacity of an application or a computer system is limited by a single component; the bottleneck has lowest throughput of all parts of the transaction path. Tracking down bottlenecks is called performance analysis. Reduction is achieved with the help of specialized tools, known as performance analyzers or profilers; the objective being to make those particular sections of code perform as fast as possible to improve overall algorithmic efficiency. A mistake in just one component can compromise the entire system.
The concept of a single point of failure has been applied to fields outside of engineering and networking, such as corporate supply chain management and transportation management. Design structures that create single points of failure include bottlenecks and series circuits. In transportation, some noted recent examples of the concept's recent application have included the Nipigon River Bridge in Canada, where a partial bridge failure in January 2016 severed road traffic between Eastern Canada and Western Canada for several days because it is located along a portion of the Trans-Canada Highway where there is no alternate detour route for vehicles to take; the concept of a single point of failure has been applied to the fields of intelligence. Edward Snowden talked of the dangers of being what he described as "the single point of failure" – the sole repository of information
Bruce Schneier is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, he has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is the author of several books on computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization. Bruce Schneier is the son of a Brooklyn Supreme Court judge, he grew up in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, attending P. S. 139 and Hunter High School. After receiving a physics bachelor's degree from the University of Rochester in 1984, he went to American University in Washington, D. C. and got his master's degree in computer science in 1988. He was awarded an honorary Ph. D from the University of Westminster in London, England in November 2011; the award was made by the Department of Electronics and Computer Science in recognition of Schneier's'hard work and contribution to industry and public life'.
Schneier was a founder and chief technology officer of BT Managed Security Solutions Counterpane Internet Security, Inc. In 1994, Schneier published Applied Cryptography, which details the design and implementation of cryptographic algorithms. In 2010 he published Cryptography Engineering, focused more on how to use cryptography in real systems and less on its internal design, he has written books on security for a broader audience. In 2000, Schneier published Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. Schneier writes a available monthly Internet newsletter on computer and other security issues, Crypto-Gram, as well as a security weblog, Schneier on Security; the blog focuses on the latest threats, his own thoughts. The weblog started out as a way to publish essays before they appeared in Crypto-Gram, making it possible for others to comment on them while the stories were still current, but over time the newsletter became a monthly email version of the blog, re-edited and re-organized.
Schneier is quoted in the press on computer and other security issues, pointing out flaws in security and cryptographic implementations ranging from biometrics to airline security after the September 11 attacks. Schneier revealed on his blog that in the December 2004 issue of the SIGCSE Bulletin, three Pakistani academics, Khawaja Amer Hayat, Umar Waqar Anis, S. Tauseef-ur-Rehman, from the International Islamic University in Islamabad, plagiarized an article written by Schneier and got it published; the same academics subsequently plagiarized another article by Ville Hallivuori on "Real-time Transport Protocol security" as well. Schneier complained to the editors of the periodical; the editor of the SIGCSE Bulletin removed the paper from their website and demanded official letters of admission and apology. Schneier noted on his blog that International Islamic University personnel had requested him "to close comments in this blog entry". Schneier warns about misplaced trust in blockchain and the lack of use cases, calling Blockchain a solution in search of a problem.
"What blockchain does is shift some of the trust in people and institutions to trust in technology. You need to trust the protocols, the software, the computers and the network, and you need to trust them because they’re single points of failure." He goes on to say that cryptocurrencies are useless and are only used by speculators looking for quick riches. To Schneier, peer review and expert analysis are important for the security of cryptographic systems. Mathematical cryptography is not the weakest link in a security chain; the term Schneier's law was coined by Cory Doctorow in a 2004 speech. The law is phrased as: Any person can invent a security system so clever that he or she can't imagine a way of breaking it, he attributes this to Bruce Schneier, who wrote in 1998: "Anyone, from the most clueless amateur to the best cryptographer, can create an algorithm that he himself can't break. It's not hard. What is hard is creating an algorithm that no one else can break after years of analysis."Similar sentiments had been expressed by others before.
In The Codebreakers, David Kahn states: "Few false ideas have more gripped the minds of so many intelligent men than the one that, if they just tried, they could invent a cipher that no one could break", in "A Few Words On Secret Writing", in July 1841, Edgar Allan Poe had stated: "Few persons can be made to believe that it is not quite an easy thing to invent a method of secret writing which shall baffle investigation. Yet it may be roundly asserted that human ingenuity cannot concoct a cipher which human ingenuity cannot resolve." Schneier is critical of digital rights management and has said that it allows a vendor to increase lock-in. Proper implementation of control-based security for the user via trusted computing is difficult, security is not the same thing as control. Schneier is a proponent of full disclosure. If researchers don't go public, things don’t get fixed. Companies don't see it as a security problem. Schnei
Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense; the originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature uses the names Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient, Eve for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become complex and its application more widespread.
Modern cryptography is based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means; these schemes are therefore termed computationally secure. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms; the growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
The first use of the term cryptograph dates back to the 19th century—originating from The Gold-Bug, a novel by Edgar Allan Poe. Until modern times, cryptography referred exclusively to encryption, the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible form. Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the reversing decryption; the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a "key". The key is a secret a short string of characters, needed to decrypt the ciphertext. Formally, a "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important both formally and in actual practice, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless for most purposes.
Ciphers were used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems: asymmetric. In symmetric systems the same key is used to decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they use shorter key lengths. Asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication. Examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, ECC. Symmetric models include the used AES which replaced the older DES. In colloquial use, the term "code" is used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning, it means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key required to do so; some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others use cryptography to refer to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.
English is more flexible than several other languages in which crypto
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. Founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts, it was a literary and cultural commentary magazine that published leading writers' commentary on abolition and other major issues in contemporary political affairs, its founders included Francis H. Underwood, along with prominent writers Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher Stowe, John Greenleaf Whittier. James Russell Lowell was its first editor, it was known for publishing literary pieces by leading writers. After financial hardship and ownership changes in the late 20th century, the magazine was purchased by businessman David G. Bradley, he refashioned it as a general editorial magazine aimed at a target audience of serious national readers and "thought leaders." In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in a decade. In 2016 the periodical was named Magazine of the Year by the American Society of Magazine Editors.
In July 2017, Bradley sold a majority interest in the publication to Laurene Powell Jobs's Emerson Collective. Its website, TheAtlantic.com, provides daily coverage and analysis of breaking news and international affairs, technology, health and culture. The editor of the website is Adrienne LaFrance; the Atlantic houses an editorial events arm, AtlanticLIVE. The Atlantic's president is Bob Cohn; the magazine, subscribed to by over 500,000 readers, publishes ten times a year. It was a monthly magazine for 144 years until 2001, it dropped "Monthly" from the cover beginning with the January/February 2004 issue, changed the name in 2007. The Atlantic features articles in the fields of politics, foreign affairs and the economy and the arts and science. On January 22, 2008, TheAtlantic.com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to browse its site, including all past archives. By 2011 The Atlantic's web properties included TheAtlanticWire.com, a news- and opinion-tracking site launched in 2009, TheAtlanticCities.com, a stand-alone website started in 2011, devoted to global cities and trends.
According to a Mashable profile in December 2011, "traffic to the three web properties surpassed 11 million uniques per month, up a staggering 2500% since The Atlantic brought down its paywall in early 2008."In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic.com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as topics related to the mind, sex and public health. Its launch was overseen by Nicholas Jackson, overseeing the Life channel and joined TheAtlantic.com to cover technology. TheAtlantic.com has expanded to visual storytelling, with the addition of the "In Focus" photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor. In 2011 it created its Video Channel. Created as an aggregator, The Atlantic's Video component, Atlantic Studios, has since evolved in an in-house production studio that creates custom video series and original documentaries. In 2015, TheAtlantic.com launched a dedicated Science section and in January 2016 it redesigned and expanded its politics section in conjunction with the 2016 U. S. presidential race.
A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published many significant authors. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe, William Parker, whose slave narrative, "The Freedman's Story" was published in February and March 1866, it published Charles W. Eliot's "The New Education", a call for practical reform, that led to his appointment to presidency of Harvard University in 1869. For example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction; the magazine published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one, lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural movements. For example, of the emerging writers of the 1920s, Ernest Hemingway had his short story "Fifty Grand" published in the July 1927 edition. In the midst of civil rights activism in the 20th century, the magazine published Martin Luther King, Jr.'s defense of civil disobedience in "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in August 1963.
The magazine has published speculative articles. The classic example is Vannevar Bush's essay "As We May Think", which inspired Douglas Engelbart and Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology; the Atlantic Monthly founded the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1917. Its published book included Drums Along the Blue Highways; the press was sold in 1986. In addition to publishing notable fiction and poetry, The Atlantic has emerged in the 21st century as an influential platform for longform storytelling and newsmaker interviews. Influential cover stories have included Anne Marie Slaughter's "Why Women Still Can't Have It All" and Ta-Nehisi Coates's "Case for Reparations". In 2015, Jeffrey Goldberg's "Obama Doctrine" was discussed by American media and prompted response by many world leaders; as of 2017, writers and frequent contributors to the print magazine include James F
Steven M. Bellovin
Steven M. Bellovin is a researcher on computer networking and security, he is a Professor in the Computer Science department at Columbia University, having been a Fellow at AT&T Labs Research in Florham Park, New Jersey. In September 2012, Bellovin was appointed Chief Technologist for the United States Federal Trade Commission, replacing Edward W. Felten, who returned to Princeton University. In February 2016, Bellovin became the first technology scholar for the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, he received a BA degree from Columbia University, an MS and PhD in Computer Science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As a graduate student, Bellovin was one of the originators of USENET, he suggested that Gene Spafford should create the Phage mailing list as a response to the Morris Worm. He and Michael Merritt invented the Encrypted key exchange password-authenticated key agreement methods, he was responsible for the discovery that one-time pads were invented in 1882, not 1917, as believed.
Bellovin has been active in the IETF. He was a member of the Internet Architecture Board from 1996–2002. Bellovin was Security Area co-director, a member of the Internet Engineering Steering Group from 2002–2004, he identified some key security weaknesses in the Domain Name System. He received 2007 National Computer Systems Security Award by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Security Agency. In 2001, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for his contributions to network and security. Bellovin is an active NetBSD user and a NetBSD developer focusing on architectural and security issues. Bellovin is the author and co-author of several books, RFCs and technical papers, including: Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker ISBN 0-201-63357-4 - one of the first books on internet security. Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker 2nd edition ISBN 0-201-63466-X Thinking Security: Stopping Next Year's Hackers ISBN 978-0134277547 RFC 1579 Firewall-Friendly FTP RFC 1675 Security Concerns for IPng RFC 1681 On Many Addresses per Host RFC 1948 Defending Against Sequence Number Attacks RFC 3514 The Security Flag in the IPv4 Header RFC 3554 On the Use of Stream Control Transmission Protocol with IPsec RFC 3631 Security Mechanisms for the Internet RFC 4107 Guidelines for Cryptographic Key Management As of November 11, 2015, his publications have been cited 12,669 times, he has an h-index of 46.
Computer security Cryptography Wily hacker web page "Steven M. Bellovin", DBLP Bibliography "Steven M. Bellovin Publications", ATT "Amnesty v. McConnell - Declaration of Steven M. Bellovin", ACLU
In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code. In common parlance, "cipher" is synonymous with "code", as they are both a set of steps that encrypt a message. Codes substitute different length strings of characters in the output, while ciphers substitute the same number of characters as are input. There are exceptions and some cipher systems may use more, or fewer, characters when output versus the number that were input. Codes operated by substituting according to a large codebook which linked a random string of characters or numbers to a word or phrase. For example, "UQJHSE" could be the code for "Proceed to the following coordinates." When using a cipher the original information is known as plaintext, the encrypted form as ciphertext. The ciphertext message contains all the information of the plaintext message, but is not in a format readable by a human or computer without the proper mechanism to decrypt it.
The operation of a cipher depends on a piece of auxiliary information, called a key. The encrypting procedure is varied depending on the key, which changes the detailed operation of the algorithm. A key must be selected before using a cipher to encrypt a message. Without knowledge of the key, it should be difficult, if not impossible, to decrypt the resulting ciphertext into readable plaintext. Most modern ciphers can be categorized in several ways By whether they work on blocks of symbols of a fixed size, or on a continuous stream of symbols. By whether the same key is used for both encryption and decryption, or if a different key is used for each. If the algorithm is symmetric, the key must be known to no one else. If the algorithm is an asymmetric one, the enciphering key is different from, but related to, the deciphering key. If one key cannot be deduced from the other, the asymmetric key algorithm has the public/private key property and one of the keys may be made public without loss of confidentiality.
The word "cipher" in former times meant "zero" and had the same origin: Middle French as cifre and Medieval Latin as cifra, from the Arabic صفر sifr = zero. "Cipher" was used for any decimal digit any number. There are many theories about how the word "cipher" may have come to mean "encoding". Encoding involved numbers; the Roman number system was cumbersome because there was no concept of zero. The concept of zero, now common knowledge, was alien to medieval Europe, so confusing and ambiguous to common Europeans that in arguments people would say "talk and not so far fetched as a cipher". Cipher came to mean concealment of clear messages or encryption; the French formed the word "chiffre" and adopted the Italian word "zero". The English used "zero" for "0", "cipher" from the word "ciphering" as a means of computing; the Germans used the words "Ziffer" and "Chiffre". The Dutch still use the word "cijfer" to refer to a numerical digit; the Slovaks also use the word "cifra" to refer to a numerical digit.
The Bosnians and Serbians use the word "cifra", which refers to a digit, or in some cases, any number. Besides "cifra", they use word "broj" for a number; the Italians and the Spanish use the word "cifra" to refer to a number. The Swedes use the word "siffra"; the Greeks use the word "τζίφρα" to refer to a hard-to-read signature one written with a single stroke of the pen. Ibrahim Al-Kadi concluded that the Arabic word sifr, for the digit zero, developed into the European technical term for encryption; as the decimal zero and its new mathematics spread from the Arabic world to Europe in the Middle Ages, words derived from sifr and zephyrus came to refer to calculation, as well as to privileged knowledge and secret codes. According to Ifrah, "in thirteenth-century Paris, a'worthless fellow' was called a'... cifre en algorisme', i.e. an'arithmetical nothing'." Cipher was the European pronunciation of sifr, cipher came to mean a message or communication not understood. In non-technical usage, a " code" means a "cipher".
Within technical discussions, the words "code" and "cipher" refer to two different concepts. Codes work at the level of meaning—that is, words or phrases are converted into something else and this chunking shortens the message. An example of this is the Commercial Telegraph Code, used to shorten long telegraph messages which resulted from entering into commercial contracts using exchanges of Telegrams. Another example is given by whole word ciphers, which allow the user to replace an entire word with a symbol or character, much like the way Japanese utilize Kanji characters to supplement their language. Ex "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" becomes "The quick brown 狐 jumps 过 the lazy 狗". Ciphers, on the other hand, work at a lower level: the level of individual letters, small groups of letters, or, in modern schemes, individual bits and blocks of bits; some systems used both codes and ciphers in one system, using superencipherment to increase the security. In some cases the terms codes and ciphers are used synonymously to substitution and transposition.
Cryptography was split into a dichotomy
Citizendium is an English-language wiki-based free encyclopedia project launched by Larry Sanger, who had co-founded Wikipedia in 2001. It was first announced in September 2006 as a fork of the English Wikipedia, but that idea was abandoned prior to its March 2007 public launch in favor of emphasizing original articles; the project aims to improve on the Wikipedia model by providing increased reliability. It hopes to achieve this by requiring all contributors to use their real names, by moderating the project for unprofessional behavior, by providing what it calls "gentle expert oversight" of everyday contributors, through its "approved articles". Approved articles have undergone a form of peer-review by topic experts with credentials, are closed to real-time editing. Active contributors increased through the first quarter of 2008 and declined; as of January 2019, it had 16,978 articles, of which 166 had achieved editorial approval, around 2 contributors who made at least 1 edit in the previous month.
The last managing editor was Anthony Sebastian, until the office was vacated in 2016. Sanger said in a 17 October 2006 press release that Citizendium "will soon attempt to unseat Wikipedia as the go-to destination for general information online". In August 2007, he captioned its pages: "The world needs a more credible free encyclopedia." The project began its pilot phase in October and November 2006. On 18 January 2007, a change of plans was announced. Sanger announced on the CZ mailing list that only articles marked "CZ Live", those which have been or will soon be worked on by Citizendium contributors, would remain on the site, all other articles forked from Wikipedia would be deleted. Not all Citizendium contributors were supportive of this change, but Sanger emphasized that this deletion was "an experiment" and a new set of Wikipedia articles could be uploaded if the experiment were deemed unsuccessful. In May 2009, Sanger reduced his direct activity at Citizendium, and, in a message on 30 July 2009, he reminded those on the Citizendium-l mailing list of his declared intention not to serve as editor-in-chief for more than two or three years after the start of the project.
Sanger has reiterated his call for the Citizendium community to prepare an orderly process for choosing a new editor-in-chief. Sanger said that he was spending more time on his WatchKnow project because he needs to earn an income—he said the "Citizendium project doesn't earn me a dime"—and because the Citizendium community had demonstrated that it could function without his close, daily involvement, because "there are squeakier wheels in my life just now", he added that stepping aside may "precipitate something of a constitutional crisis, considering that we never adopted a proper charter". Citizendium ratified its charter in September 2010. On 22 September 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief and subsequently gave up editorial powers and rights to the project. Sanger did not appoint a successor or interim editor-in-chief, the project's financial position did not become clear until after his departure. According to statements and essays on Citizendium, the project was intended to begin as a fork of Wikipedia, carrying a copy of each article—under the rules of the GNU Free Documentation License—as it existed on Wikipedia at the time of Citizendium's launch.
However, after initiating the idea of not forking, soliciting comments on the matter from Citizendium mailing list and web forum members, Sanger said that a complete fork at launch was not a "foregone conclusion". On 18 January 2007, Sanger announced that the pilot would, as an experiment, only carry articles that had been, or would soon be, worked on by Citizendium contributors, instead of a complete set of Wikipedia articles, he stated that the experiment "represents a reconception of our project's basic aim". No announcement was made on Citizendium editions in languages other than English, but Sanger stated that they may be forthcoming after the English-language version was established and working. In a review of Andrew Keen's book The Cult of the Amateur, Sanger comments on Keen's favorable treatment of Citizendium: "The first example of a'solution' he offers is the Citizendium, or the Citizens' Compendium, which I like to describe as Wikipedia with editors and real names, but how can Citizendium be a solution to the problems he raises, if it has experts working without pay, the result is free?
If it succeeds, won't it contribute to the decline of reference publishing?" The stated aim of the project is to create a "new compendium of knowledge" based on the contributions of "intellectuals", defined as "educated, thinking people who read about science or ideas regularly". Citizendium aimed to foster an expert culture and a community that encourages participants to "respect" the expert contributions. Experts are required to verify their qualifications for transparency and publicly accepted authority; this contrasts with the open and anonymous nature of Wikipedia, where subject specialists have neither any verifiable special knowledge of their subject nor agreed special status. Sanger stated that editors would not have pre-approval rights over edits by ordinary authors, though editors would have somewhat undefined authority over articles that fall within their specific area of expertise. Unlike Wikipedia, Citizendium does not allow anonymous editing. Participants must register under their real names with a working email address.
Sanger decided that Citizendium admi