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Kerguelen Islands

The Kerguelen Islands known as the Desolation Islands, are a group of islands in the Antarctic constituting one of the two exposed parts of the Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province submerged by the southern Indian Ocean. They are among the most isolated places on Earth, located 450 km northwest of the uninhabited Heard Island and McDonald Islands and more than 3,300 km from Madagascar, the nearest populated location; the islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet Islands and Saint Paul Islands, France's Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, are part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and are administered as a separate district. The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km2 in area and is surrounded by a further 300 smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km2; the climate is chilly with frequent high winds throughout the year. The surrounding seas are rough and they remain ice-free year-round. There are no indigenous inhabitants, but France maintains a permanent presence of 45 to 100 soldiers, scientists and researchers.

There are no airports on the islands, so all travel to and from the outside world is conducted by ship. Kerguelen Islands appear as the "Ile de Nachtegal" on Philippe Buache's map from 1754 before the island was discovered in 1772; the Buache map has the title Carte des Terres Australes comprises entre le Tropique du Capricorne et le Pôle Antarctique où se voyent les nouvelles découvertes faites en 1739 au Sud du Cap de Bonne Esperance. It is possible. On the Buache map, "Ile de Nachtegal" is located at 43°S, 72°E, about 6 degrees north and 2 degrees east of the accepted location of Grande Terre; the islands were discovered by the French navigator Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec on 12 February 1772. The next day, Charles de Boisguehenneuc claimed the island for the French crown. Yves de Kerguelen organised a second expedition in 1773 and arrived at the "baie de l'Oiseau" by December of the same year. On 6 January 1774 he commanded his lieutenant, Henri Pascal de Rochegude, to leave a message notifying any passers-by of the two passages and of the French claim to the islands.

Thereafter, a number of expeditions visited the islands, including that of Captain James Cook in December 1776 during his third voyage, who verified and confirmed the passage of de Kerguelen by discovering and annotating the message left by the French navigator. Soon after their discovery, the archipelago was visited by whalers and sealers who hunted the resident populations of whales and seals to the point of near extinction, including fur seals in the 18th century and elephant seals in the 19th century; the sealing era lasted from 1781 to 1922 during which time 284 sealing visits are recorded, nine of which ended when the vessel was wrecked. Modern industrial sealing, associated with whaling stations, occurred intermittently between 1908 and 1956. Since the end of the whaling and sealing era, most of the islands' species have been able to increase their population again. Relics of the sealing period include trypots, hut ruins and inscriptions. In 1800, Hillsborough spent eight months whaling around the islands.

During this time Captain Robert Rhodes, her master, prepared a chart of the islands. That vessel returned to London in April 1801 with 450 tuns of sea elephant oil. In 1825, the British sealer John Nunn and three crew members from Favourite were shipwrecked on Kerguelen until they were rescued in 1827 by Captain Alexander Distant during his hunting campaign; the islands were not surveyed until the Ross expedition of 1840. The Australian James Kerguelen Robinson was the first human born south of the Antarctic Convergence, on board the sealing ship Offley in Gulf of Morbihan, Kerguelen Island on 11 March 1859. For the 1874 transit of Venus, George Biddell Airy at the Royal Observatory of the UK organised and equipped five expeditions to different parts of the world. Three of these were sent to the Kerguelen Islands; the Reverend Stephen Joseph Perry led the British expeditions to the Kerguelen Islands. He set up his main observation station at Observatory Bay and two auxiliary stations, one at Thumb Peak led by Sommerville Goodridge, the second at Supply Bay led by Cyril Corbet.

Observatory Bay was used by the German Antarctic Expedition led by Erich Dagobert von Drygalski in 1902–03. In January 2007, an archaeological excavation of this site was carried out. In 1874–1875, German, U. S. expeditions visited Kerguelen to observe the transit of Venus. In 1877 the French started a coal mining operation. In response to German operations in the area, France reasserted its sovereignty on the Kerguelen Islands, along with the islands of Amsterdam and St Paul, the Crozet archipelago in 1893, decided to administer these territories from Madagascar in 1924 (in addition to that portion of Antarctica claimed by France and known as Adélie Land.

Andalusian Mosque

Andalusian Mosque is a mosque in Fes el Bali, the old medina quarter of the city of Fez, Morocco. The mosque dates back to the inception of the city in the 9th century, with the completion of the initial foundation in 859-860; this makes it one of the oldest mosques in the world. The mosque had been expanded several times since then. Today, it is one of the few remaining Idrisid-era establishments and the main landmarks of the city; the mosque was established in 859-860 by the Andalusian refugees from the city of Cordoba, under the sponsorship of Maryam bint Mohammed bin Abdullah. In 818, around hundreds of families fled Cordoba from the successive repressions after their rebellion against the Umayyads, they settled in the eastern bank of the River of Fez which used to be the settlement known as Al-'Aliya. The refugees began building the large Jami Masjid in the area soon after the migration; the original construction was modest. The mosque had access to abundant water through a channel known as Wadi Masmouda.

In the 10th century, the Umayyads of Cordoba erected the minaret. The minaret has simple decorations on its frame, it is built to resemble the minaret of the Mosque of Al-Quaraouiyine. During the rule of Obaidullah, a governor of Fez during the Fatimid-era, the mosque became the place for khutbah during the Friday Prayer, replacing the position of the Mosque of Al-Ashyakh, the first mosque built in the western settlement. Muhammad al-Nasir, the fourth Almohad caliph, ordered the construction of the gate during 1203-1207 which overlooks the northern facade; the gate is topped by two domes, one of, built of carved plasters and another is built of cedar wood, decorated by the combination of wooden zellige and qashani works. It was restored during the Alaouite period. Several historians and scholars, including the orientalist Georges Marçais praised the architecture as a masterpiece of Moroccan architectural style; the caliph built as well a water tank, a fountain which resembles that of the Mosque of Al Quaraouiyine on the northern facade of the building, an apartment made of stones for imams of the mosque on the second floor above the prayer hall for women.

During the Marinid period, several parts of the building including the ceiling and fountain were restored. The mosque contains seven courses for education, as well as two libraries to the Mosque of Al Quaraouiyine, which makes it the second most important mosque in the medina of Fez

Peri-implant mucositis

Peri-implant mucositis is defined as an inflammatory lesion of the peri-implant mucosa in the absence of continuing marginal bone loss. The American Academy of Periodontology defines peri‐implant mucositis as a disease in which inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding a dental implant is present without additional bone loss after the initial bone remodeling that may occur during healing following the surgical placement of the implant. Peri-implant mucositis is accepted as the precursor of peri-implantitis and corresponds to gingivitis around natural teeth. Important criteria to defining peri-implant mucositis are, the inflammation of mucosa surrounding an endosseous implant and the absence of continuing marginal peri-implant bone loss. A shift in bacterial biofilm composition, from uninterrupted plaque maturation, the immune system disintegration causes peri-implant mucosa inflammation to occur. In peri-implant mucositis, there is an increase in proportion of bacteria from the orange complex: F. nucleatum, P. intermedia and Eubacterium species.

A decrease in proportion of Streptococci and Actinomoyces species is observed. Accumulation of bacteria around osseointegrated dental implants has been proven to be a cause of peri-implant mucositis by demonstrating this under experimental conditions and the development of an inflammatory response due to this has been shown experimentally; when the surfaces of the implant in the mouth are colonised by pathogenic bacteria, plaque-induced inflammation can go on to cause destruction of the tissues around the implant. The presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate in the connective tissue lateral to the junctional epithelium has been discovered in this condition, contributing to its development; the bacterial biofilm disrupts the host-microbe homeostasis, creating a dysbiosis which results in an inflammatory lesion. The inflammatory cell infiltrate has been found to increase in size as the peri-implant mucositis develops. Where peri-implant mucositis has been brought about by the accumulation of bacteria and their formation of a biofilm, it has been shown to be reversible once the biofilm has been brought under control by regular cleaning by both patient and dental professional.

This has been shown as studies display a clear reduction in redness and bleeding on probing in lesions of the peri-implant soft tissue after bacterial load has been minimised. This was shown in an experiment where bacteria were encouraged to accumulate for a period of time in which no oral hygiene was undertaken, allowing all of the patients to develop peri-implant mucositis; when oral hygiene was commenced once again, all of the periodontal tissues became healthy once more. However, the best management of peri-implant mucositis is not reversing it but preventing this from occurring in the first instance; the presence of excess luting cement has been demonstrated to contribute to causing peri-implant mucositis. One study gleaned results that suggested that in both patients with and without a history of periodontal problems, implants with extracoronal residual cement developed statistically more cases of peri-implant mucositis as well as other periodontal problems. In this study 85% of implants in patients with previous periodontal conditions went on to develop peri-implant mucositis, which progressed to peri-implantitis.

In the group with no previous history of periodontal issues, 65% of implants still developed peri-implant mucositis, but fewer of these implants developed peri-implantitis. In contrast, the group with no extracoronal residual cement only had 30% of implants develop peri-implant mucositis. Therefore, cement remnants may be more to cause patients to develop peri-implant mucositis. Other causal factors of peri-implant mucositis include radiation and smoking, in addition to accretion of oral bacteria at the site. Other factors that are thought to contribute to the condition include lack of keratinised mucosa and diabetes mellitus poorly-controlled diabetes which will mean the patient will have a high level of blood glucose over longer periods. Understanding and controlling peri-implant mucositis is essential as it leads to peri-implantitis. Clinical signs and symptoms of peri-implant mucositis involves the localised surrounding gingival tissues of a dental implant; these include:- Bleeding on probing with no supporting bone loss.

Localised swelling Redness/erythema. Increased shininess of soft tissue surface. Soreness Risk Factors of PIM are categorised into General and Local Risk Factors General Risk Factors Smoking Radiation Therapy Poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus Local Risk Factors Oral Hygiene Poor compliance / access to regular supportive implant therapy Design of Implant-supported prostheses affecting accessibility for plaque removal Sub-mucosal restorations Dimension of Keratinized Peri-implant mucosa Excess CementPossible Risk Factors: Some other possible risk factors may include the location the implant is placed, type of implant placed and the age of the subject, as it was found that these factors had significant influences on bleeding on probing. Although it is uncertain whether increased abutment roughness will cause an increase in plaque accumulation and hence increase the risk of peri-implant mucositis, a 12-month comparative analysis in humans found that “a further reduction of the surface roughness, below a certain "threshold R", has no major impact on the supra‐ and subgingival microbial composition.”Implants and abutments made of zirconium dioxide were claimed to be more bio-compatible compared to those made of titanium but clinical studies show that there were higher BOP scores or no significant difference in BOP scores around ZrO2 compared to titanium a

Murder of Zahra Baker

Zahra Clare Baker was born in Wagga Wagga and was reported missing on October 9, 2010. Only 10 years old at the time of her death, her dismembered remains were found in November 2010; because of the crime's gruesome nature and the series of events leading up to her death, Zahra's murder received worldwide media coverage. In September 2011, the victim's stepmother, Elisa Baker, pleaded guilty to murdering Zahra, was sentenced to eighteen years in prison. In 2013, she was given an additional 10 years for drug related charges. Zahra Baker was born to Adam Baker who both lived in Wagga Wagga, Australia. Emily Dietrich, who had postpartum depression after Zahra's birth, gave up custody to Adam. Adam moved with his parents to Giru, Queensland, in 2004 to work for a sugar mill. Zahra, diagnosed with bone cancer in 2005 suffered a bout of lung cancer as well; as a result, she had to wear hearing aids. Adam Baker met Elisa Fairchild online on an IMVU website. Elisa Fairchild visited Adam Baker in Queensland and they were soon married.

Elisa had been married six times and was still married at the time she married Adam Baker. Zahra's cancer went into remission in 2008, shortly before she moved to the United States from Australia with her father and new stepmother. After moving to North Carolina, the Bakers settled in Hickory where Zahra attended public school until she started being home schooled, it is not known, though, if she was actually home schooled. It is suspected Zahra was taken out of public school because reports of child abuse were made to the school, implicating Elisa. Many neighbors of Zahra's claimed that Elisa was physically and mentally abusive and neglected the child. Two teachers visited Zahra's home, after Zahra went to school with a black eye in a public school in Hudson while she was in the fourth grade. Child Protective Services from both Caldwell County and Catawba County visited the various residences of Zahra multiple times before Zahra died; the Bakers had moved a few times in both those counties before settling in Hickory.

Reports of Elisa's abusive behavior have been investigated by the Department of Social Services in regards to Elisa's own biological children dating as far back from 1999. Elisa has 3 children from 2 different relationships: a daughter born out of wedlock and a son and a daughter from a previous marriage. A 911 call was made by Elisa on October 9, 2010 at 5:30 am, reporting a fire in the back of the family residence in Hickory; when the police came for the reported fire, there was a ransom note and the smell of gasoline coming from Adam's company truck, a Chevrolet Tahoe. In a second 911 phone call made when Zahra was reported missing at 2 pm on the same day, Adam Baker explained that during a fire in their backyard a $1 million ransom note was found on his company truck the night before, addressed to Adam's boss and landlord, Mark Coffey. Adam explained that they called 911 earlier that day about the fire and implied that whoever started the fire, may have done so in order to distract the family, in order to take Zahra.

Adam explained. Mark Coffey's daughter was unharmed and with her family, Adam stated. Adam said the last time. Adam Baker left for work early in the morning and did not return until after Zahra went to sleep. Elisa failed a polygraph test she had taken early in the investigation, she was asked: if she had hurt Zahra, if she knew of anyone who had harmed Zahra and if she knew who wrote the ransom note. On October 10, 2010 search and rescue dogs were sent to search the Bakers' house and cars; the dogs gave positive alerts to the scent of human remains on both of the Bakers' cars, the Chevrolet Tahoe and a sedan. The police took. On October 10, 2010, Elisa Baker was arrested for various crimes which included communicating threats, writing bad checks and driving with a revoked license, crimes unrelated to the death of Zahra. Baker, jailed, was next charged with obstruction of justice after admitting that she wrote the ransom note, which led the police astray. In late October 2010, a Catawba County judge raised Elisa's bond from $40,000 to $65,000 at a bond hearing, believing that Elisa was a flight risk.

Amber Fairchild, Elisa's daughter testified at the hearing and said her mother told her she was thinking of leaving North Carolina the day before she was arrested. Amber Fairchild said her mother was involved in an online relationship with a man from England who had sent her thousands of dollars; the prosecutor said that Elisa failed to show up at other court dates for other charges which included traffic violations and communicating threats, thus thwarting Elisa's attorney's attempt to lower her bond. Elisa Baker's aunt Buzzie Winkler told reporters that Elisa told her Zahra died after being sick for 2 weeks, both parents dismembered her and hid the remains. Elisa's aunt said: "She'd been sick two weeks before she died, when they found her, I guess they didn't know what to do, they just went wild." However, Elisa said Adam dismembered Zahra Baker alone, after she died, they both hid her remains. Elisa told police that Zahra died on September 24, yet she was not reported missing until October 9.

Eric Gein, crime memorabilia dealer and owner of Serial Killers Ink, used an assumed name to write to Elisa in jail. She twice wrote back to him. According to a letter written to Eric Gein, Elisa admitted: "We didn't kill her

Swindon Town Hall

The current Swindon Town Hall, in Swindon, was built in the mid 19th century to be a centrepiece of New Swindon. Powers were transferred to it from the Old Town Hall in 1891; the whole building is used by Swindon Dance, a National Dance Agency. Parts of the lower floor occupied by Swindon Reference Library, remain vacant; until the erection of the Corn Exchange and Town Hall in Old Swindon, the Goddard Arms was used. This small pub was up until 1820 a small cottage alehouse named the Crown and had been owned by the Goddards since 1621, it has been beneficial to the entire surrounding areas because of its vast community suppliers and representatives. In 1750 a large assembly room was built adjoining the pub and it was thereafter used for balls, the court leet, the magistrates' court, county court, auction house and as a booking office for the Great Western Railway before the eventual construction of Swindon railway station; when the lord of the manor wanted to call people together to discuss matters of importance, he did so at the Goddard Arms.

It was used in this fashion in the early 19th century by Ambrose Goddard to call meetings on the progress of the Wilts and Berks Canal. In 1848, it was decided to build a Market Hall in Old Swindon; this plan was not carried out until 1852 when the Swindon Market Company was formed to oversee construction. The new market house was designed to provide accommodation for the county court, petty sessions and other public business. Designed by a local architect named Sampson Sage and built by George Major of Horsefair, the final building was in effect a sack office and store room with offices above. A Wine Store was built adjoining this its upper hall was leased to the County Court and used by the Swindon Bench of Magistrates from 1871-1891; the public room could accommodate 600 people and was used for public meetings, balls and readings. It became Swindon's de facto polling station and election house. In 1865, Ambrose Goddard provided more land next to this building for the erection of a Corn Exchange abutting the Town Hall.

Opened on April 9, 1866, the building included an 80 ft tower and a triangular market hall covered by a glass dome. The opening ceremony began at the Goddard Arms and proceeding behind a brass band, from New Swindon, walked to the exchange for an official dinner and ball; the large hall in the Corn Exchange was turned into a theatre by 1880 with seating for 1,000 people. Prior to World War I the hall was converted into an ice rink before being turned into a cinema in 1919, named the Rink Cinema, it was refurbished in 1949 and became a dance hall called the Locarno Dance Hall hosting wrestling events and jazz and pop concerts, amongst others the Kinks, the Applejacks, the Animals, Ronnie Scott's orchestra, Brian Poole and the Tremeloes. It was a Bingo Hall for some time but is now derelict and decaying, has suffered a number of fires, the most notable being the 2003 fires, that subsequently meant the burning and destruction of the roof and removal of the roof canopy and the clocks in the centre of the clock tower.

A number of redevelopment plans have been put forward over time, see Forward Swindon for the latest proposals. With the construction of the New Swindon Town Hall in 1890, all civic functions passed down the hill in 1891. By 1890, the New Swindon Local Board had plans to build their new public offices in York Place; this location, halfway between the Railway Village and the Hill, was thought by some to be "both psychologically and strategically an excellent position for the new town to establish a landmark building". As it was visible from the Old town. Brightwen Binyon of Ipswich was chosen to design the new building deciding on the edifice as it stands today, it includes a 90 ft high clock tower and is built in the style of neo-17th-century Dutch architecture. It became a show-piece of New Swindon, being constructed of brick with stone dressings, a balcony, gables and cupolas; the inside includes a spacious hall with pillars and arches and an elegant sweeping staircase rising to a suite of offices.

These offices were occupied by the board's senior officials and those of the county court when in 1891 it became the main Swindon Town Hall, taking over many court functions from the Old Town Hall. From 1880-1900 the prospect of a single Swindon was a burning issue in the individual towns. Commentators of the time such as the Swindon Advertiser's editor William Morris were in favour; however both councils were suspicious of the other's motives and wary of their future status in a combined Swindon. The New Swindon Urban District Council was the more powerful of the two at this time, containing within it all of Swindon's industrial companies and the majority of the population; the two towns remained separate until 1901 when they combined and Swindon Borough Council became the last to be incorporated during Queen Victoria's reign. The Regent Circus offices of the New Swindon Urban District Council became the council offices of the new Borough and remained so until 1938 when the Civic offices were opened in Euclid Street.

Until 2006, the ground floor of the town hall housed Swindon Reference Library whilst the remainder of the building was used as dance studios and Media Hub. The Reference Library, along with the Central Library, moved to temporary accommodation at Paramount, the former Nationwide HQ, to facilitate the demolition of the old lending library and the construction of the long-awaited replacement; the new library complex at Regent Circus opened at 2pm on Monday 20 October 2008

La Concha Renaissance San Juan Resort

La Concha Renaissance San Juan Resort is a historic luxury resort located at the Condado oceanfront within the district of Santurce in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The hotel was first opened in 1958 during the Tropical Modernism Movement; the building was designed by Miguel Ferrer, of the firm Toro Ferrer Architects. Another part of the complex, the seashell-inspired building for the restaurant La Perla, was designed by architect Mario Salvadori. La Concha Resort incorporates tropical climate features such as cross-ventilation, natural illumination, open lobbies and seamless transitions between inside and outside spaces, with details relevant to Island traditions: an interior patio, blinds, a mirador encompassing both the sea and the city and the use of water throughout as a leitmotif; the protective concrete element in the façade, called brise-soleil in French or “quiebrasol” in Spanish, is an architectural element used by famed architect Le Corbusier. The purpose of the “quiebrasol” is to filter the sun's rays towards the interior corridors.

In 1973, the La Concha was united with the adjacent Condado Beach Hotel into one hotel, known as the Hyatt Puerto Rico. In 1976, the complex was taken over by Hilton International and renamed the Condado Beach La Concha Convention Center, with a huge convention wing built between the two existing hotel structures; the complex was taken over by Carnival Cruise Line and renamed the Condado Beach Trio, before closing in 1995. The government-owned properties sat vacant for years, were severed in 2004, the convention center between them was demolished to build a public park; the La Concha reopened in December 2007, managed by Renaissance Hotels as La Concha Renaissance San Juan Resort, after a $220 million renovation. In the summer of 2010, the hotel opened a $100 million addition called The Suites Tower which features an atrium style building with one and two bedroom suites, architectural lighting, amenities; the hotel's Casino del Mar is located on the street level of the new tower. List of hotels in Puerto Rico Media related to La Concha Resort at Wikimedia Commons Official website