A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
A Gold Rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere; the wealth that resulted was distributed because of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made large fortunes, the merchants and transportation facilities made large profits; the resulting increase in the world's gold supply stimulated global investment. Historians have written extensively about the migration, trade and environmental history associated with gold rushes. Gold rushes were marked by a general buoyant feeling of a "free for all" in income mobility, in which any single individual might become abundantly wealthy instantly, as expressed in the California Dream.
Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian and North American frontiers. At a time when the world's money supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Gold rushes extend as far back to the Roman Empire, whose gold mining was described by Diodorus Siculus and Pliny the Elder, further back to ancient Egypt. Within each mining rush there is a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, more specialized knowledge, they may progress from high-unit value to lower unit value minerals. A rush begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. At first the gold may be washed from the sand and gravel by individual miners with little training, using a gold pan or similar simple instrument. Once it is clear that the volume of gold-bearing sediment is larger than a few cubic metres, the placer miners will build rockers or sluice boxes, with which a small group can wash gold from the sediment many times faster than using gold pans.
Winning the gold in this manner requires no capital investment, only a simple pan or equipment that may be built on the spot, only simple organisation. The low investment, the high value per unit weight of gold, the ability of gold dust and gold nuggets to serve as a medium of exchange, allow placer gold rushes to occur in remote locations. After the sluice-box stage, placer mining may become large scale, requiring larger organisations and higher capital expenditures. Small claims owned and mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels. Water may be diverted by dams and canals to placer mine active river beds or to deliver water needed to wash dry placers; the more advanced techniques of ground sluicing, hydraulic mining and dredging may be used. The heyday of a placer gold rush would last only a few years; the free gold supply in stream beds would become depleted somewhat and the initial phase would be followed by prospecting for veins of lode gold that were the original source of the placer gold.
Hard rock mining, like placer mining, may evolve from low capital investment and simple technology to progressively higher capital and technology. The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, the ore needs only to be crushed and washed; the first miners may at first build a simple arrastra to crush their ore. As the miners dig down, they may find that the deeper part of vein contains gold locked in sulfide or telluride minerals, which will require smelting. If the ore is still sufficiently rich, it may be worth shipping to a distant smelter. Lower-grade ore may require on-site treatment to either recover the gold or to produce a concentrate sufficiently rich for transport to the smelter; as the district turns to lower-grade ore, the mining may change from underground mining to large open-pit mining. Many silver rushes followed upon gold rushes; as transportation and infrastructure improve, the focus may change progressively from gold to silver to base metals.
In this way, Colorado started as a placer gold discovery, achieved fame as a silver-mining district relied on lead and zinc in its days. Butte, Montana began mining placer gold became a silver-mining district became for a time the world’s largest copper producer. Various gold rushes occurred in Australia over the second half of the 19th century; the most significant of these, although not the only ones, were the New South Wales gold rush and Victorian gold rush in 1851, the Western Australian gold rushes of the 1890s. They were significant to their respective colonies' political and economic development as they brought a large number of immigrants, promoted massive government spending on infrastructure to support the new arrivals who came looking for gold. While some found their fortune, those who did not remained in the colonies and took advantage of liberal land laws to take up farming. Gold rushes happened at or around: In New Zealand the Central Otago Gold Rush from 1861 attracted prospectors from the California Gold Rush and the Victorian Gold Rush and many moved on to the West Coast Gold Rush from 1864.
The first significant gold rush in the United States was in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, in 1799 at today's Reed's Gold Mine. Thirty years in 1829, the Geor
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, United States. It covers about 151 sq mi near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley and the Central Valley region. Bakersfield's population is around 380,000, making it the 9th-most populous city in California and the 52nd-most populous city in the nation; the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas around the city, such as East Bakersfield and Rosedale, has a population of over 520,000. Bakersfield is a charter city; the city is a significant hub for both oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil-producing county and the fourth-most productive agricultural county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, mining, petroleum refining, distribution, food processing, corporate regional offices.
The city is the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years; the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, bear and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area. Owing to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, the Yokuts remained isolated until after the Mexican War of Independence, when Mexican settlers began to migrate to the area. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, in 1865, oil was discovered in the valley; the Bakersfield area, once a tule reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers, who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to periodic flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area, experienced outbreaks of malaria.
In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna. Among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Baker's Field, which became a stopover for travelers. By 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was incorporated as a city, by 1874, it replaced the dying town of Havilah as the county seat. Alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as "... an old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, he walked with a cane. But he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him." Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, cantankerous and high-handed in his treatment of them.
Wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia the city was failing to collect the taxes it needed for services. In 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizen's council managed the community. By 1880, the town had a population of 801, by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana and Southern California brought new residents, who were employed by the oil industry; the city reincorporated on January 11, 1898. On July 21, 1952, an earthquake struck at 4:52 am Pacific Daylight Time; the earthquake, which measured 7.5 on the moment magnitude scale and was felt from San Francisco to the Mexican border, destroyed the nearby communities of Tehachapi and Arvin. The earthquake's destructive force bent cotton fields into U shapes, slid a shoulder of the Tehachapi Mountains across all four lanes of the Ridge Route, collapsed a water tower creating a flash flood, destroyed the railroad tunnels in the mountain chain.
Bakersfield was spared. A large aftershock occurred on July 29, did minor architectural damage, but raised fears that the flow of the Friant-Kern Canal could be dangerously altered flooding the city and surrounding areas. Aftershocks, for the next month, had become normal to Bakersfield residents until, on August 22 at 3:42 pm, a 5.8 earthquake struck directly under the town's center in the most densely populated area of the southern San Joaquin Valley. Four people died in the aftershock, some of the town's historic structures sustained heavy damage. Between 1970 and 2010, Bakersfield grew 400%, making it one of the fastest-growing cities in California. Bakersfield's close proximity to mountain passes the Tejon Pass on Interstate 5 between the Los Angeles metropolis and the central San Joaquin Valley, has made the city a regional transportation hub. In 1990, Bakersfield was one of 10 U. S. communities to receive the All-America City Award from the National Civic League. In 2010, the Bakersfield MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $29.466 billion, making it the 73rd-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Bakersfield lies near the southern "horseshoe" end of the San Joaquin Valley, with the southern tip of the Sierra Nevada just to the east. The city limits extend to the Sequoia National Forest, at the foot of the Greenhorn Mountain Range and at the en
The California golden trout, or the golden trout, is a species of trout native to California. The golden trout is native to Golden Trout Creek, Volcano Creek, the South Fork Kern River, it is the state fish of California. The California golden trout is related to two rainbow trout subspecies; the Little Kern golden trout, found in the Little Kern River basin, the Kern River rainbow trout, found in the Kern River system. Together, these three trout form what is sometimes referred to as the "golden trout complex"; the golden trout was described as a subspecies of the salmon species, with a name Salmo mykiss agua-bonita, it is still considered a subspecies along with several other rainbow trout subspecies known as redband trout. FishBase and the Catalog of Fishes however now list O. aguabonita as an independent species rather than as subspecies of O. mykiss. While ITIS lists O. m. whitei and O. m. gilberti as subspecies of O. mykiss, O. aguabonita instead is listed as a full species. The golden trout has golden flanks with red, horizontal bands along the lateral lines on each side and about 10 dark, oval marks on each side.
Dorsal and anal fins have white leading edges. In their native habitat, adults range from 6 to 12 inches long. Fish over 12 inches are considered large. Golden trout that have been transplanted to lakes have been recorded up to 11 pounds; the golden trout should be distinguished from the named golden rainbow trout known as the palomino trout. The golden rainbow is a color variant of the rainbow trout; the golden trout is found at elevations from 6,890 feet to 10,000 feet above sea level, is native only to California's southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Outside of its native range in California, Golden trout are more found in cirques and creeks in wilderness areas around 10,500–12,000"+ beyond 12,500"+ passes that are not passable without crampons, ice axes, ropes until after the Fourth of July, their preferred water temperature is 58 to 62 °F but they can tolerate temperatures in degraded streams on the Kern Plateau as high as 70 °F so long as those waters cool during the night. The only other species of fish indigenous to the native range of California golden trout is the Sacramento sucker.
The Wyoming Game & Fish Department state record golden trout measured 28 in and weighed 11.25 lb, caught in Cook Lake, Wyoming in 1948. The IGFA "All-Tackle Length Record" for O. m. aguabonita measured 21 in caught in Golden Lake, Wyoming in 2012. O. m. aguabonita is native to the southern Sierra Nevada, including the upper reach and tributaries of the South Fork of the Kern River, Golden Trout Creek and its tributaries. It has been introduced in hundreds of lakes and streams outside the native range, though most of these populations did not last or hybridized with cutthroat trout and other subspecies of rainbow trout. In 1892 the California golden trout was described by David Starr Jordan, the first President of Stanford University, as Salmo mykiss agua-bonita; the fish was named after the Agua Bonita Waterfall where the first specimens were collected, at the mouth of Volcano Creek, at the creek's confluence with the Kern River. A century they were listed as Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in Behnke's Native trout of western North America.
In 1904 Stewart Edward White communicated to his friend President Theodore Roosevelt, that overfishing could lead to extinction of the golden trout. In White's novel The Mountains, he wrote about the threatened golden trout on California’s Kern Plateau. Roosevelt shared White’s concern and, through U. S. Fish Commissioner George M. Bowers, dispatched biologist Barton Warren Evermann of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries to study the situation. In 1906 Evermann published The Golden Trout of the Southern High Sierras. Based on morphology, Evermann described four forms of this native fish: Salmo roosevelti from Golden Trout Creek, Salmo aguabonita from nearby South Fork of the Kern River, Salmo whitei from the Little Kern River, Salmo gilberti, the Kern River rainbow. Genetic studies have since clarified three groups of trout native to the Kern River: California golden trout native to the South Fork Kern River and Golden Trout Creek, Little Kern River golden trout, Kern River rainbow trout. Years of overexploitation and competition with exotic species have brought golden trout to the brink of being designated as "threatened".
Introduced brook trout outcompete them for food, introduced brown trout prey on them and introduced rainbow trout hybridize with them, damaging the native gene pool through introgression. Populations have been in steady decline for decades. In 1978 the Golden Trout Wilderness was established within Inyo National Forest and Sequoia National Forest, protecting the upper watersheds of the Kern River and South Fork Kern River. In September 2004, the California Department of Fish and Game signed an agreement with federal agencies to work on restoring back-country habitat damaged by overgrazing from cattle and sheep, as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy; the US Endangered Species Act designated the
Shannon Lee Grove is an American politician serving as the minority leader of the California State Senate. A Republican, she represents the 16th State Senate district, encompassing the southern Central Valley and parts of the High Desert. Grove served in the California State Assembly, representing the 34th State Assembly district, which encompassed most of Kern County, she is the chief executive officer of an employment agency she started in 1993 with her sister-in-law. Grove was born in Kern County and grew up there, she graduated Arvin High School in Arvin, California before spending three years in the U. S. Army, serving with Headquarters Company, 5th Corps, in Frankfurt, where she performed administrative tasks. Upon returning to her native Kern County, Grove worked for two temporary staffing agencies: TempServ for one year and Workforce Staffing for another year. In 1993, Grove established her own temporary staffing company, Continental Labor & Staffing Resources, with her sister-in-law. Grove is the CEO.
Grove was elected in the Tea Party wave of 2010. She was reelected twice to the California State Assembly, was sworn into her third term in 2014. Due to term limits, Grove was not eligible to run for a fourth term in 2016. In 2018, Grove is a candidate for the California state Senate to succeed state Senator Jean Fuller, who faces term limits. In the Assembly, Grove served as vice chair of the Elections and Redistricting Committee, sits on the Agriculture and Budget committees. On January 20, 2019, Grove was elected by her Senate Republican colleagues to serve as their leader. Grove advocates changing the California State Legislature from a full-time to a part-time body. In 2011, as a first-term assemblywoman, Grove sought to place an initiative on the California ballot to reduce its annual legislative session from nine months to three months and cut lawmakers' annual salaries from $95,000 to $18,000. Grove pitched the idea in a four-minute video produced by a Tea Party group in 2012. A Field Poll showed.
Grove introduced a bill in 2015 that would mandate that California public colleges and universities allow student organizations to maintain belief-based requirements for its members and leaders. The bill targeted the California State University system's "open membership" or "all-comers" policy, which bars student organizations from imposing belief-based criteria for membership and leadership. Grove has introduced anti-abortion legislation into the Assembly. Grove opposed legislation passed by the Assembly in 2015, requiring crisis pregnancy centers to inform customers about where to obtain contraceptives and abortions. In June 2016, Grove attracted attention and criticism after linking abortion legislation and the wrath of God to the drought in California. While speaking to a group of anti-abortion activists at an event in Sacramento, Grove brought a copy of the Bible to the platform and stated that: "Texas was in a long period of drought until Gov. Perry signed the fetal pain bill, it rained that night."
Grove's remarks sparked a backlash and were criticized as "patently ridiculous" by NARAL Pro-Choice California, an abortion rights group. Grove responded to criticism by saying. In a Facebook post following the speech, Grove wrote: "Is this drought caused by God? Nobody knows, but biblical history shows. Grove states in the video: "Our children are going to lose this blessing if water policy in California does not change. California's bread basket, which feeds this nation and the world, will be destroyed." Note that the cited article in the Bakersfield Californian falsely calls the Delta Smelt "non-indigenous." According to both the California Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Center for Biological Diversity, it is "endemic" or "indigenous" to the San Francisco Bay estuary. Grove opposed the aid-in-dying legislation passed by the California State Legislature, saying: "Suicide should never be used as a legitimate way to end human suffering. Although promoted as a compassionate option for the terminally ill, this bill will have a corrupting influence on public and private healthcare providers looking for ways to reduce the cost of end of life care."
In Assembly floor debate on the legislation in 2015, Grove stated: "Sorry, pain is part of life."Grove opposes prevailing wage legislation for workers on public-works projects, has introduced legislation to roll-back prevailing-wage requirements. In February 2016, Grove introduced two pieces of legislation to require California public-employee unions to post itemized budgets online and to hold ratification elections every two years. Grove has opposed providing financial assistance to poor families struggling to afford diapers for infant children. Grove is a staunch critic of California's high-speed passenger rail project, has accused the California High-Spe
California's 23rd congressional district
California's 23rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. The current district is centered in areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley and southern Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi Mountains, the northwestern Mojave Desert, it includes the cities of Mojave and parts of Lancaster, as well as most of Bakersfield. Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest are within it. By PVI, the district is the most Republican-leaning in the state; the district is represented in the 116th United States Congress by Republican Kevin McCarthy. Since January 2019, McCarthy has been House minority leader. From 2003–2013 the district ran along the Pacific coasts of Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties. Major cities in the district included Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Oxnard. Before redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission in 2011, California's 23rd Congressional District was one of the narrowest districts in the United States, stretching along the Pacific coast from Oxnard to the Monterey County line.
It was referred to as "the district that disappears at high tide" or the "ribbon of shame". As of January 2019, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 23rd congressional district that are living; the most recent to die was Anthony Beilenson on March 5, 2017 List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 23rd congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD23