Limp Bizkit is an American rap rock band from Jacksonville, Florida. Their lineup consists of Fred Durst, Sam Rivers, John Otto, DJ Lethal, Wes Borland, their music is marked by Borland's sonic experimentation. Borland's elaborate visual appearance, which includes face and body paint and uniforms plays a large role in the band's live shows; the band has been nominated for three Grammy Awards, have sold 40 million records worldwide and won several other awards. Formed in 1994, Limp Bizkit became popular playing in the Jacksonville underground music scene in the late 1990s, signed with Flip Records, a subsidiary of Interscope, which released their debut album, Three Dollar Bill, Y'all$; the band achieved mainstream success with their second and third studio albums, Significant Other and Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water, although this success was marred by a series of controversies surrounding their performances at Woodstock'99 and the 2001 Big Day Out festival. Borland left the group in 2001, but Durst, Rivers and Lethal continued to record and tour with guitarist Mike Smith.
Following the release of their album, Results May Vary, Borland rejoined the band and recorded The Unquestionable Truth with Durst, Rivers and drummer Sammy Siegler before entering a hiatus. In 2009, the band reunited with Borland playing guitar and began touring, culminating with the recording of the album Gold Cobra, after which they left Interscope and signed with Cash Money Records, but DJ Lethal was asked to leave the band soon after; as of 2018, the band is recording their sixth studio album, Stampede of the Disco Elephants. Fred Durst grew up in Jacksonville, where he took an interest in breakdancing, hip hop, punk rock and heavy metal, he began to rap, skate and deejay. While mowing lawns and working as a tattoo artist, he developed an idea for a band that combined elements of rock and hip hop. Durst played with three other bands, Split 26, Malachi Sage, which were unsuccessful, 10 Foot Shindig, which Durst left to form a new band. Durst told Sam Rivers, the bassist for Malachi Sage, "You need to quit this band and start a band with me that's like this: rappin' and rockin'."
Rivers suggested that his cousin, John Otto, studying jazz drumming at the Douglas Anderson School of the Arts and playing in local avant garde bands, become their drummer. Durst and Otto jammed and wrote three songs together, Wes Borland joined as a guitarist. Durst named the band Limp Bizkit. According to Durst, "The name is there to turn people's heads away. A lot of people go, ` Limp Bizkit. Oh, they must suck.' Those are the people that we don't want listening to our music." Other names that were considered by Durst included Gimp Disco, Split Dickslit, Bitch Piglet, Blood Fart. Every record label that showed an interest in the band pressured its members to change its name. Limp Bizkit developed a cult following in the underground music scene at the Milk Bar, an underground punk club in Jacksonville; the band's local popularity was such that Sugar Ray, who had a major label contract, opened for a then-unsigned Limp Bizkit at Velocity with hip hop group Funkdoobiest. Milkbar owner, Danny Wimmer, stated.
They went from playing ten people to eight hundred within months. Fred... was always marketing the band. He would go to record stores and get people involved, he was in touch with high schools." However, the band knew that to achieve national success, they would have to distinguish themselves in their live performances. Attracting crowds by word of mouth, the band gave energetic live performances, covering George Michael's "Faith" and Paula Abdul's "Straight Up", featuring Borland in bizarre costumes. Borland's theatrical rock style was the primary attraction for many concert attendees. Durst unsuccessfully tried to attract attention from A&R representatives at various labels by pretending to be the band's manager; when Korn performed in town as the opening act for Sick of It All, Durst invited Korn to drink beer and tattoo them. Although Durst's tattoos were unimpressive, he was able to persuade Reginald "Fieldy" Arvizu to listen to a demo, consisting of the songs "Pollution", "Counterfeit" and "Stuck".
Korn added a then-unsigned Limp Bizkit to two tours. The band attempted to expand their sound by auditioning an additional guitarist, but Borland soon determined that another guitarist was not the answer, DJ Lethal of the hip hop group House of Pain, joined the band as a turntablist after a successful practice performance. Joining the band gave Lethal an opportunity to experiment with his turntable technique in ways that hip hop had not allowed him to do, helping shape the band's style. Due to creative differences, Borland left the band at this point. After their performance opening for Korn at the Dragonfly in Hollywood was well received, Limp Bizkit signed with Mojo, a subsidiary of MCA Records. While heading to California to record their first album, the band wrecked their van; as a result of the near death experience, Durst made amends with Borland. After a dispute with Mojo, Limp Bizkit signed with a subsidiary of Interscope Records. Arvizu persuaded Ross Robinson to listen to the demo. Robinson neglected to listen to it.
Impressed by the band's motivation and sound, Robinson produced Limp Bizkit's debut, recorded at Indigo Ranch. Durst's problems with
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Face (magazine)
The Face was a British music and culture monthly magazine published from 1980 to 2004 and launched in May 1980 in London by Nick Logan, the British journalist, editor of New Musical Express and Smash Hits. In April 2019 The Face was relaunched online at theface.com by current owner Wasted Talent, which publishes the magazines Kerrang! and Mixmag and acquired rights to the title in 2017 from Bauer Media. Wasted Talent's Jerry Perkins, a publisher at Bauer and its predecessor Emap, announced that the title will return as a print quarterly in late summer 2019. Logan left the NME after five years as editor in 1978 and launched Smash Hits for Emap, the magazine division of printing company East Midlands Allied Press. In the autumn of 1979, with Smash Hits' circulation at 166,000 copies Logan proposed a new magazine - "a well-produced, well-designed and well-written monthly with music at its core but with expanding coverage of the subjects that informed it, from fashion and film to nightclubbing and social issues".
When Emap's directors passed on the proposal Logan and his wife decided to go it alone and invest £3,500 savings into the new title, which he named The Face. Working out of the Smash Hits offices in Carnaby Street, central London, using the off-the-shelf corporate entity Wagadon, which he had formed for his business relationship with Emap, Logan published the first issue of The Face on May 1, 1980. Featuring a logo designed by Steve Bush, with whom Logan had worked on Smash Hits, a portrait by photographer Chalkie Davies of Jerry Dammers of The Specials on the front cover, this issue sold 56,000 copies. Sales levelled over the next six months, but a fillip was provided by alliance with London's burgeoning New Romantic scene via articles written by young journalist Robert Elms with photographs by Derek Ridgers, Virginia Turbett and others; the publication of lookalike rivals such as New Sounds, New Styles and Blitz and the launch of i-D magazine confirmed Logan had established a new publishing sector.
He moved into the first of a series of offices of his own in central London. Subsequently Logan recruited young designer Neville Brody as art director in 1982, placing the magazine ahead of the pack visually. Brody drew on such early 20th century art and design movements as Constructivism to create a stark new visual language which would define certain visual aspects of 1980s Britain; the style pages of The Face meanwhile set the pace for the wider fashion world those produced by the Buffalo collective, led by stylist Ray Petri and including photographer Jamie Morgan. In the 1980s Logan's innovations at The Face included the November 1983 "New Life In Europe" issue, a co-production with nine continental European magazines including France's Actuel, the 100th edition of September 1988 which incorporated a tri-fold on the front which featured the covers of every magazine published thus far. In 1990, shortly before being awarded the inaugural Marcus Morris Award for magazine innovation, Logan was diagnosed with cancer of the jaw and forced to take a nine-month sabbatical.
On recovery he became editorial director at Wagadon, with Sheryl Garratt as editor of The Face and Dylan Jones editing companion title Arena. In this period art director Phil Bicker, who had succeeded Neville Brody and Robin Derrick pursued working relationships with young experimental photographers, including Corinne Day, Stephane Sednaoui, Nigel Shafran, David Sims and Juergen Teller, as well as stylists such as Melanie Ward. Bicker's decision to make the unknown 16-year-old Kate Moss "the face of The Face" gave the supermodel her first exposure on the front of the July 1990 issue entitled "The 3rd Summer Of Love". In May 1992, a High Court jury found in favour of a libel claim by Jason Donovan that The Face had implied he was gay when he was not and awarded the pop performer £200,000 in damages and costs; the singer reduced the amount to £95,000 to be paid over several months and a fund was set up for readers and supporters. Under Sheryl Garratt's direction with assistance from her successor Richard Benson and other writers including Lindsay Baker, Ashley Heath, Gavin Hills and Amy Raphael, The Face reflected the developments in club culture and what became known as Britart as well as musical genres including grunge and Britpop.
By this time the magazine's art direction and design team of Stuart Spalding and Lee Swillingham were showcasing such emerging photographic talents as Inez and Vinoodh and Norbert Schoerner. The biggest selling issue of The Face was published in October 1995. With Robbie Williams on the cover, it sold 128,000 copies. After Logan launched new titles Frank and Deluxe, Richard Benson became editorial director of Wagadon in 1998, his successor as editor of The Face was Adam Higginbotham who in turn was succeeded by Johnny Davis in spring 1999. In July 1999 amid plummeting circulation figures and aggressive competition from such titles as Loaded and Dazed & Confused, Logan sold Wagadon to Emap, which absorbed The Face and Arena Homme + into its lifestyle division While Benson did not join Emap, Johnny Davis and Ashley Heath were among the team who made the transfer. In 2002 Davis was succeeded as editor by co-founder of the Popbitch gossip website. By the spring of 2004 monthly sales had slipped to 40,000 copies and Emap consumer division head Paul Keenan announced the magazine's closure.
The final issue was published in May 2004. Rights to the title The Face were acquired in 2017 by UK publisher Wasted Talent Media, which announced plans to relaunch the magazine. In 2011, The Face was added to the permanent collection of the Design London; the Face was featured in the following exhibitions at London's Victoria & Albert Museum: Postmodernism
Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and fast tempo. The songs use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work; the lyrics deal with social issues and criticism of The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the fast drum beats and attitude of hardcore with the double bass drumming and heavy, complex guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal, it emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop music–infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. Thrash metal was an inspiration for subsequent extreme genres such as black metal. Thrash metal features fast tempos, low-register, complex guitar riffs, high-register guitar solos and double bass drumming; the genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal.
It emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop-infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. The rhythm guitar parts are played with heavy distortion and palm muted to create a tighter and more precise sound. Vocally, thrash metal can employ anything from melodic singing to shouted vocals. Most guitar solos are played at high speed and technically demanding, as they are characterized by shredding, use advanced techniques such as sweep picking, legato phrasing, alternate picking, tremolo picking, string skipping, two-hand tapping; the guitar riffs use chromatic scales and emphasize the tritone and diminished intervals, instead of using conventional single scale based riffing. For example, the intro riff of Metallica's "Master of Puppets" is a chromatic descent, followed by a chromatic ascent based on the tritone. Speed and time-changes define thrash metal. Thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style.
For example, drummers use two bass drums, or a double-bass pedal, in order to create a relentless, driving beat. Cymbal stops/chokes are used to transition from one riff to another or to precede an acceleration in tempo; some common characteristics of the genre are fast guitar riffs with aggressive picking styles and fast guitar solos, extensive use of two bass drums as opposed to the conventional use of only one, typical of most rock music. To keep up with the other instruments, many bassists use a plectrum. However, some prominent thrash metal bassists have used their fingers, such as Frank Bello, Greg Christian, Steve DiGiorgio, Robert Trujillo and Cliff Burton. Several bassists use a distorted bass tone, an approach popularized by Motörhead's Lemmy. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include warfare, injustice, suicide, alienation and other maladies that afflict the individual and society. In addition, politics pessimism and dissatisfaction towards politics, are common themes among thrash metal bands.
Humor and irony can be found, but they are limited, are exception rather than a rule. Among the earliest songs to be labeled thrash metal was Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy", recorded and released in 1974; the song was described as being thrash metal "before the term had been invented". Black Sabbath's "Symptom of the Universe", released in 1975, was the inspiration for Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?". Since NWOBHM bands directly influenced the development of early thrash; the early work of artists such as Diamond Head, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Motörhead, Tygers of Pan Tang and Angel Witch, among others, introduced the fast-paced instrumentation that became an essential aspect of thrash. Void is hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover, whose chaotic musical approach is cited as influential, their 1982 split LP with fellow Washington band The Faith showed both bands exhibiting quick, high-speed punk rock. It has been argued that those recordings laid the foundation for early thrash metal, at least in terms of selected tempos.
In Europe, the earliest band of the emerging thrash movement was Venom from Newcastle upon Tyne, formed in 1979. Their 1982 album Black Metal has been cited as a major influence on many subsequent genres and bands in the extreme metal world, such as Bathory, Hellhammer and Mayhem; the European scene was exclusively influenced by the most aggressive music Germany and England were producing at the time. British bands such as Tank and Raven, along with German band Accept, motivated musicians from central Europe to start bands of their own producing groups such as Sodom and Destruction from Germany, as well as Switzerland's Coroner; the Swedish punk band Warheads have been described as a proto-thrash band. In 1981, a Southern California band Leather Charm wrote a song entitled "Hit the Lights". Leather Charm soon disbanded and the band's primary songwriter, vocalist/rhythm guitarist James Hetfield met drummer Lars Ulrich through a classified advertisement. Together and Ulrich formed Metallica, the first of the "Big Four" thrash bands, with lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, who would form Megadeth, another of the "Big Four" originators of thrash, bassist Ron McGovney.
Metallica relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area. McGovney was replaced with Cliff Burton, Mustaine was replaced with Kirk Hammett. "Hit the Lights" was featured on th
Angus McKinnon Young is an Australian guitarist, best known as the co-founder, lead guitarist and only constant member of the Australian hard rock band AC/DC. He is known for his energetic performances, schoolboy-uniform stage outfits and his own version of Chuck Berry's duckwalk. Young was ranked 24th in Rolling Stone magazine's 100 greatest guitarists of all-time list. In 2003, Young and the other members of AC/DC were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. William Young and his family lived at 6 Skerryvore Road in the Cranhill district of Glasgow in Scotland. William worked first as a wheel boy in a rope works and as a machine / saw operator in an asbestos / cement business. In 1940 William joined the Royal Air Force serving in World War 2 as a flight engine mechanic. After the war William worked as a yard man for a builder and as a postman, his wife Margaret was a housewife. The'big freeze' of 1963 was the worst winter on record in Scotland with snow eight feet deep. A TV advertisement at the same time offered assisted travel for families for a different life in Australia.
15 members of the Young family left Scotland by aeroplane in late June 1963 including fifth son and younger brothers and Angus. Aboard were his eldest brother Stephen, his only sister, Mrs Margaret Horsburgh and brother, William Jr. Another elder brother, stayed in the UK, was a member of London-based group, Grapefruit. A final brother, John Young, had migrated to Australia separately. Malcolm described the family's musical background, "All the males in our family played, the oldest played accordion and John were the first couple to play guitar, being older it was sort of passed down to George myself Angus." His oldest brother Stevie was the father of Stevie Young who in years took over from Malcolm in AC/DC. Staying at Villawood Migrant Hostel in Nissen huts, George Young met and became friends with another migrant, Harry Vanda; the Young family moved into a semi detached house at 4 Burleigh Street in the Sydney suburb of Burwood. Angus Young dropped out of Ashfield Boys High School at age 15.
Young first started re-strung with six strings. He first started playing guitar on a cheap acoustic model purchased second-hand by his mother, his first Gibson SG was bought second-hand around 1970 from a music shop just down the street from his home: I got out and got a Gibson SG that I played until it got wood rot because so much sweat and water got into it. The whole neck warped. I bought it second-hand, it had a real thin neck slim, like a Custom neck. It was dark brown. Both Angus and Malcolm Young were in a band with their brother George and his music partner Harry Vanda called Marcus Hook Roll Band; the project released. Prior to forming AC/DC, Angus Young played in a local group called Kantuckee. Kantuckee's line-up included Angus Young, Jon Stevens and Trevor James; the band split and was called Tantrum with the following line up: Mark Sneddon, Angus Young, Jon Stevens and Trevor James. Angus Young was 18 when he and older brother Malcolm formed AC/DC in 1973. Angus was on lead guitar, Malcolm on rhythm guitar, Colin Burgess on drums, Larry Van Kriedt on bass guitar and Dave Evans on vocals.
"Can I Sit Next To You Girl," their first single, was re-recorded with Bon Scott as their vocalist. They decided upon the name AC/DC after seeing the letters "AC/DC" on the back of their sister Margaret's sewing machine. Young tried a number of stage costumes, such as Spider-Man, Zorro, a gorilla, a parody of Superman, named Super-Ang, before settling on his signature schoolboy look at the suggestion of his sister. To match this image the press and public were told that Young was born in 1959, not 1955; the original uniform was created by his sister Margaret and when it fell apart from wear and tear, he used his uniform from Ashfield Boys High School in Sydney. "I don't like to play below people's heads. I just like to get up in front of a crowd and rip it up." AC/DC released their debut album, High Voltage, on 17 February 1975. Over the next three years AC/DC cemented themselves as a popular hard rock act in Australia, with the follow-up albums, T. N. T. Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, Let There Be Powerage.
All their albums until this point were produced by Young's brother George in partnership with Harry Vanda. Their 1979 studio album, Highway to Hell, became their best-selling at the time and launched them to new heights of fame. Months after this, Scott died from alcohol poisoning. Questions were raised as to. Young and his other bandmates soon decided they should finish the work they had begun for their new album, so they recruited ex-Geordie singer Brian Johnson to replace Scott. Five months Back in Black was released as a tribute to Scott, it became a huge success, far outselling any of their previous albums, going on to reach 22x multi-platinum in the US alone, selling 50 million copies, the second highest-selling album worldwide, behind only Michael Jackson's Thriller. AC/DC's next album, For Those About to Rock We Salute You, cemented their position as the most popular hard rock act of the time. AC/DC's popularity declined with their next three albums, Flick of th
In guitar music electric guitar, a power chord Play is a colloquial name for a chord that consists of the root note and the fifth. Power chords are played on amplified guitars on electric guitar with distortion. Power chords are a key element of many styles of rock and in heavy metal, punk rock; when two or more notes are played through a distortion process that non-linearly transforms the audio signal, additional partials are generated at the sums and differences of the frequencies of the harmonics of those notes. When a typical chord containing such intervals is played through distortion, the number of different frequencies generated, the complex ratios between them, can make the resulting sound messy and indistinct; this effect is accentuated as most guitars are tuned based on equal temperament, with the result that minor thirds are narrower, major thirds wider, than they would be in just intonation. However, in a power chord, the ratio between the frequencies of the root and fifth are close to the just interval 3:2.
When played through distortion, the intermodulation leads to the production of partials related in frequency to the harmonics of the original two notes, producing a more coherent sound. The intermodulation makes the spectrum of the sound expand in both directions, with enough distortion, a new fundamental frequency component appears an octave lower than the root note of the chord played without distortion, giving a richer, more bassy and more subjectively'powerful' sound than the undistorted signal; when played without distortion, the simple ratios between the harmonics in the notes of a power chord can give a stark and powerful sound, owing to the resultant tone effect. Power chords have the advantage of being easy to play, allowing fast chord changes and easy incorporation into melodies and riffs. Theorists are divided on whether a power chord can be considered a chord in the traditional sense, with some requiring a'chord' to contain a minimum of three degrees of the scale; when the same interval is found in traditional and classical music, it would not be called a "chord", may be considered a dyad.
However, the term is accepted as a pop and rock music term, most associated with the overdriven electric guitar styles of hard rock, heavy metal, punk rock, similar genres. The use of the term "power chord" has, to some extent, spilled over into the vocabulary of other instrumentalists, such as keyboard and synthesizer players. Power chords are most notated 5 or. For example, "C5" or "C" refer to playing the fifth; these can be inverted, so that the G is played below the C. They can be played with octave doublings of the root or fifth note, which makes a sound, subjectively higher pitched with less power in the low frequencies, but still retains the character of a power chord. Another notation is ind, designating the chord as'indeterminate'; this refers to the fact that a power chord is neither minor, as there is no third present. This gives the power chord a chameleon-like property. Power chords can be traced back to commercial recordings in the 1950s. Robert Palmer pointed to electric blues guitarists Willie Johnson and Pat Hare, both of whom played for Sun Records in the early 1950s, as the true originators of the power chord, citing as evidence Johnson's playing on Howlin' Wolf's "How Many More Years" and Hare's playing on James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues".
Scotty Moore opened. Link Wray is cited as the first mainstream rock and roll musician to have used power chords, with "Rumble". A hit song built around power chords was "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, released in 1964; this song's riffs exhibit fast power-chord changes. The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, performed power chords with a theatrical windmill-strum, for example in "My Generation". On King Crimson's Red album, Robert Fripp thrashed with power chords. Power chords are important in many forms of punk rock music. Many punk guitarists used only power chords in their songs, most notably Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein and Johnny Ramone. Power chords are performed within a single octave, as this results in the closest matching of overtones. Octave doubling is sometimes done in power chords. Power chords are pitched in a middle register. Shown above are four examples of an F5 chord; the letter names above the chords only indicate. These letter names should not be mistaken for the chord names used in popular music A common voicing is the 1-5 perfect fifth, to which the octave can be added, 1-5-1.
A perfect fourth 5-1 is a power chord, as it implies the "missing" lower 1 pitch. Either or both of the pitches may be doubled an octave above or below, which leads to another common variation, 5-1-5; the spider chord is a guitar technique. Regarded as being popularized and named by Dave Mustaine of Megadeth, it is used to reduce string noise when playing riffs that require chords across several strings; the chord or technique is used in the songs "Wake Up Dead", "Holy Wars... The Punishment Due" and "Ride the Lightning". D5 Bb5 e|-------| B|-------| G|-------| D|-7-----| A|-5--8--| E|----6--| 3
Nu metal is a subgenre of alternative metal that combines elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, alternative rock, funk and grunge. Nu metal bands have drawn elements and influences from a variety of musical styles, including multiple genres of heavy metal. Nu metal features guitar solos. Many nu metal guitarists use seven-string guitars. DJs are featured in nu metal to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Vocal styles in nu metal include singing, rapping and growling. Nu metal is one of the key genres of the new wave of American heavy metal. Nu metal became popular in the late 1990s with bands and artists such as Korn, Limp Bizkit, Kid Rock all releasing albums that sold millions of copies. Nu metal's popularity continued during the early 2000s, with bands such as Papa Roach, P. O. D. all selling multi-platinum albums, came to a peak with Linkin Park's diamond-selling album Hybrid Theory. However, by the mid-2000s, the oversaturation of bands combined with the under-performance of a number of high-profile releases led to nu metal's decline, leading to the rise of metalcore and many nu metal bands disbanding or abandoning their established sound in favor of other genres.
During the 2010s, there has been a minor nu metal revival. Nu metal is known as nü-metal and aggro-metal, it is a subgenre of alternative metal. MTV states that the early nu metal group Korn "arrived in 1993 into the burgeoning alternative metal scene, which would morph into nü-metal the way college rock became alternative rock." Stereogum has claimed that nu metal was a "weird outgrowth of the Lollapalooza-era alt-metal scene". Nu metal merges elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as grunge, hip hop, alternative rock. Nu metal bands have been influenced by and have used elements of a variety of musical genres, including electronic music, gothic rock, hardcore punk, punk rock, dance music, new wave, post-punk, symphonic rock and synth-pop. Nu metal bands are influenced by and use elements of genres of heavy metal music such as death metal, rap metal, groove metal, funk metal, thrash metal; some nu metal bands, such as Static-X and Dope, made nu metal music with elements of industrial metal.
In contrast with other heavy metal subgenres, nu metal tends to use the same structure of verses and bridges as those in pop music. Nu metal is syncopated and is based on guitar riffs. Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres of heavy metal. Kory Grow of Revolver wrote, "... N its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo". Another contrast with other heavy metal genres is nu metal's emphasis on rhythm, rather than on complexity or mood its rhythm sounds like that of groove metal; the wah pedal is featured in nu metal music. Nu metal guitar riffs are similar to those of death metal. Nu metal bassists and drummers are influenced by funk and hip hop adding to nu metal's rhythmic nature. Blast beats, which are common in heavy metal subgenres such as black metal and death metal, are rare in nu metal. Nu metal's similarities with many heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygian modes.
While loud and distorted electric guitars are a core feature of all metal genres, nu metal guitarists took the sounds of "violence and destruction" to new levels with their overdriven guitar tone, which music journalists Kitts and Tolinski compared to the "...sound a Mack truck being crushed by a collapsing skyscraper."Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars that are down-tuned, rather than traditional six-string guitars. Some bass guitarists use five-string and six-string instruments. Bass guitar-playing in nu metal features an emphasis on funk elements. In nu metal music, DJs are sometimes featured to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Nu metal tends to have hip hop rhythms. Vocal styles used in nu metal music include singing, rapping and growling. Vocals in nu metal are rhythmic and influenced by hip hop. Although some nu metal bands, such as Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park have rapping in their music, some nu metal bands, such as Godsmack and Staind, do not feature rapping.
Nu metal bands feature hip hop musicians as guests in their songs. The hip hop musician Nas was featured on Korn's song "Play Me", on the band's album Take a Look in the Mirror. Limp Bizkit has recorded with multiple hip hop musicians including Method Man, Lil Wayne, Redman, DMX and Snoop Dogg. Linkin Park collaborated with hip hop musician Jay Z on their 2004 extended play Collision Course. Kid Rock has recorded with hip hop musicians Snoop Dogg. Trevor Baker of The Guardian wrote, "Bands such as Linkin Park and the much reviled Limp Bizkit... did far more to break down the artificial barriers between'urban music' and rock than any of their more critically acceptable counterparts." Lyrics in nu metal songs are angry or nihilistic.