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Ketone

In chemistry, a ketone is a functional group with the structure RCR', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds, they are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH. Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars and the industrial solvent acetone, the smallest ketone; the word ketone is derived from an old German word for acetone. According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone; the position of the carbonyl group is denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, traditional nonsystematic names are still used, for example acetone and benzophenone; these nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names, although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone instead of "acetone".

The derived names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written in order of increasing complexity. For example, methyl ethyl ketone; when the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being the atom adjacent to carbonyl group. Although used infrequently, oxo is the IUPAC nomenclature for a ketone functional group. Other prefixes, are used. For some common chemicals, keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group; the term oxo is used through chemistry. For example, it refers to an oxygen atom bonded to a transition metal; the ketone carbon is described as "sp2 hybridized", a description that includes both their electronic and molecular structure. Ketones are trigonal planar around the ketonic carbon, with C−C−O and C−C−C bond angles of 120°.

Ketones differ from aldehydes in that the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbons within a carbon skeleton. In aldehydes, the carbonyl is bonded to one carbon and one hydrogen and are located at the ends of carbon chains. Ketones are distinct from other carbonyl-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic acids and amides; the carbonyl group is polar because the electronegativity of the oxygen is greater than that for carbon. Thus, ketones are nucleophilic at electrophilic at carbon; because the carbonyl group interacts with water by hydrogen bonding, ketones are more soluble in water than the related methylene compounds. Ketones are hydrogen-bond acceptors. Ketones are not hydrogen-bond donors and cannot hydrogen-bond to themselves; because of their inability to serve both as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, ketones tend not to "self-associate" and are more volatile than alcohols and carboxylic acids of comparable molecular weights. These factors relate as solvents. Ketones are classified on the basis of their substituents.

One broad classification subdivides ketones into symmetrical and asymmetrical derivatives, depending on the equivalency of the two organic substituents attached to the carbonyl center. Acetone and benzophenone are symmetrical. Acetophenone is an asymmetrical ketone. In the area of stereochemistry, asymmetrical ketones are known for being prochiral. Many kinds of diketones are known, some with unusual properties; the simplest is diacetyl. Acetylacetone is a misnomer because this species exists as the monoenol CH3CCH=CCH3, its enolate is a common ligand in coordination chemistry. Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are called unsaturated ketones; the most used member of this class of compounds is methyl vinyl ketone, CH3CCH=CH2, useful in the Robinson annulation reaction. Lest there be confusion, a ketone itself is a site of unsaturation. Many ketones are cyclic; the simplest class have the formula nCO. Larger derivatives exist. Cyclohexanone, a symmetrical cyclic ketone, is an important intermediate in the production of nylon.

Isophorone, derived from acetone, is an unsaturated, asymmetrical ketone, the precursor to other polymers. Muscone, 3-methylpentadecanone, is an animal pheromone. Another cyclic ketone is cyclobutanone, having the formula C4H6O. Ketones that have at least one alpha-hydrogen, undergo keto-enol tautomerization. Tautomerization is catalyzed by both bases; the keto form is more stable than the enol. This equilibrium allows ketones to be prepared via the hydration of alkynes. Ketones are far more acidic than a regular alkane; this difference reflects resonance stabilization of the enolate ion, formed upon deprotonation. The relative acidity of the α-hydrogen is important in the enolization reactions of ketones and other carbonyl compounds; the acidity of the α-hydrogen allows ketones and other carbonyl compounds to react as nucleophiles at that position, with either stoichiometric and catalytic base. Using strong bases like lithium diisopropylamide under non-equilibrating conditions, t

Battle of Fort Beauséjour

The Battle of Fort Beauséjour was fought on the Isthmus of Chignecto and marked the end of Father Le Loutre's War and the opening of a British offensive in the Acadia/ Nova Scotia theatre of the Seven Years' War, which would lead to the end of the French Empire in North America. The battle reshaped the settlement patterns of the Atlantic region, laid the groundwork for the modern province of New Brunswick. Beginning June 3, 1755, a British army under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton staged out of nearby Fort Lawrence, besieged the small French garrison at Fort Beauséjour with the goal of opening the Isthmus of Chignecto to British control. Control of the isthmus was crucial to the French because it was the only gateway between Quebec and Louisbourg during the winter months. After two weeks of siege, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor, the fort's commander, capitulated on June 16. Tensions between the English and the French concerning the Acadian territory date to the seventeenth century, when France established its Acadian colony, which made them neighbors with the Puritans in New England.

One of the main reasons for tensions was the question of jurisdiction after the conquest of Acadia. The isthmus of Chignecto was claimed by both the French and English whereas present day Nova Scotia was claimed by the English; the border differentiating the two was the Missaguash River. English claim to present day New Brunswick, Northern Maine conflicted with small French presence and Acadian settlement in the area. Despite this, France's Louis XV encouraged Acadians to migrate to the land west of the Missaguash, toward Fort Beauséjour. In the 1750s, New Englanders were subject to drought, high taxes and violence, all of which were further manipulated by Puritan and Protestant priests to garner support for an impending attack on the Catholic French. Furthermore, the close relationship between the French and the Mikmaq in the area angered the English. Acadians married the Mikmaq people, leading to an ethnic accord and the creation of a unique local population; the English resented the Acadians for holding the best land and for the support they had from the Mikmaq, which prevented the establishment of a Protestant settlement.

A major problem for the New Englanders was the close relationship between the Acadians, the French, the Mikmaq. Abbé Le Loutre, the priest at Fort Beauséjour, created yet another source of tension as he was a representative of the French government, therefore allied to the Mikmaq. Le Loutre was loyal to France and to ensure the Acadians' allegiance, he threatened physical and spiritual damage to the Acadians if they were to enter English territory. In the face of religious and military excommunication, Acadians subdued any English support they may have had. Le Loutre encouraged the Mikmaq to continue to align themselves against the British which they had done since King William's War; the British put a bounty on Le Loutre. Lieutenant-Colonel Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council, along with many previous governors, had noted that on many occasions, the Acadians did not act neutral. Lawrence had evidence that at least some Acadians favoured the French and hoped to force all of the Acadians to take an oath of allegiance to the English.

The English in New England considered the Acadians traitors to Britain and as "French bigots", whom they hoped would be moved to Philadelphia. Lawrence had little regard for the unique lifestyle of the Acadians and their declaration of neutrality; some historians have suggested the Lawrence was motivated by wanting to clear rich land for New Englanders. Others have noted that the deportation was based on military reasons to remove any military threat Acadians posed in their alliance with the Mi'kmaq people and the Acadian support of Louisbourg. In 1753, French troops from Canada seized and fortified the Ohio Valley. Britain claimed Ohio for itself. On May 28, 1754, the French and Indian War began with the Battle of Jumonville Glen. French Officer Ensign de Jumonville and a third of his escort was killed by a British patrol led by George Washington. In retaliation the French and the Indians defeated the British at Fort Necessity. Washington lost a third of his force, surrendered. Major General Edward Braddock's troops were defeated in the Battle of the Monongahela, William Johnson's troops stopped the French advance at Lake George.

In Acadia, the primary British objective was to defeat the French fortifications at Beausejour and Louisbourg. The British saw the Acadians' allegiance to the French and the Wabanaki Confederacy as a military threat. Father Le Loutre's War had created the conditions for total war. Throughout all of this, the British were nervous about a native invasion; as a result of native raids supported by the French some British settlers left their settlements. As a result of the military buildup at Chignecto, as part of the larger coordinated effort of the French and Indian War, the Governor of Massachusetts, William Shirley planned to take Fort Beausejour. Shirley's intelligence fermented the idea that the only way of saving Massachusetts was to attack Beauséjour. In 1750, the Governor of New France Jacques-Pierre de la Jonquière heard that the English were building a fort in the region of Acadia; this fort became Fort Lawrence. In response, the French decided to build Fort Beauséjour; the building of the fort began in 1751 an

Tsereteli

The Tsereteli is a noble family in Georgia, which gave origin to several notable writers, politicians and artists. According to traditional accounts, the family’s ancestors had been chieftains in Dagestan or Ossetia, who fled the Islamization of their homeland by Tamerlane and moved, through Circassia, into Christian Georgia in 1395. Constantine II, King of Imereti from 1392 to 1401, enfeoffed them of Sachkhere and conferred the dignity of prince upon them; the Tsereteli held a fiefdom in Upper Imereti called Satseretlo with their residence at Modinakhe, turned into one of the preeminent aristocratic families in Georgia. They intermarried with other Georgian noble houses and with the branches of Bagrationi royal dynasty in both western and eastern Georgia. A branch of the family followed King Vakhtang VI of Kartli in his 1724 emigration to Imperial Russia, where they came to be known as Tsertelev and were absorbed into the Russian nobility. C. 1380-1590 – Twelve anonymous princes Kveli Bezhan, son Kaikhosro, son Kveli, brother Kveli, son of Kaikhosro Papuna, son Kaikhosro, son Papuna, son Kaikhosro, son 1810 to Russia.

Akaki Tsereteli, a prominent Georgian poet and public figure Gigi Tsereteli and the President of OSCE PA Giorgi Tsereteli, Georgian writer and journalist Giorgi Tsereteli, Georgian Orientalist Grigol Tsereteli, Georgian philologist Irakli Tsereteli, Georgian Social-Democrat politician Mikheil Tsereteli, Georgian scholar and journalist Shalva Tsereteli, Soviet executioner of NKVD and Lavrentiy Beria’s associate Tamar Tsereteli, Georgian songstress Vasil Tsereteli, Georgian politician and physician Zurab Tsereteli, modern Russo-Georgian painter and sculptor. President of the Russian Academy of Arts Zurab Semyonovich Tsereteli, Georgian footballer Nikolay Andreyevich Tsertelev, Russian-Ukrainian ethnographer and the first enthusiast of Ukrainian folklore Aleksey Nikolayevich Tsertelev, Russian diplomat and writer Dmitry Nikolayevich Tsertelev, Russian writer and philosopher