Kettering is a town in the Kettering district, in the county of Northamptonshire, about 70 miles north of London and 15 miles northeast of Northampton, on the west side of the River Ise, a tributary of the River Nene. The name means "the place of Ketter's people". At the 2011 census, the borough had a population of 93,475; the town is twinned in the United States. It is part of the South Midlands and, along with other towns in Northamptonshire, has a growing commuter population as it is on the Midland Main Line railway, with East Midlands Railway services direct to London St Pancras International taking about an hour. Kettering means "the place of Ketter's people". Spelt variously Cytringan and Keteiringan in the 10th century, although the origin of the name appears to have baffled place-name scholars in the 1930s, words and place-names ending with "-ing" derive from the Anglo-Saxon or Old English suffix -inga or -ingas, meaning "the people of the" or "tribe". Before the Romans, the area, like much of Northamptonshire's prehistoric countryside, appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an sparse population and few finds from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods.
About 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, over the next century a series of hillforts were constructed, the closest to Kettering being at nearby Irthlingborough. Like most of what became Northamptonshire, from early in the 1st century BC the Kettering area became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession; the Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in AD 43. The town traces its origins to an early, unwalled Romano-British settlement, the remnants of which lie under the northern part of the modern town. Occupied until the 4th century, there is evidence that a substantial amount of iron smelting took place on the site. Along with the Forest of Dean and the Weald of Kent and Sussex, this area of Northamptonshire "was one of the three great centres of iron-working in Roman Britain"; the settlement reached as far as the Geddington parishes.
However it is felt unlikely that the site was continuously occupied from the Romano-British into the Anglo-Saxon era. Pottery kilns have been unearthed at nearby Barton Seagrave and Boughton. Excavations in the early 20th century either side of Stamford road, near the site of the former Prime Cut factory, revealed an extensive early Saxon burial site, consisting of at least a hundred cremation urns dating to the 5th century AD; this suggests that it may have been among the earliest Anglo-Saxon penetrations into the interior of what became England. The prefix Wic- of the nearby village of Weekley may signify Anglo-Saxon activities in the area; this was established imperial policy, which the Romano-British continued after Rome withdrew from Britain around 410, with disastrous consequences for the Romano-Britons. By the 7th century the lands that would become Northamptonshire formed part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia; the Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 with the death of the pagan king Penda.
From about 889 the Kettering area, along with much of Northamptonshire, was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw, with the ancient trackway of Watling Street serving as the border, until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942, it is unlikely however. Before this time the Kettering area was most populated by a thin scattering of family farmsteads; the first historical reference of Kettering is in a charter of 956 in which King Edwy granted ten "cassati" of land to Ælfsige the Goldsmith. The boundaries delineated in this charter would have been recognisable to most inhabitants for the last thousand years and can still be walked today, it is possible that Ælfsige gave Kettering to the monastery of Peterborough, as King Edgar in a charter dated 972 confirmed it to that monastery.
At the Domesday survey in 1086, Kettering manor is listed as held by the Abbey of Peterborough, the church owning 10 hides of land. Kettering was valued with land for 16 ploughs. There were 107 acres of meadow, 3 of woodland, 2 mills, 31 villans with 10 ploughs and 1 female slave; the nearby stately home of Boughton House, sometimes described as the'English Versailles' has for centuries been the seat of the Dukes of Buccleuch, major landowners in Kettering and most of the surrounding villages. Kettering is dominated by the crocketed spire of about 180 feet of the Parish church of SS Peter and Paul. Little is known of the origins of the church, its first known priest becoming rector in 1219–20; the chancel is in the Early Decorated style of about 1300, the main fabric of the building being Perpendicular, having been rebuilt in the mid 15th century (its tower and spire being remarkably similar to the tower and s
Rachid Guerraoui is a Moroccan-Swiss computer scientist and a professor at the School of Computer and Communication Sciences at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, known for his contributions in the fields of concurrent and distributed computing. He is an ACM Fellow and the Chair in Informatics and Computational Science for the year 2018–2019 at Collège de France for distributed computing. Guerraoui received his PhD from University of Orsay and has been affiliated with Ecole des Mines of Paris, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique of Saclay, Hewlett Packard Laboratories and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he is an associate editor of the Journal of the ACM and is the co-author of several books, including "Algorithms of Concurrent Systems", "Introduction to Reliable and Secure Distributed Programming" and "Principles of Transactional Memory". He won the Google Focused Award. With his co-workers, Guerraoui received Best Paper Awards at the following scientific conferences: ACM Middleware, ICDCN, Eurosys, DISC and OPODIS.
He received the 10-Year Best Paper Award at Middleware 2014,Beyond his scientific and academic work, Guerraoui works on popularization of computer science. He co-initiated the Wandida teaching project on YouTube, a library of 300++ videos on computer science and mathematics with 2.5 million views and over 25 thousand subscribers, as well as the Zettabytes education project, a library of videos related to introducing major computer science discoveries and open problems to the general public. Son of the former moroccan governor Mohammed Guerraoui and member of the larger Guerraoui familly, which inludes several notable members of the moroccan regime such as the other governor Abdellatif Guerraoui or the advisor to prime ministers Driss Guerraoui, Rachid Guerraoui maintains strong ties to Morocco through his participation in the public debate and the Moroccan political life. In 2019, he contributed to the online news media Barlamane, better known for being close to the Moroccan secret services and for being at the center of ethical controversies ethics after publishing a video of activist Nasser Zefzafi stripped from his clothes in a detention facility, together with confidential medical documents from journalist Hajar Raissouni, accused of illegal abortion by the Moroccan regime.
In December 2019, he was appointed by the Moroccan King as a member of the Special Committee on Model of Development. Guerraoui worked on establishing theoretical foundations of Transactional Memory, he co-defined a concept. On the practical side, he co-devised elastic transactions and co-designed SwissTM, a throughput-efficient software transactional memory as well as a benchmark for TM systems, STMBench7. Earlier, Guerraoui studied scalable information dissemination methods, his paper on lightweight epidemic broadcast was the first to consider the partial and/or out-of-sync views of different processes in a gossip-based distributed system. This paper, together with Guerraoui's paper on the underlying membership service, gained over 1250 citations combined as of 2018, among which a number of theory papers on the analysis of gossip protocols in realistic settings. Rachid Guerraoui has a proven record of investigating the foundations of asynchronous distributed computations. For instance, Guerraoui co-established lower bounds for asynchronous renaming.
He further proved fundamental results on the relationships between classical distributed computing problems, such as atomic commitment and consensus, for which he helped close the open problem of the weakest failure detector for consensus with any number of faults and co-established a new classification of distributed computing problems. Guerraoui further co-defined a general methodology to build concurrent asynchronous data structures and has shown how asynchrony can help build pseudo-random numbers. Guerraoui invented the mathematical abstraction of indulgence to capture the essence of asynchronous algorithms of which safety does not depend on timing assumptions, such as Lamport's Paxos or Castro-Liskov's PBFT. Guerraoui used that concept to co-define a general framework for secure and reliable distributed protocols
The Durham City by-election of 1871 was held on 14 January 1871. It was retained by incumbent Liberal Party MP John Robert Davison. However, Davison died in April, a second by-election was held in the month; the by-election was held due to Davison becoming Judge Advocate General. When an MP was appointed to certain ministerial posts they were obliged to stand again for Parliament under the Succession to the Crown Act 1707 in what became known as a ministerial by-election. Although Davison began a campaign for the election, he stopped after realising that there would be no opposition. However, a week before the nomination, Davison was lobbied by a nonconformist group over the recent Education Act. Davison told the group that he was unable to make a substantial comment on the issue and that he felt he should support the government's position; the nomination took place at 11am on 14 January in Durham Town Hall. Davison was seconded by HJ Marshall; the mayor asked. After receiving no answer, he declared Davison elected.
Davison thanked the attendees, which included fellow Liberal MPs Hedworth Williamson and Joseph Dodds, who represented the nearby North Durham and Stockton-on-Tees constituencies. He made a short speech in which he claimed that Prime Minister Gladstone still had the confidence of the public, and that the government had kept every promise it had made. Following his speech, the town clerk read the formal declaration of election