The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
J. Edgar Hoover
John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States and an American law enforcement administrator. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Hoover has been credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency than it was at its inception and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories. In life and after his death, Hoover became a controversial figure as evidence of his secretive abuses of power began to surface, he was found to have exceeded the jurisdiction of the FBI, to have used the FBI to harass political dissenters and activists, to amass secret files on political leaders, to collect evidence using illegal methods. Hoover amassed a great deal of power and was in a position to intimidate and threaten others sitting presidents of the United States.
John Edgar Hoover was born on New Year's Day 1895 in Washington, D. C. to Anna Marie, of Swiss-German descent, Dickerson Naylor Hoover Sr. chief of the printing division of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey a plate maker for the same organization. Dickerson Hoover was of German ancestry. Hoover's maternal great-uncle, John Hitz, was a Swiss honorary consul general to the United States. Among his family, he was the closest to his mother, their moral guide and disciplinarian. Hoover was born in a house on the present site of Capitol Hill United Methodist Church, located on Seward Square near Eastern Market in Washington's Capitol Hill neighborhood. A stained glass window in the church is dedicated to him. Hoover did not have a birth certificate filed upon his birth, although it was required in 1895 in Washington. Two of his siblings did have certificates, but Hoover's was not filed until 1938 when he was 43. Hoover lived in Washington, D. C. his entire life. He attended Central High School, where he sang in the school choir, participated in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program, competed on the debate team.
During debates, he argued against women getting the right to vote and against the abolition of the death penalty. The school newspaper applauded his "cool, relentless logic." Hoover stuttered as a boy, which he overcame by teaching himself to talk quickly—a style that he carried through his adult career. He spoke with such ferocious speed that stenographers had a hard time following him. Hoover was 18 years old when he accepted his first job, an entry-level position as messenger in the orders department, at the Library of Congress; the library was a half mile from his house. The experience shaped the creation of the FBI profiles, it gave me an excellent foundation for my work in the FBI where it has been necessary to collate information and evidence."Hoover obtained a Bachelor of Laws from The George Washington University Law School in 1916, where he was a member of the Alpha Nu Chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order, an LL. M. in 1917 from the same university. While a law student, Hoover became interested in the career of Anthony Comstock, the New York City U.
S. Postal Inspector, who waged prolonged campaigns against fraud, vice and birth control. After getting his LL. M. degree, Hoover was hired by the Justice Department to work in the War Emergency Division. He accepted the clerkship on July 1917, when he was just 22 years old; the job was exempt from the draft. In 1920, Edgar Hoover was initiated at D. C.'s Federal Lodge No. 1 in Washington D. C. becoming a Master Mason by age 25 and a 33rd Degree Inspector General Honorary in 1955. He soon became the head of the Division's Alien Enemy Bureau, authorized by President Woodrow Wilson at the beginning of World War I to arrest and jail disloyal foreigners without trial, he received additional authority from the 1917 Espionage Act. Out of a list of 1,400 suspicious Germans living in the U. S. the Bureau designated 1,172 as arrestable. In August 1919, the 24-year-old Hoover became head of the Bureau of Investigation's new General Intelligence Division known as the Radical Division because its goal was to monitor and disrupt the work of domestic radicals.
America's First Red Scare was beginning, one of Hoover's first assignments was to carry out the Palmer Raids. Hoover and his chosen assistant, George Ruch, monitored a variety of U. S. radicals with the intent to punish, arrest, or deport those whose politics they decided were dangerous. Targets during this period included Marcus Garvey. In 1921, Hoover rose in the Bureau of Investigation to deputy head and, in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director. On May 10, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Hoover as the fifth Director of the Bureau of Investigation in response to allegations that the prior director, William J. Burns, was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; when Hoover took over the Bureau of Investigation, it had 650 employees, including 441 Special Agents. Hoover banned the future hiring of them. Hoover was sometimes unpredictable in his leadership, he fired Bureau agents, singling out those he thought "looked stupid like truck drivers," o
Godzilla (1998 film)
Godzilla is a 1998 American monster film directed and co-written by Roland Emmerich. The film is a reimagining of Toho's Godzilla franchise and is the 23rd film in the franchise and the first Godzilla film to be produced by a Hollywood studio; the film stars Matthew Broderick, Jean Reno, Maria Pitillo, Hank Azaria, Kevin Dunn, Michael Lerner, Harry Shearer. The film is dedicated to Tomoyuki Tanaka, the co-creator and producer of various Godzilla films, who died in April 1997. In October 1992, TriStar Pictures announced plans to produce a trilogy of Godzilla films. Jan de Bont was hired in July 1994 to direct the film based on a script by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio. De Bont left the project in December 1994 due to budget disputes and Emmerich was hired in May 1996 to direct and co-write a new script with producer Dean Devlin. Principal photography began in May 1997 and ended in September 1997. Godzilla was released on May 20, 1998 to negative reviews but was a box office success, grossing $136 million domestically and $379 million worldwide.
Planned sequels were cancelled and an animated series was produced instead. In 2004, Toho began trademarking new iterations of TriStar's Godzilla as "Zilla", with only the incarnations from the 1998 film and animated show retaining the Godzilla copyright/trademark. A marine iguana nest is exposed to the fallout of radiation following a military nuclear test in French Polynesia. In the South Pacific Ocean, a Japanese fishing vessel is attacked by an enormous sea creature, with only one seaman surviving. Traumatized, he is questioned by a mysterious Frenchman in a hospital regarding what he saw, to which he only replies "Gojira." Dr. Niko "Nick" Tatopoulos, an NRC scientist, is in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in Ukraine researching the effects of radiation on wildlife, but he is interrupted by the arrival of an official from the U. S. State Department, he is sent to Panama and Jamaica, escorted by the military, to study a trail of wreckage across land leading to the recovered Japanese fishing ship with massive claw marks on it.
Nick identifies skin samples. He dismisses the military's theory that the creature is a living dinosaur, instead deducing it is a mutant created by nuclear testing; the 120m long creature travels to New York City during the rainy season, leaving a path of destruction in its wake. The city is evacuated before the U. S. military fails in an initial attempt. Nick collects a blood sample, after performing a pregnancy test, discovers that the creature reproduces asexually and is collecting food for its offspring. Nick meets up with his ex-girlfriend, Audrey Timmonds, a young news reporter who wants to find a story. While she visits him, she uncovers a classified tape in his provisional military tent which concerns the origins of the monster and turns it over to the media, she hopes to have her report put on TV in hopes to become famous, but her superior and boss, Charles Caiman, uses the tape in his broadcast, declaring it as his own discovery, dubs the creature "Godzilla". With the classified information released because of his actions, Nick is removed from the operation and abandons Audrey.
Soon, he is kidnapped by an "insurance guy" he met before coming to Manhattan. Revealing himself as an agent of the French secret service and his colleagues have been keeping a close watch on the events and plan to cover up their country's role in the nuclear testing that created Godzilla. Suspecting a nest somewhere in the city, they cooperate with Nick to destroy it. Following a second encounter with the military, Godzilla dives into the Hudson River to evade the military, where it is attacked by Navy submarines. After colliding with torpedoes, Godzilla sinks. Believing it is dead, the authorities celebrate. Nick and Philippe's strike team, followed by Audrey and her cameraman Victor "Animal" Palotti, find the nest inside Madison Square Garden and locate over 200 eggs. Before the French can succeed in destroying them, the eggs hatch and the offspring attack. Nick, Animal and Philippe take refuge in the Garden's broadcast booth and send out a live news-report to alert the military of what will happen if the offspring escape.
A prompt response involving an airstrike is initiated as the four escape moments before Air Force jets bomb the arena. Audrey and Nick reconcile and kiss, before the adult Godzilla, having survived, emerges from the Garden's ruins. Enraged by the deaths of its young, it chases the four across Manhattan. After a taxi chase, they manage to trap Godzilla within the Brooklyn Bridge where the returning Air Force jets manage to shoot it down. Godzilla dies from its wounds. Audrey tells Caiman, before leaving with Nick. Philippe thanks Nick for his help and parts ways. In the ruins of Madison Square Garden, a single surviving egg hatches and the emerging hatchling roars. Matthew Broderick as Dr. Niko "Nick" Tatopoulos Jean Reno as Philippe Roaché Maria Pitillo as Audrey Timmonds Hank Azaria as Victor "Animal" Palotti Kevin Dunn as Col. Anthony Hicks Michael Lerner as Mayor Ebert Harry Shearer as Charles Caiman Arabella Field as Lucy Palotti Vicki Lewis as Dr. Elsie Chapman Lorry Goldman as Gene Doug Savant as Sgt.
O'Neal Malcolm Danare as Dr. Mendel Craven Ralph Manza as Fisherman Joe Glenn Morshower as Kyle Terrington Chris Ellis as Gen. Hunter Anderson Richard Gant as Admiral Phelps Clyde Kusatsu as Japanese Tanker Skipper Nancy Cartwright as Caiman's Secretary Gary A. He
Michael Benjamin Bay is an American filmmaker known for directing and producing big-budget, high-concept action films characterized by fast cutting, stylistic visuals and extensive use of special effects, including frequent depictions of explosions. The films he has produced and directed, which include Armageddon, Pearl Harbor and the Transformers film series, have grossed over US$7.8 billion worldwide, making him one of the most commercially successful directors in history. He is co-founder of a.k.a.. The Institute for the Development of Enhanced Perceptual Awareness, he co-owns Platinum Dunes, a production house which has remade horror movies including The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, The Amityville Horror, The Hitcher, Friday the 13th and A Nightmare on Elm Street. Despite his commercial success at the box office, Bay's work is held in low esteem by film critics. While The Rock and Transformers received moderately positive reviews, his other films, including the four Transformers sequels, have been received negatively by critics.
Michael Bay was born in Los Angeles. He was raised by his adoptive parents Harriet, a bookstore owner/child psychiatrist, Jim, a Certified Public Accountant. Bay was raised Jewish, his grandfather was from Russia. His cousin, Susan Bay, is the widow of Star Trek actor Leonard Nimoy, he attended the exclusive Crossroads School, in California. Bay traces his interest in action films back to an incident during his childhood; as a boy, he attached some firecrackers to a toy train and filmed the ensuing fiery disaster with his mother's 8 millimeter camera. The fire department was called and he was grounded. Bay got his start in the film industry interning with George Lucas when he was fifteen, filing the storyboards for Raiders of the Lost Ark, which he thought was going to be terrible, his opinion changed after seeing it in the theater and he was so impressed by the experience that he decided to become a film director. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1986, majoring in both Film, he was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and a favorite student of film historian Jeanine Basinger.
For his graduate work, he attended Art Center College of Design in Pasadena where he studied film. Michael Bay began working at Propaganda Films, directing commercials and music videos, two weeks after finishing his post-graduate degree, his 90-second World War II-inspired Coca-Cola advertisement was picked up by Capitol Records. His first national commercial was for the Red Cross, which won a Clio Award in 1992, he directed Goodby, Silverstein & Partners "Got Milk?" Advertisement campaign for the California Milk Processors Board in 1993, which won a Grand Prix Clio Award for Commercial of the Year. Bay's success in music videos gained the attention of producers Jerry Bruckheimer and Don Simpson, who selected him to direct his first feature-length film, Bad Boys; the film starred Will Smith and Martin Lawrence. The action film proved to be a break-out role for Smith, segueing from television to films at that time. Shooting in Miami was a good experience for Bay, who would own a home in the city and spend a great deal of time there.
The film was completed for $19 million and grossed a remarkable $141 million at the box office in the summer of 1995. Bay's success led to friendship with Jerry Bruckheimer, his follow-up film, The Rock, was an action movie set on Alcatraz Island, in the San Francisco Bay area. It starred Nicolas Cage and Ed Harris, it was produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and Don Simpson, the latter of whom died five months before the film's release. The film is dedicated to him. Connery and Cage won'Best On-Screen Duo' at the MTV Movie Awards in 1997 and the film was nominated for an Academy Award in the Best Achievement in Sound category for the work of Greg P. Russell, Kevin O'Connell, Keith A. Wester. After the success of The Rock, Bay established his production company Bay Films, with a two-picture deal with Disney. In 1998, Bay collaborated with Jerry Bruckheimer again, this time as a co-producer, as well as directing the action-adventure film Armageddon; the film, about a group of tough oil drillers who are sent by NASA to deflect an asteroid away from a collision course with Earth, starred Bruce Willis, Billy Bob Thornton, Ben Affleck and Liv Tyler.
It was nominated for 4 Oscars at the 71st Academy Awards including Best Sound, Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Editing, Best Original Song. The film earned 9.6 million dollars on its opening day and a total of 36.5 million through the first weekend. The production budget, $140 million, was one of the highest of the summer of 1998. Armageddon went on to gross over $553 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film of that year. In 2001, Bay directed Pearl Harbor, it starred Josh Hartnett, Kate Beckinsale and Cuba Gooding, Jr.. The film was released on Memorial Day weekend in 2001. Again, Bay produced the film with Jerry Bruckheimer; the film received four Academy Award nominations, including Best Sound, Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Editing and Best Song. Again, Kevin O'Connell received another nomination for Best Sound. Pearl Harbor won in the category for Sound Editing. Michael Bay directed the music video for nominated track "There You'll Be" by vocal artist Faith Hill. Bay reteamed with Will Smith and Martin Lawrence for Bad Boys II, a sequel which marked Bay's fifth collaboration with Jerry Bruckheimer
Small Soldiers is a 1998 American science fiction war comedy film directed by Joe Dante and starring Kirsten Dunst and Gregory Smith. It revolves around a conflict between two factions of action figures powered by military technology, the Gorgonites and the title characters, Commando Elite; when an adolescent brings the Gorgonites to his home, he and those around him become targeted by the Commando Elite, who are programmed to eliminate the Gorgonites and their allies. Frank Langella and Tommy Lee Jones co-star as the voices of the leaders of the Gorgonites and the Commando Elite, respectively; the film received mixed reviews from critics and grossed $71.1 million on a $40 million budget. It was the last major film role of Phil Hartman and is dedicated in his memory. Top defense contractor GloboTech Industries acquires the Heartland Toy Company and as part of the move, Globotech CEO Gil Mars tells Heartland toy designers Larry Benson and Irwin Wayfair to develop actual live action toys capable of "playing back".
Mars selects Larry's soldiers, the Commando Elite, for the project and Irwin's creatures, the Gorgonites, for their enemies, with the toy line expected to hit the market in three months. Faced with such a tight deadline, Benson forgoes safety testing uses Irwin's password and chooses GloboTech's X1000 microprocessor to activate the toys. Teenager Alan Abernathy signs off for a shipment of the toys at his family's toy store without his father's consent, he and delivery driver Joe activate the leaders for each group – Archer for the Gorgonites and Chip Hazard for the Commando Elite. Alan's neighbor and love interest, Christy Fimple, buys Chip Hazard as a birthday present for her brother, Timmy. Alan returns home to discover Archer in his backpack. Alan calls the company and files a complaint; when Larry and Irwin listen to Alan's voice mail, Irwin is terrified to discover the X1000 was designed for smart munitions guidance. Meanwhile, Chip Hazard and his squad pursue Alan to his home and attempt to kill him and Archer in the kitchen.
Alan is attacked by Commando Elite Nick Nitro, whom he mortally wounds. His parents and Irene, arrive at the kitchen, having been alerted by the sounds of the scuffle there. Alan attempts to explain what is going on, but with Archer not supporting his explanation, neither of his parents believe him; the next day and Archer find the rest of the Gorgonites in a dumpster at the store. At home, Alan learns that the primary goal of the Gorgonites is to seek their homeland Gorgon, which they mistakenly believe to be in Yosemite National Park. Through tapping the Abernathys' phone line, the Commando Elite learn of Alan's interest in Christy, immobilize the Fimples' household and take Christy hostage to force Alan into surrendering the Gorgonites. Alan and Archer sneak into the Fimples' house to save Christy, but run into her Gwendy dolls, whom the Commando Elite engineered as auxiliary troops; the Gwendys subdue Alan. Archer cuts Christy loose from her bonds, together, they save Alan and destroy the Gwendys before escaping.
The Commando Elite pursue them in kit-bashed vehicles, but are destroyed in a crash. The two teenagers and Archer return to Alan's house, only to find both their families waiting for them, believing that Alan kidnapped Christy and immobilized the Fimples; this time and Irene believe Alan and Christy's account of the Gorgonites and the Commando Elite, but Phil and Marion, Christy's parents, remain skeptical. Irwin and Larry arrive and talk to Alan about his voicemail. At that moment, Chip Hazard, the only survivor of the crash, attacks the house with a new force of Commando Elites from a hijacked recall shipment by Joe and with more improvised vehicles and weapons. A battle promptly breaks out between the Commando Elite, the Gorgonites, the humans inside, resulting the house's electricity supply being cut off. Inspired by Irwin's advice to create an EMP blast, Alan heads out to force an overload of the power lines. Christy and Larry head to the Fimples' house to turn on all electronic items inside and wedge the power transformers open for a larger surge.
At Archer's command, the Gorgonites emerge and fight back against the Commando Elite. Chip Hazard flies to the top of the power line pole to stop Alan, where he battles and defeats Archer, but finds himself thrust by Alan into the power line, triggering the EMP blast, which destroys Chip Hazard along with all of the remaining Commando Elites. Mars arrives in his helicopter during the police and fire department cleanup the next day, he pays Joe, the Fimples, the Abernathys for damages, as well as buying their silence from the media, orders Larry and Irwin to prepare the Commando Elite for sale to rebels in South America. Among the craziness of the aftermath and Christy part on amicable terms, having agreed to start a relationship with each other. Alan discovers that the Gorgonites have screened themselves from the EMP blast by hiding underneath the Fimples' large satellite dish; the Abernathys bring the Gorgonites to Yosemite National Park, where Alan sends them out in a large toy boat from his father's store to find their island home of Gorgon.
The Commando Elite, excluding Jones and Dern, are voiced by cast members from the The Dirty Dozen. Dern replaced Dirty Dozen actor Richard Jaeckel, who died before shooting began. Excluding Langella and Cummings, the Gorgonites are voiced by cast members from This Is Spinal Tap. Sarah Michelle Gellar and Christina Ricci provided the voi
Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger was an American political consultant who served as the United States National Security Advisor for President Bill Clinton from March 14, 1997, until January 20, 2001. Before that he served as the Deputy National Security Advisor for the Clinton Administration from January 20, 1993, until March 14, 1997. In 2005, he was sentenced to serve two years of probation plus community service, he gave up his license to practice law. Berger was born to a Jewish family in New York, where his parents ran an Army-Navy store, he graduated from Webutuck High School in 1963, earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in government from Cornell University in 1967, his earned Juris Doctor degree from Harvard Law School in 1971. At Cornell, Berger was a member of the Quill and Dagger society with Paul Wolfowitz and Stephen Hadley. Opposed to the Vietnam War, Berger began working for Senator George McGovern's presidential campaign in 1972. While there, he met Bill Clinton. Berger urged Clinton to run for President of the United States.
After the McGovern campaign, Berger gained experience working in a variety of government posts, including serving as Special Assistant to Mayor of New York City John Lindsay and Legislative Assistant to U. S. Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa and Congressman Joseph Resnick of New York, he was Deputy Director of Policy Planning for the U. S. Department of State from 1977 to 1980 under Secretary of State Cyrus Vance during the Carter administration. After leaving the State Department, Berger went on to join the law firm Hogan & Hartson where he helped expand the firm's international law practice; as a partner, he opened the firm's first two international offices, in Brussels. "Sandy Berger", Nancy Pelosi said in 1997, "was the point-man at... Hogan & Hartson... for the trade office of the Chinese government. He was a lawyer-lobbyist." Berger served as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Governor Clinton during the campaign, as Assistant Transition Director for National Security of the 1992 Clinton-Gore Transition.
Berger served eight years on the National Security Council staff, first from 1993 - 1997 as deputy national security advisor, under Anthony Lake, whom Berger had recommended for the role, succeeding Lake as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from 1997 to 2001. Berger was a central figure in formulating the foreign policy of the Clinton Administration, played an integral role advancing the administration's self-described objectives of advancing "democracy, shared prosperity, peace." In President Clinton's words, "Nobody was more knowledgeable about policy or smarter about how to formulate it. He was both great in figuring out what to do about it, his gifts proved invaluable time and time again, in Latin America, the Balkans, Northern Ireland, the Middle East."Key achievements during Berger's NSC tenure included the 1995 peso recovery package in Mexico, NATO enlargement, Operation Desert Fox, the Dayton Accords that ended the killing in Bosnia, the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia that stopped the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, the Good Friday Agreement that helped bring about peace in Northern Ireland, the administration's policy of engagement with the People's Republic of China.
In a March 2005 oral history interview at the University of Virginia's Miller Center, Berger noted, "I think during the'90s we took China from outside the international system and brought it inside the international system through trade, economics, otherwise."On July 4, 1999, in what South Asia expert Bruce Reidel called Berger's "finest hour," Berger advised President Clinton through a pivotal negotiation with Pakistan's prime minister Nawaz Sharif to pull that country's troops back from Kashmir, averting a cataclysmic nuclear war with India. Berger advised the President regarding the Khobar Towers bombing and responses to the terrorist bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. In the final years of the Clinton administration, combating terrorism was the paramount foreign policy priority. In November 1997, Berger paid a $23,000 civil penalty to settle conflict of interest allegations stemming from his failure to sell his stock of Amoco Corporation as ordered by the White House.
Berger was advised by the White House to sell the stock in early 1994. He said he had planned to sell the stock, but forgot, he denied knowingly participating in decisions. With no evidence that Berger intended to break the law, the United States Department of Justice determined a civil penalty was adequate for a "non-willful violation" of the conflict of interest law. In 1999, Berger was criticized for failing to promptly inform President Clinton of his knowledge that the People's Republic of China had managed to acquire the designs of a number of U. S. nuclear warheads. Berger was briefed of the espionage by the Department of Energy in April 1996, but did not inform the president until July 1997. A number of Republicans, including presidential hopeful Lamar Alexander, called for Berger's resignation, they accused him of ignoring the allegations of Chinese espionage. "For his unwillingness to act on this serious matter, Mr. Berger should resign", Alexander said. "If he does not, he should be relieved of his duties by President Clinton."
President Clinton rejected the calls: "The record is that we acted aggressively," Clinton said. "Mr
National Security Advisor (United States)
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs referred to as the National Security Advisor or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor, is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House, who serves as the chief in-house advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the Senate, but an appointment of a three or four-star general to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank; the National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council and chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense. The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President; the influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent President.
Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda. However, the National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments. In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center, updating the President on the latest events in a crisis situation; the National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, intelligence. The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff.
In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President. Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953; the system has remained unchanged since particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day. Kissinger holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975. Brent Scowcroft is the only person to have held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: in the Ford administration and in the G. H. W. Bush administration. Robert Cutler held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration.
Henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service. Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service. Three and four-star generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank; the prior National Security Adviser, H. R. McMaster, is a three-star lieutenant general and his military rank was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 15, 2017. On Thursday, March 22, 2018, President Donald Trump announced, via Twitter, that McMaster would be replaced as the National Security Advisor by former U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations John R. Bolton, effective April 9, 2018. White House Chief of Staff Homeland Security Council Homeland Security Advisor 2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff. WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009. Www.whitehouse.gov/nsc