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Minnesota State Highway 15

Minnesota State Highway 15 is a 154.322-mile-long highway in south-central and central Minnesota, which runs from Iowa Highway 15 at the Iowa state line and continues north to its northern terminus at its interchange with U. S. Highway 10 outside of Sartell and Sauk Rapids, north of St. Cloud. State Highway 15 serves as a north–south route between Fairmont, New Ulm, St. Cloud in south-central and central Minnesota. Highway 15 parallels State Highway 4 throughout its route in central Minnesota. Flandrau State Park is located near Highway 15 in Brown County on the Cottonwood River; the park is located just south of New Ulm. Highway 15 is a four-lane highway on the west side of St. Cloud from Interstate Highway 94 to U. S. Highway 10. Highway 15 crosses the Bridge of Hope at the Mississippi River between Sauk Rapids. In the 1970s, Highway 15 through the St. Cloud area was planned to be constructed as a freeway, providing a high-speed connection between I-94 and U. S. 10. However, funding fell short of completing the freeway beyond Highway 23 / County Road 75.

As a result, it was decided that right-of-way needed to build interchanges would be sold off so the remaining segment of Highway 15 across the Mississippi River, connecting to U. S. 10, could be built. Therefore, from 2nd Street South to U. S. 10, the highway is built as an expressway with signalized intersections. As of now, Highway 15 is able to serve traffic. However, continuing increases in traffic in the St. Cloud area will require the highway to be converted to a freeway in the long term. State Highway 15 was authorized in 1920, 1933, 1950; the section of Highway 15 between New Ulm and the Iowa state line was Minnesota Constitutional Route 15, dating back to 1920. The section of Highway 15 between St. Cloud and Kimball was part of Minnesota Constitutional Route 24; the middle section of Highway 15 was authorized in 1933, the northernmost section in 1950. This northerly section was part of old State Highway 152 and was routed through downtown St. Cloud. Now, it bypasses central St. Cloud to the west side of town.

By 1940, only two short gravel sections of Highway 15 remained, both paved by 1953


Taralga is a small village in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Upper Lachlan Shire. It is located at the intersection of the Laggan-Taralga Road, it is accessible from Oberon to the north, Mittagong to the east, Goulburn to the south, Crookwell to the west. At the 2016 census, Taralga had a population of 467; the exact origin of the name Taralga is disputed. The two most supported theories are that the village was known as "Trial Gang" as within the early colonial boundaries of Argyle County, it was a location for the trials of convicts and bushrangers before the Crown; the second theory is that Taralga means "native companion" in the language of the Burra Aboriginal people. Taralga is located close to the famous Wombeyan Caves; the town experiences a volatile climate and is affected by snow in the winter months. The population of Taralga has fluctuated over time reflecting the town's fortunes. There were 100 residents in 1863, growing to over 700 by the 1890s. After the depression of the 1890s, the population shrank to half this size, but recovered by the mid 1950s to its peak level.

Today the town and surrounds service around 400 people. The area around Taralga was the traditional land of the Burra Burra peoples, a warlike tribe who clashed with neighbouring tribes and never lost a fight. Although no major clashes with the Europeans seem to have been recorded, nor tales of collaboration with them, their last great gathering or corroboree seems to have been in the 1830s after which they are not recorded by European history. Accordingly, they would have been pushed further west to less fertile plains after the disease brought by the Europeans. Charles Throsby passed through the Taralga area in 1819 on a journey from Cowpastures to Bathurst in search of new grazing lands. By 1824, John Macarthur's son James and his nephew Hannibal had established themselves in the Taralga region where they helped pioneer Australia's wool industry. A private village was established on land donated by James Macarthur and cleared by convicts in order to house and service members of the Macarthur family and their employees.

Orchard Street, now the main thoroughfare is located on the site of Macarthur's orchard. During the town's early history, Macarthur Street functioned as the main street and many examples of heritage buildings still stand here. An 1828 census revealed a small number of residents at Taralga suggesting the village was under way by that time, although there were no more than a few buildings. For the first few decades of the colony of New South Wales, most of the settlers were convicts assigned to the landowners and it was they who cleared the land, built the huts and houses, ran the farms. Taralga started to look like a town after the first few houses were built in the 1840s, but more rapid growth would be experienced in the 1860s in part due to the Robertson Land Acts allowing freehold title over land to settlers at favourable rates. Taralga was established as a town in the 1860s, with a school in 1857, churches—Presbyterian in 1861, St. Ignatius Roman Catholic in 1864, St. Lukes Anglican in 1866 and Methodist in 1868.

There were a number of stores and artisans' businesses and two hotels recorded in 1866. There was a large increase in population in Taralga after the 1860s, caused by the gold rush bringing new migrants to the area. In 1923, the town was visited by Premier Sir George Fuller, marking a period of renewed interest and prosperity in Taralga. During this visit, the Premier unveiled a war memorial honouring those residents who served in World War I, turned the first sod for construction of a railway link as well as laying the foundation stone for the Taralga Co-Operative Dairy Company's new butter factory; the 25 km Taralga railway line, constructed as a branch from the Crookwell line at Roslyn opened in 1926 and closed in 1957. The line little remains of the formation. Electricity was first provided in the 1930s by way of a plant set up by local Mr Sid Holt. Taralga has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Macarthur Street: Catholic Church of Christ the King While the population of Taralga declined after the gold rush period, the character of the town did not.

Today there are many significant buildings to be observed throughout the town. Small vineyards are located around the town. There are two heritage listed hotels, a sports club with lawn bowling greens and tennis courts. There is a 9-hole golf course with sand greens; the town hosts the annual "Australia Day Rodeo" and the Taralga Tigers Rugby Club always attracts big crowds during the Winter months and in the summer touch football is played. The town is situated on the Goulburn-Oberon Road, designated Main Road 256, progressively upgraded between 2002 and 2008. Taralga is the largest settlement between the two towns and a convenient stop for travellers between Goulburn and Bathurst wishing to bypass Sydney; the town can be accessed by rural roads from Crookwell and Marulan. On 20 February 2012, approval was granted by the New South Wales Government for work to commence on the Taralga Wind Farm; the project will see the construction of 51 wind turbines generating 106.8 Megawatts of electricity on ridges to the east of Taralga.

Electricity generated by the project will be fed into the national power grid through a 38 km transmission line to Marulan Substation. The project is expected to create up to 200 local jobs during the construction phase. Approval of the wind farm followed an unsuccessful challenge by the Taralga Landscape Guardians in the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales to block the project on the gro

William Davis Ardagh

William Davis Ardagh was an Ontario lawyer and political figure. He represented Simcoe North in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1871 to 1874, he grew up in County Kilkenny. He came to Barrie in Canada West in 1848, articled in law and was called to the bar in 1855, he entered the practice of law in Toronto with John Willoughby Crawford. He served as deputy judge in Simcoe County in 1882 and was reeve and mayor of Barrie, he moved to Winnipeg, where he served as Deputy Attorney-General and County Court judge. He served on the Board of Police Commissioners for Winnipeg, he died in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1893. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history Manitoba Historical Society

Yu-3 torpedo

The Yu-3 is a Chinese acoustic homing torpedo designed to be fired from submarines against surface targets. It entered service with the Chinese Navy in 1984. Several sources state that it may be a copy of the Soviet SET-65E, although this seems unlikely as development began in 1965 after the Sino-Soviet split, it is therefore the first indigenously developed torpedo in China. When the Chinese nuclear submarine program begun in the early 1960s, the design of torpedoes which would be used on the nuclear submarines was started in conjunction. A research team was first formed in the winter of 1964 by the 705th Research Institute, it was decided that priority should be given to acoustic homing ASW torpedo. China was able to indigenously provide two types of propulsion systems and steam, but electrical propulsion could not provide the speed required, so the steam propulsion was selected. However, the steam propulsion had its own problem: there were two types of steam propulsion engines, reciprocating engine and steam turbine engine.

China only had experience with the reciprocating engine, but the mechanical motion generated loud noise which reduced the effectiveness of the acoustic seeker of the torpedo. Since the steam turbine technology was monopolized by the west, Chinese researchers suggested the plan of torpedo approaching the target at high speed, reduce the speed to home in on the target at low speed. In 1964, the design was submitted to the National Defense Science and Technology Committee and named as Yu-3 torpedo, after continued evaluation that lasted from April 1965 to October 1965, approval was given, the permission to begin the production program was issued in March 1966. Two month in May 1966, the design was change on last time, when China developed silver-zinc battery, which enabled the torpedo to seek out targets at high speed, since electrically powered torpedo produced much less noise; the final propulsion of the Yu-3 torpedo selected was thus silver-zinc battery. The chief designer of the Yu-3 torpedo was Mr. Dong Lin, with Mr. Yang Baosheng and Mr. Jiang Liangfang as the deputy chief designers.

The pressure of at operating depth of the torpedo was great, newly developed aluminum alloy was used and passed the tests. By the end of 1966, special torpedo test range was authorized to be built, resulting from lessons learned from the development of Yu-1 torpedo and Yu-2 torpedo. In order to guarantee the development, the Central Military Committee of the Communist Party of China issued “Special Official Letter“ in 1967 to prevent the any disruptions from the political turmoil that plagued China at the time; the original plan of high speed approach with low speed search and engagement had limited the speed of the torpedo, because the original acoustic homing seeker was limited in its effectiveness and prone to noise radiated by the engine. In 1967, this problem was solved when a new multi-beamed acoustic homing seeker was developed jointly by the Acoustic Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Science and 705th Institute, under the leadership of Mr. Hou Chaohuan. By 1969, the 750-metre-deep deepwater torpedo testing range was established with the help of over 80 enterprises and named as 750 Testing Range in Kunming, after the greatest simulated depth of the range, a total of 4 sample torpedoes were produced.

In the same year, the fire control and launching system for Yu-3 torpedo were successfully developed and installed on board the nuclear submarine. In the autumn of 1969, Batch 0, the preproduction batch built for initial tests had been tested in lakes. Development continued to directly modify Batch 0 torpedoes for oceanic trials, with modification completed in 1971, oceanic tests begun in 1972, with the design finalized in 1975. However, oceanic environment had caused unexpected problems and from 1974 to the beginning of 1976, over 40 enterprises were ordered by the Yunnan National Defense Office to help Dawn Machinery Factory of the Yunnan 6th Machinery Bureau to complete the development of Yu-3 torpedo, but when all of the problems have been solved, it was years after the designed had been finalized, due to the political turmoil in China and the technology bottlenecks, China still had a long way to go. In December 1977, the production version of Yu-3 torpedo was tested in lakes, from March to October, 1983, work was concentrated on solving the problems discovered during oceanic tests, during which a total of 43 Yu-3 torpedoes were test fired.

In March 1984, the torpedo met all requirement and went into mass production. In May 1988, Han class nuclear submarine had test-launched Yu-3 torpedo at maximum depth in deep water testing facility in Hainan; the torpedo was given a name as Chinese sturgeon. Several modifications have been incorporated to Yu-3 torpedo. One of the important upgrade was to incorporating ASuW capability to Yu-3 torpedo so that the submarines would no longer need to carry separate ASuW and ASW torpedoes. In May 1985, Dawn Machinery Factory, 750 Test Range and 705th Research Institute jointly developed an export version as Chinese sturgeon -II, with export designation as ET32, but there was no known export. Other modifications included updating electronics and incorporating the capability of being launched from different platforms and being used as part of the CAPTOR mine type mine system Diameter: 533 mm Length: 7.8 meter Weight: 1.34 ton Warhead: 205 kg Guidance: active/passive acoustic homing Propulsion: electrical, silver-zinc battery Range

Ocaina language

Ocaina is an indigenous American language spoken in western South America. Ocaina belongs to the Witotoan language family, it is its own group within the Huitoto-Ocaina sub-family. Ocaina is spoken by 54 people in northeastern Peru and by 12 more in the Amazonas region of Colombia. Few children speak the language. There are two dialects of Ocaina: Dukaiya and Ibo'tsa. Syllables in Ocaina may be marked with one of two tones: low. Syllables in Ocaina consist of a vowel. A chart of symbols with the sounds they represent is as follows: Because the Ocaina alphabet is based on Spanish, c is used to indicate /k/ before a, o, u, qu is used before e and i, k is used in loan words, such as kerosene kerosene. Nasalization is indicated by inserting n after a vowel. Compare: tya tyója hang it vs. tya tyonjan clean it. High tone is indicated with the acute accent: á, é, í, ó, ú. Agnew, Arlene. "Phonemes of Ocaina". International Journal of American Linguistics. 23: 24–27. Doi:10.1086/464385. Leach, Ilo M.. Mary Ruth Wise.

Vocabulario Ocaina. Serie Lingüística Peruana. 4. Yarinacocha, Peru: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano