Keynsham /ˈkeɪnʃəm/ is a town and civil parish between Bristol and Bath in Somerset, south-west England. It has a population of 16,000 and it was listed in the Domesday Book as Cainesham, which is believed to mean the home of Saint Keyne. The site of the town has been occupied since prehistoric times, the remains of at least two Roman villas have been excavated, and an additional 15 Roman buildings have been detected beneath the Keynsham Hams. Keynsham developed into a market town after Keynsham Abbey was founded around 1170. It is situated at the confluence of the River Chew and River Avon and was subject to flooding before the creation of Chew Valley Lake. The Chew Stoke flood of 1968 inundated large parts of the town and it was home to the Cadburys chocolate factory, Somerdale, which opened in 1935 as a major employer in the town. It is home to Memorial Park, which is used for the town festival and several nature reserves. The town is served by Keynsham railway station on the London-Bristol, there are schools, religious, sporting, and cultural clubs and venues. Evidence of occupation dates back to times, and during the Roman period, Keynsham may have been the site of the Roman settlement of Trajectus. In 1877 during construction of the Durley Hill Cemetery, the remains of a grand Roman villa with over 30 rooms was discovered, unfortunately, construction of the cemetery went ahead, and the majority of the villa is now located beneath the Victorian cemetery and an adjacent road. The cemetery was expanded in 1922, and a dig was carried out ahead of the interments, leading to the excavation of 17 rooms. At the same time as the grand Roman villa was being excavated at Durley Hill Cemetery, two fine stone coffins were also excavated, interred with the remains of a male and a female. The villa and coffins were removed from the site, and reconstructed near the gates of the factory grounds, Frys constructed a museum on the grounds of the factory, which house the Durley Hill mosaics, the coffins, and numerous other artifacts for many years. The factory was shuttered in 2011, and the property sold to Taylor Wimpey for redevelopment into a housing community, currently, there are no plans to excavate the Roman ruins at Keynsham Hams. According to legend, Saint Keyne, daughter of King Brychan of Brycheiniog, before settling here, she had been warned by the local King that the marshy area was swarming with snakes, which prevented habitation. St Keyne prayed to the heavens and turned the snakes to stone, the fossil ammonites found in the area were believed to be the result. However, there is no evidence that her cult was celebrated in Keynsham. Some scattered archeological evidence suggests that an Anglo-Saxon settlement existed in Keynsham in the High Street area, the earliest documentary reference to Keynsham is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which refers to it as Cægineshamme, Old English for Cægas Hamm
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary and its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset is a county of rolling hills such as the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park. There is evidence of occupation from Paleolithic times, and of subsequent settlement in the Roman. The county played a significant part in the consolidation of power and rise of King Alfred the Great, and later in the English Civil War, the city of Bath is famous for its substantial Georgian architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somersets name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, an alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning settlers by the sea lakes. The Old English name is used in the motto of the county, Sumorsǣte ealle, adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Somerset settlement names are mostly Anglo-Saxon in origin, but some hill names include Brittonic Celtic elements, for example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as the hill the British call Cructan and we call Crychbeorh. Some modern names are Brythonic in origin, such as Tarnock, the caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the Palaeolithic period, and contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge. Bones from Goughs Cave have been dated to 12,000 BC, examples of cave art have been found in Avelines Hole. Some caves continued to be occupied until modern times, including Wookey Hole, the Somerset Levels—specifically dry points at Glastonbury and Brent Knoll— also have a long history of settlement, and are known to have been settled by Mesolithic hunters. Travel in the area was facilitated by the construction of one of the worlds oldest known engineered roadways, the Sweet Track, the exact age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but it is believed to be Neolithic. There are numerous Iron Age hill forts, some of which, like Cadbury Castle, on the authority of the future emperor Vespasian, as part of the ongoing expansion of the Roman presence in Britain, the Second Legion Augusta invaded Somerset from the south-east in AD47. The county remained part of the Roman Empire until around AD409, a variety of Roman remains have been found, including Pagans Hill Roman temple in Chew Stoke, Low Ham Roman Villa and the Roman Baths that gave their name to the city of Bath. After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon peoples, by AD600 they had established control over much of what is now England, but Somerset was still in native British hands. The Saxon royal palace in Cheddar was used several times in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot. After the Norman Conquest, the county was divided into 700 fiefs, Somerset contains HM Prison Shepton Mallet, which was Englands oldest prison still in use prior to its closure in 2013, having opened in 1610. In the English Civil War Somerset was largely Parliamentarian, with key engagements being the Sieges of Taunton, in 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in Somerset and neighbouring Dorset
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
The competition was instigated in 1969 to cater for those non-league clubs that paid their players and were therefore not eligible to enter the FA Amateur Cup. This covers the National League, the Southern League, Isthmian League, the final of the competition was held at the original Wembley Stadium from the tournaments instigation until the stadium closed in 2000. The final has been played at the new Wembley Stadium since its opening in 2007, the record for the most FA Trophy wins is shared by Woking and two defunct clubs, Scarborough and Telford United, with three victories each. The Trophy is currently held by FC Halifax Town who beat Grimsby Town F. C. in the 2016 final, the competition was created by the Football Association in 1969 to afford semi-professional teams an opportunity to compete for the chance to play at Wembley Stadium. The first winners of the competition were Macclesfield Town of the Northern Premier League, Northern Premier League clubs dominated the first decade of the competition, with Telford United the only Southern League team to break the northern clubs hold on the competition. In the early years of its existence the competition struggled to achieve the level of prestige as the long-established Amateur Cup. In 1974 the FA abolished the distinction between official professional and amateur status and discontinued the Amateur Cup, and the Trophy soon had 300 entrants and this figure was gradually reduced until by 1991 only around 120 clubs took part. Telford Uniteds win in 1989 made them the team to win the Trophy three times. Between 1990 and 2000 three more teams claimed multiple wins, as of 2001 the competition was sponsored by Umbro, in the 2007-08 season it was sponsored by Carlsberg. The competition is a tournament with pairings drawn at random. If a match is drawn, there is a replay, usually at the ground of the team played away from home for the first game. Drawn replays are now settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, originally the competition included as many qualifying rounds as were required to reduce the number of teams to 32. In 1999 the format was amended to match that of the FA Cup, with six rounds prior to the semi-final stage, albeit without qualifying rounds. Teams from the Football Conference received byes through the early rounds, as of 2008–09 the competition featured four qualifying rounds and four rounds proper before the semi-finals. The FA pays prize money to all teams win at least one match in the Trophy competition. In the 2014-15 season the prize for the 64 preliminary round winners was £2,500, the final was traditionally held at the original Wembley Stadium, but was moved to Villa Park during Wembleys redevelopment, and a final was also played at West Ham Uniteds Boleyn Ground. In 2007 the final moved to the new Wembley Stadium, Scarborough, Telford United, and Woking share the record for the most victories in the final. In 1985 Wealdstone became the first team to win the Non-League Double of FA Trophy, since then Colchester United in 1992 and Wycombe Wanderers in 1993 have equalled Wealdstones achievement
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season. The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns, Vikings and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
The Football Association Challenge Vase, usually referred to as the FA Vase is an annual football competition for teams playing below Step 4 of the English National League System. For the 2013–14 season 535 entrants were accepted, with two qualifying rounds preceding the six rounds, semi-finals and final to be played at Wembley Stadium. The 2016 winners were Morpeth Town, who beat Hereford 4–1 at Wembley Stadium, until 1974, football players were either professionals or amateurs. Professionals were paid to play by their clubs, and the cup competitions such clubs were allowed to enter were the FA Cup and after 1969, for clubs outside The Football League. Amateurs, on the hand, did not get paid by their clubs, and such clubs had their own cup competition. In recent years, entry to the FA Vase has been restricted to clubs in the ninth, reorganization of the National League System for 2004 onwards moved the dividing line down to the new Step 5. Clubs from the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man also entered the Vase in the past, guernsey F. C. who were formed in 2011 and played in the Step 5 Combined Counties League, gained entry for the 2012–13 season and reached the semi-finals. Eligible teams who played in the FA Trophy the previous season and were relegated from a Step 4 league are exempt from qualifying and start play in the First round Proper of the Vase as well. Clubs that played in the 4th round or later of the previous seasons FA Vase are exempt from qualifying, only six teams have managed to win the FA Vase more than once. Whitley Bay are the team to win the FA Vase three times in successive seasons. Two FA Vase winners, Forest Green Rovers and Tamworth, have gone on to play in the National League at the top level of the non-league pyramid, billericay Town won three times in the mid to late 70s. BT Sport showed the 2016 FA Vase Final between Hereford and Morpeth Town live on 22 May as part of a double-header along with the 2016 FA Trophy Final, the FA Vase at the FA website
Keynsham Town L.F.C.
Keynsham Town L. F. C. are an English womens football club affiliated with Keynsham Town F. C. and currently playing in the FA Womens Premier League Southern Division. The club was formed under the name Super Strikers Girls in 1993, as an U-11 six-a-side team, over the next four years they were renamed Protel Super Strikers and adopted a green and white kit modelled on that of Celtic F. C. In 1998 the club linked up with Keynsham Town F. C. became Keynsham Town Ladies, due to the clubs proximity to universities in Bath and Bristol, Keynsham Town Ladies were able to attract a number of international players to an increasingly cosmopolitan squad. When the club reached the quarter-finals of the Premier League Cup for the first time in 2009–10, after the clubs most successful league finish of third in 2009–10, manager Barrie Newton signed a number of prominent players, including Corinne Yorston, Suzanne Grant and Jade Radburn. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Somerset County Football Association
The Somerset County Football Association, also known as the Somerset FA, is the governing body of football in the county of Somerset. The association was formed in 1885, the Somerset County Football Association was formed in 1885. There was a small number of clubs at that time. It is very different from today where there are in excess of 800 clubs which equates to more than 2,000 teams. The first Secretary was a Mr H J Ker Thompson of Burnham-on-Sea who resigned in 1896, at the time there was no appointed Chairman, one would be co-opted on the night of Council Meetings. Regular meeting venues were the Hare & Hounds – Shepton Mallet, The Swan Hotel – Wells, The Commercial Hotel – Midsomer Norton, Waldegrave Arms – Radstock, an average attendance was fifteen with the bulk of clubs coming from the old mining area of North Somerset. In 1904 the then Secretary/Treasurer became the first paid official with a salary of £25.00 per annum, charles J Lewin, who joined Council in July 1896 was appointed the Associations first Chairman in June 1904. He was a Radstock Headmaster and was also elected Somerset’s first ever member to the full Council of the English FA and retained both positions over the period of two world-wars. As a result of age and infirmity he resigned on 6 June 1945 ending a record of service to Somerset football. A list of the County FAs key officials is provided below, Among the notable clubs that are affiliated to the Somerset County FA are, Somerset County FAs official site
Clevedon Town F.C.
Clevedon Town Football Club are an English semi-professional football club based in the village of Kenn outside of Clevedon, Somerset. The club is affiliated to the Somerset County Football Association and is an FA chartered Standard club They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division, Clevedon FC was formed in 1880, making the club one of the oldest clubs in the West Country. They were founder members of the Western League in 1892 although their stay only lasted three seasons, after dropping back into local football they re-joined the Western League in the 1910–11 season. They initially played at Dial Hill, still the home of the cricket club, but they moved to a new site at Old Street in 1895. After the War the club returned to the Western League. However the club became known for their runs in the FA Amateur Cup. This cup success, however, was not matched in the league and Clevedon spent several years in Division 2 before resigning, for financial reasons, the clubs name was later changed to Clevedon Town to reflect their new status. Clevedon joined the ranks in 1974 when Ray Mabbutt, father of future Spurs star Gary Mabbutt became their first paid player. The 1980s also saw the club pick up their first Somerset Premier Cup in the 1986–87 season, the protest was upheld and the tie ordered to be replayed. In their first season at their new home in 1992–93, the gained promotion to the Southern League for the first time. Promotion to the Premier Division followed in 1998 and, although Town were relegated again in 2000–01, in 2006 they reached the first round proper of the FA Cup but went down 4–1 to Football League opposition Chester City. The club at the end of the 2009–10 season suffered relegation, Clevedon Town have a fierce rivalry with neighbours Weston-super-Mare, who are situated in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset. However, the rivalry has been put on the back-burner as of late since Weston-super-Mare was promoted to the Southern League Premier Division in 2002–03 after winning promotion at Clevedon Town 1–0, the two have not played in the same league since. Clevedon Town play their games at The Hand Stadium, Davis Lane, the Hand Stadium took its name from the Hand family, successive generations of which were involved in running the club for nearly 100 years. The facility includes a pitch, training facilities, a 300-seater stand, tiered terracing around the whole ground. The complex also includes function/conference facilities as well as Vibe, Clevedons only nightclub, the record attendance of the Hand Stadium is 2,261, when the club played Chester City in a First Round FA Cup tie on 11 November 2006. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players that have achieved success in other sports
Willand Rovers F.C.
Willand Rovers Football Club is a football club based in Willand, near Exeter, in Devon. They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division and play at the Stan Robinson Stadium, the club is affiliated to the Devon County Football Association Willand Rovers Football Club was formed in 1946, after the financial collapse of Willand Wanderers FC, during the Second World War. The club moved to their present home of The Stan Robinson Stadium, in the 1950s and were playing in the Devon and Exeter Football League. The club in 1990 was relegated to the Senior Division of the Devon, however, the club went back to the premier division for the 1991–92 season. For the start of the 1992–93 season they were among the members of the Devon League. They went on to win the winning that league twice before gaining promotion to the Western League Division One in 2001. Willand Rovers made it to the Les Phillips Cup Final in 2006, losing to Corsham Town and they reached the Fifth Round of the FA Vase in 2009–10. Willand Rovers play their games at The Stan Robinson Stadium, Silver Street, Willand, Cullompton. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, richard Pears Headley Steele Official Club website