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Keys of Heaven

In ecclesiastical heraldry, papal coats of arms and those of the Holy See and Vatican City State include an image of crossed keys to represent the metaphorical keys of the office of Saint Peter, the keys of heaven, or the keys of the kingdom of Heaven, according to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised to Saint Peter, empowering him to take binding actions. In the Gospel of Matthew 16:19, Jesus says to Peter, "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, whatever you bind on Earth shall be bound in heaven, whatever you loose on Earth shall be loosed in heaven." The keys of heaven or keys of Saint Peter are seen as a symbol of papal authority: "Behold he received the keys of the kingdom of heaven, the power of binding and loosing is committed to him, the care of the whole Church and its government is given to him ". Saint Peter is depicted in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox paintings and other artwork as holding a key or a set of keys; the general layout of St Peter's Basilica is key-shaped.

Since the 16th century a symbolical pair of keys is created for every pope and buried on death with him. Bible verses associated with Peter and his position of authority: Is. 22:20-23. 10:2. 16:18-19. 1:18. Bible verses associated with the transfer of powers from Pope to Pope: Acts 1:20. 4:14. 1:6. Keys of the kingdom Coats of arms of the Holy See and Vatican City Papal regalia and insignia Power of the Keys Primacy of Simon Peter Catholic Answers Magazine: Peter's Authority Catechism of the Catholic Church

John Swords III

John Swords III is an American entrepreneur, best known for his work in emerging, disruptive technology such as virtual worlds and social media. Within the Second Life virtual world, his avatar is known as Johnny Ming. Swords was co-founder of Circ.us, a New York technology-focused creative firm founded in 2007. Most notably, Swords lead creative and product development of award-winning augmented reality mobile applications for consumer brands including Red Bull and Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream. Circ.us was purchased by Something Massive LLC in 2012. Swords is most known for his role at The Electric Sheep Company, a virtual worlds developer, where he served first as an Executive Producer and as Director of Business Development from 2006 through 2009. While there, Swords produced the largest live event held in Second Life and is credited as creating the first employment agency to offer avatars living wage employment inside a virtual world. Within the Second Life virtual world, his avatar is known as Johnny Ming.

As an independent media producer, Swords has produced hundreds of hours of audio and video content ranging from podcasts to machinima on the topic of disruptive technology. He started SecondCast as an entertainment podcast interviewing high-profile users of Second Life including Robert Scoble and Philip Rosedale, he created the Metaverse Sessions podcast to cover broader topics such as augmented reality and online political protest, interviewing such luminaries as Douglas Engelbart and Ethan Zuckerman. Swords was born and raised in York and lives in Hoboken, New Jersey, he is a founding contributor to the Metaverse Roadmap Project and is a frequent speaker at technology conferences such as Virtual Worlds Expo. John Swords' official blog Rez Nation Podcast Archive John Swords' self description

Pit River Tribe

The Pit River Tribe is a federally recognized tribe of eleven bands of indigenous peoples of California. They live along the Pit River in the northeast corner of California, their name is spelled as "Pitt River" in some historical records. The eleven bands are as follows: The eleven bands of the Pit River Tribe spoke two related languages. Nine speak Achumawi and two speak Atsugewi, they are related and are classified as the Palaihnihan family of languages, with uncertain external relations. Most members of the tribe now speak English. Achumawi is critically endangered, Atsugewi is extinct; the tribe is spread across several locations in Shasta County and Modoc County: Big Bend Rancheria, Shasta County, 40 acres, population: 10 Likely Rancheria, Modoc County, 1.32 acres, tribal cemetery Lookout Rancheria, Modoc County, 40 acres, population: 10 Montgomery Creek Rancheria, Shasta County, 72 acres, population: 15 Roaring Creek Rancheria, Shasta County, 80 acres, population: 14 XL Ranch, Modoc County, 9,254.86 acres, population: 40.

The tribe owns trust lands in Lake County, Lassen, Mendocino and Shasta Counties. The tribe conducts business from California, they were recognized as a tribe in 1976 and ratified their constitution in 1987. Each of the eleven bands is represented in the tribal council. In August 1964, a Constitution was formally adopted by the Pit River Tribe; the Preamble states: "... for the purpose of securing our Rights and Powers inherent in our Sovereign status as reinforced by the laws of the United States and protecting Pit River ancestral lands and all other resources, preserving peace and order in our community, promoting the general welfare of our people and our descendants, protecting the rights of the Tribe and of our members, preserving our land base and identity..." While the Pit River group filed a separate land claims, after the Indian Claims Commission was created in 1946, the Pit River tribe was encouraged in 1963 to participate in the larger claims—Indians of California vs U. S. – but there was disharmony within the tribe and they rejected their monetary award.

Overview of Some Prehistoric and Historic Events and Periods: Approximately 200 AD: New technology, the bow and arrow, is introduced into the Pit River area. Pre-1800 - Pit River bands of indigenous natives were living in abundance for thousands of years. For thousands of years, numerous indigenous villages were situated around and along Achoma and out onto the surrounding plains, hills and valleys; the people utilized the natural resources of their land to the fullest. In addition to harvesting deer, trout, rabbit and other small mammals, they moved around their territory and gathered acorns, roots and fruits, as each came into their season. Before the European-American immigration, the Native Americans of the Pit River region were thriving; the eleven bands in the region had differences in their language and ways. Some downriver bands lived in simple pit houses in small familial villages along Achoma, they led a somewhat nomadic life, following opportunities to harvest foods from the rich resources of this valley, ready to move to higher ground when the creeks and rivers flooded in the rainy season.

Archaeological evidence and some information collected by ethnographers in the early 1900s gives only minimal details of the thriving culture and communities that existed in the vast Pit River territory. Pit River artists and craftspeople used both basalt and lots of obsidian from Glass Mountain to make tools and weapons. Obsidian arrowheads and obsidian flakes from tool-making have been found all over the valley from the river banks to the hillsides and high in mountain hunting camp areas. 1827-1830s - European-American/Canadian fur trappers and explorers began passing through the Pit River area 1830s - Many Pit River natives died from imported disease epidemics. 1848 - California became part of U. S. A. through Treaty of Hidalgo with Mexico. 1849- Gold Rush begins, bringing a new huge wave of migrants into California, many of whom were ruthless abusers and murderers of Indian people. 1851-53 - U. S. Congress and California Legislature created various laws that denied Indians land rights and extinguished all aboriginal title in the state, paving the way for continued conflict, with no treaties or protections for the Pit River Indians.

1850s and 1860s: The movement of white emigrants into Pit River territory caused more and more Pit River displacement and changes to the environment. The emigrants had no respect for the delicate balance of nature, grazing their cattle and horses in prime hunting and gathering areas. A steady flow of emigrants arrived determined to occupy Pit River land and began the process of confiscating and fencing off the land. 1850s - European-American immigrant expansion interest and activity in Pit River region began. USA government, military forces, settlers invaded, attacked and killed the majority of Pit River Indians, with no treaties or compensation made for land seized. Regionally, the European invaders ruthlessly and tragically destroyed most of the Pit River natives, their way of life; the Pit Rivers were abused and brutally massacred, as the invaders raided village after village in countless incidents, including some more well-known battles, such as the "Wintoon War" and the "Pit River War"...

Here is one account of some of those ruthless attacks: "War was declared on the Indians in 1858. General William Kibbe and Cap

The Chardon Polka Band

The Chardon Polka Band is an American, Ohio-based, Cleveland-Style polka band. It was started by Jake Kouwe in 2003 when he recruited four other teenagers to form a polka band at Chardon High School, the group was called "The Chardon High School Polka Band" and included an accordion, saxophone, electric guitar, tuba; the group got their start in the school's music room and played at local senior centers and nursing homes in the Chardon area. Kouwe cites Weird Al Yankovic as his inspiration for playing the accordion as he started lessons on the accordion after seeing Yankovic in a VH1 special; the popular satirist remains a role model for The Chardon Polka Band. The band had gained notoriety among Polka fans and in the Cleveland music scene in general, but got mainstream attention when they were featured in a reality show named Polka Kings on Reelz in 2015 though the show was cancelled; the band plays over 200 shows a year and has grown to be one of the Cleveland music scene's most recognizable performers playing at a mixture of festivals, nursing homes, bars, but tours nationally and headlines many of the nation's top folk festival and Oktoberfest celebrations, playing a mixture of original music, classic polkas, covers of pop songs..

The band was one of the founding members of the Cleveland revival of Dyngus Day. The band has released eight full-length albums, all independently, four of which were nominated for a Polka Hall of Fame award for either the album or one or more songs. Jacob Kouwe - Lead vocals and Accordion Emily Kouwe - Saxophone, flute Mike Franklin - Lead and backup vocals and guitar Joe Dahlhausen - drums Mitch Lawrence - SaxophoneSeasonal Member Michael Grkman - Upright Bass, Bass Guitar, Expert beard wearer Paul Coates - Sousaphone/tuba, electric guitar Paul "Pops" Magooch - drums The Polka Hall of Fame has nominated the band in 4 separate years, the International Polka Association has nominated them in 2016. In 2011, the band's first single Free Beer Polka was nominated for best Best New Original Song. In 2013, A Fistful Of Polka & Bring Me More Beer were both nominated for Best New Original Song and the band was nominated for Band of the Year. In 2016, You Can't Drink Beer In Outer Space was nominated for Best New Original Song and the album World War Polka was nominated for recording of the year.

And "You can't take my Polka from Me" was nominated for Song of the Year. In 2018, the album Old Time Tent Revival was nominated for recording of the year; the band created a pilot for a variety program called “Lights! Camera! Polka!” in 2017. The show is an assortment of performances and education; the band was the subject of a 16 episode reality show named Polka Kings on Reelz in 2015. The band has produced over a twenty music videos. A few of these videos: Squeeze Box, O Tannenbaum, The Krampus Song, Jingle Bells were made in a clay animation style by superdaddytv.com, the latter three of which were included in a 30-minute Holiday Special. The band was featured nationally on Here and Now in 2015; the band was on and episode of Trip Flip named "Ohio: Polka Plane Plunge" in 2015. Jacob Kouwe was named one of Cleveland's Most Interesting People 2015 due to the success of the band. Pirates and Beer A Fistful of Polka This is Oktoberfest Polka Round the Christmas Tree World War Polka Old Time Tent Revival More of the Same… and Probably Worse Pony in the Backseat Official website The Chardon Polka Band's channel on YouTube

Wallace Sharland

Wallace Sutherland Sharland was an Australian rules football player and commentator. He played with Geelong in the Victorian Football League. Sharland, known by his nickname'"Jumbo", was recruited from Newtown. Sharland was an accomplished ruckman for Geelong, known for his good all-round skills, accurate palming of the ball and capability when required as a ruck shepherd, he debuted for Geelong aged 17 in the 1920 VFL season and in the same year joined the staff of the Geelong Advertiser. His skills as a cricketer came into attention on 29 January 1921 when he scored a century against England's touring Marylebone Cricket Club. Playing for Geelong, Sharland scored 102 runs out of Geelong's total of 261 in their tour match at Corio Oval, his innings, scored as an 18-year old, earned praise from opponent Jack Hobbs who stated that Sharland "is a hard man to get out" and "is developing on the right lines". He was awarded an inscribed bat from the Mayor of Geelong to commemorate his achievement; the Age wrote an article stating that despite his young age Sharland could justifiably be selected in the Victorian side which were due to play the MCC on 4 February.

He however did not make the team and instead it was as a football personality that he made his name. After making five appearances in his first VFL season, Sharland received more opportunities in 1921, with 13 games for Geelong, he made enough of an impression to be in the first-ruck in the Victorian state side which went to Adelaide in August to defeat South Australia and feature in the return leg at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. In September 1921 he played his first final, a semi-final fixture against Richmond at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Richmond won by 61-points to end Geelong's season, he played a further eight games with Geelong in the 1922 VFL season. Sharland made his intentions known before the beginning of the 1923 season that he was seeking to join a Melbourne-based club, he had moved to the city and been employed for the upcoming season as a writer for the Herald and The Sporting Globe. His playing future was not decided until July, by which time he had fallen foul of the Geelong committee.

The committee had been aggrieved by that fact he pulled out of a game against Essendon claiming to have a sore heel, but was able to represent Victoria against New South Wales a week later. When it was revealed that Sharland had trained at Richmond without permission, the week before he took the field for Geelong against that same team, the Geelong committee debarred him from the club. Unable to play in the VFL without a clearance, Sharland was forced to play in the Mornington Peninsula league with Frankston, where he was residing. Further attempts were made by Richmond in 1924 to acquire Sharland, but Geelong continued to refuse his clearance; as a result, he made a decision to commit to Geelong for the season and was in the side from round two. Sharland, given the vice-captaincy, finished the season with a career high 15 appearances. Although not selected as a player, Sharland got to attend the 1924 Hobart Carnival as a special correspondent for The Sporting Globe. For the 1925 VFL season, Sharland's last at Geelong, he was again appointed vice-captain.

A wrist injury which he sustained early in the season restricted him to just four games and cost him a place in Geelong's breakthrough 1925 premiership team. He instead covered the finals series as a radio commentator, on ABC station 3AR. In doing so he created history as the first radio commentator to broadcast a VFL game, he broadcast the grand final from the back of the MCG's Grey Smith Stand and recalled: "There was no sound-proof box and the sound accompaniment was pretty fierce when the excitement rose". Sharland continued as a commentator after ending his VFL career. In 1933 he left The Sporting Globe to concentrate on wireless broadcasting for the ABC and 3XY, it is believed that Victorian Football Association club Preston became known as the Bullants after Sharland referred to the club's players during commentary as a "group of busy bullants". The quote was based on the Preston players being small in stature and the fact they wore a red uniform. Born in Geelong, Victoria on 11 October 1902, he was the son of James Sutherland Sharland, an engineer, Jane Armstrong Sharland.

He had one elder brother, James Leonard Woodrofe, two sisters and Jean. In 1910, Sharland joined his brother at Geelong College, he made the cricket team's 1st XI at the age of 13 and in 1918 began playing in the firsts for the football team as well. He got married in 1934 in a ceremony in East Malvern. Ada died in 1949. During World War II Sharland served in Pacific. On 17 September 1967, Sharland died in Bethesda Hospital at the age of 64. Wallace Sharland's playing statistics from AFL Tables Wallace Sharland at AustralianFootball.com Wallace Sharland at CricketArchive

Ad-Diya

Between 1898 and 1906, the Arabic periodical aḍ-Ḍiyāʾ was published twice a month in Cairo. There are eight year's issues with resp. 20 numbers each. Editor in chief was Ibrahīm al-Yāziǧī, a linguist and journalist from Lebanon, who on his readers’ request published aḍ-Ḍiyāʾ in succession to his earlier periodical al-Bayān; as regards content, it had the same agenda as al-Bayān. The subtitle of the periodical underlines this aspiration: “maǧallat ʿilmīya adabīya ṣaḥīya ṣanāʿīya“. Alongside countless scientific and literary topics, articles on the development of newspapers in Egypt at that time are to be found. A complete and free available digital version of this journal can be found in the digital collections of the ULB Bonn. Soueid, Père Paul. Ibrahim Al-Yazigi, L'Homme et son Œuvre. Beirut. OCLC 1980217. Dagmar, Glaß: Der al-Muqtaṭaf und seine Öffentlichkeit. Aufklärung, Räsonnement und Meinungsstreit in der frühen arabischen Zeitschriftenkommunikation, Band I+II, Würzburg, pp. 41f. 261, 429