Vilho Ville Eino Ritola was a Finnish long-distance runner. Known as one of the Flying Finns, he won five Olympic gold medals and he holds the record of winning most athletics medals in one Olympic games event - four golds and two silvers in Paris 1924. He has won the second biggest number of athletics Olympic gold medals in one event, Ritolas parents were farmers in western Finland near Seinäjoki. He was born in Peräseinäjoki, Finland and he was the 14th child in his family and had altogether 19 siblings, five of whom had died in infancy. 6 of the children were from his fathers first marriage,14 from the second, in 1913 he followed seven of his siblings and emigrated to the United States to work as a carpenter. There he started training in 1919 when he was already 23 years old, in 1919 he joined the Finnish-American Athletic Club and trained together with Hannes Kolehmainen, who had moved to the United States after the 1912 Summer Olympics. In spring 1919 he took part in his first competition, a New York street race, only after this he started to train systematically.
Kolehmainen tried to convince the young Ritola to join the Finnish 1920 Summer Olympics team and he had just got married to Selma née Aaltonen. In 1921 he started to compete systematically, and in 1922 he won his first AAU Championship gold medals, the same year he came second in the Boston Marathon. During 1923 American Finns started collecting funds to pay for Ville Ritolas trip to Finland, in the 10,000 m qualifying race Ritola won with a world record time of 30.35.4. This was Ritolas first official world record, at the 1924 Paris Olympics, he won four gold and two silver medals. He had a start on eight days to achieve this. In his first race, the 10,000 m, in the absence of Nurmi, he won by half a lap, Finnish officials had selected Ritola for the race as Nurmi was already running in five other distance events. Three days later, Ritola won the 3000 m steeplechase by 75 metres, the next day he finished second in the 5000 m,0,2 seconds behind Nurmi. Ritola earned another silver medal behind Nurmi in the individual cross-country race, Ritola joined with Nurmi to win the 3000 m team race.
Ville Ritolas Paris 1924 triumph is historical, until today his six medals from Paris is the biggest number of medals won by an athlete in one Olympic games event. His four gold medals put him in place after Paavo Nurmi in the number of gold medals won by an athlete in one Olympic Games event. After the Olympics Ville Ritola had to return to the US to find employment and his daughter Anja was born in November 1924
Willis Jefferson Polk was an American architect best known for his work in San Francisco, California. For ten years, he was the West Coast representative of D. H. Burnham & Company, in 1915, Polk oversaw the architectural committee for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. He was born in Jacksonville and was related to United States President James Polk and he began his architectural training when he was eight years old in a local contractors office. In his teens, he worked in his fathers shop in St. Louis. In 1887, Polk moved to Kansas City to join the firm of Van Brunt & Howe, a few years he studied under former Van Brunt associate William Robert Ware at Columbia University in New York City. He worked at the firm of A, in the 1890s, Polk moved to San Francisco to launch his own firm. He struggled to earn commissions, and in 1897 he declared bankruptcy, however, an opportunity presented itself in 1899. Francis Hamilton, of the local firm Percy & Hamilton, Polk was primarily in charge of design and employee management, while Percy focused on the business end.
The partnership gave Polk a relief to his debt and the opportunity to work on commercial structures. The partnership designed five buildings, including One Lombard Street, addison Mizner was one of his apprentices and a partner. Willis Polks early career included work with McKim, Mead & White, Polk worked with Daniel Burnham in Chicago, and moved to San Francisco to establish and direct Burnhams San Francisco office. Before long, Polk started his own firm and spent many years designing highly regarded California commercial and residential architecture, in 1901, Polk went on a tour of Europe and Chicago. In Chicago, he met prominent architect Daniel Burnham, from 1903 to 1913, Polk was the West Coast representative of D. H. Burnham & Company. Polk designed several of his most notable structures while associated with the firm, including the Merchants Exchange Building, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake opened up numerous opportunities for Polk to design Burnham structures. He was a member of Mayor Eugene Schmitzs Committee of Fifty leaders who undertook ambitious plans to rebuild a world-class city, Polk was tasked with convincing city officials to adopt Burnhams 1905 Plan of San Francisco.
By 1910, Willis Polk was recognized as one of the most influential architects, Polk was again credited for designing the tallest building in San Francisco when his Hobart Building was completed in 1914. In 1915, Polk was appointed the chair of the planning committee for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. When the exposition concluded, Polk led the effort to preserve Bernard Maybecks Palace of Fine Arts, One of Polks most influential commissions came in 1916, when he was tasked to design the Hallidie Building
The N Judah is a Muni Metro light rail line in San Francisco, California, so named as it runs along Judah Street for much of its length, named after railroad engineer Theodore Judah. It links downtown San Francisco to the Cole Valley and Sunset neighborhoods and it is the busiest line in the Muni Metro system, serving an average of 41,439 weekday passengers in 2013. It was one of San Franciscos streetcar lines, beginning operation in 1928, while many streetcar lines were converted to bus lines after World War II, the N Judah remained a streetcar line due to its use of the Sunset Tunnel. The line runs from the Caltrain depot in the Mission Bay district to Ocean Beach, from the Caltrain depot at Fourth and King Streets, it runs along King Street and the Embarcadero, passing by AT&T Park. It enters the Market Street Subway, which it shares with the five other Muni Metro lines and it exits the tunnel at Church Street and, after a brief stretch along Duboce Avenue to Duboce Park, enters the older Sunset Tunnel.
This tunnel serves to avoid a hill and contains no underground stations, on Judah between 9th Avenue and 19th Avenue the N runs on a right-of-way that is slightly raised above the surrounding street. There is a loop in the intersection at Judah, La Playa, the N Judah line stops at large stations for the downtown section of the route and at smaller stops on the rest of the line. Muni bus routes provide service to all stations and other systems with access to the stations are noted. As with all Muni lines, service begins around 5 a. m. on weekdays,6 a. m. on Saturdays and it operates at high frequencies, mainly between 7 and 12 minutes, and mostly utilizes two-car trains during Muni Metro hours of operation. Late night service is provided by the N Owl diesel bus line and this line is generally the same as the daytime N Judah line, except it follows surface streets instead of going through the streetcar-only Market Street Subway and Sunset Tunnel. It takes Church and Fillmore to get to Haight Street, where it bypasses the hill above the Sunset Tunnel.
It turns off Haight at Cole, and rejoins the daytime N line at Carl, the line was operated on the Market Street Railway before being rerouted underground through the Market Street Subway in 1980. The extension to King Street Station and Caltrain was opened in 1998, on December 5,2009, SFMTA eliminated the portion of the N Judah line between Embarcadero and 4th & King/Caltrain on weekends and holidays. N Owl service was not affected by this change, weekend service to the Caltrain depot was restored in October 2011. After concerns from riders of constant overcrowding of the trains on the N Judah line, starting off as a pilot program, the NX was intended to relieve overcrowding during rush hours every ten minutes. It follows the end of the N Judah route from Ocean Beach to 19th Avenue, operates nonstop from there to the Financial District where it stops at Bush. This will allow the N Judah to run three car trains as opposed to the current two car trains, additional plans include a non-revenue L Taraval to N Judah connector, which may run on 46th Avenue.
Inbound to outbound N Judah on SFMTAs site N Judah schedule N Judah map, N Judah route information from the SF Muni Map Project The N-Judah Chronicles
Rugby is a type of football developed at Rugby School in Rugby, one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. The two main types of rugby are rugby league and rugby union, although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league, the Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. These games appear to have resembled rugby football, the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis, episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union, in 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union, usually called the Northern Union, was formed.
The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs, after the schism, the separate clubs were named rugby league and rugby union. Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions, Australia, France, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Dublin and it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, there was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football, during the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were very similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart. Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a level by the Rugby League International Federation.
International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand, in Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup, distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle, play is continued with a play-the-ball, in league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse is a field lacrosse league consisting of nine teams in the United States. Founded in 1999, the inaugural season was in 2001. MLL averaged 4,268 spectators per game during the 2016 season, MLL players reportedly earn annual salaries in the $10, 000–$25,000 range and staff generally hold other jobs. Major League Lacrosse was founded in 1998 by Jake Steinfeld, Dave Morrow, Steinfeld is the creator of the Body By Jake line of exercise equipment and videos, Morrow is a former All-American lacrosse player and the president of Warrior Sports. MLL began regular play in June 2001 with six teams in the northeastern U. S. split into two divisions. The American Division included teams in Boston, Bridgeport CT, and Long Island, the National Division included teams in Baltimore, New Jersey, the MLL played a 14-game regular season its first two years, in 2003, the schedule was cut to 12 games. MLL added four teams for the 2006 season, bringing the number of teams up to ten. The league expand to Los Angeles for the 2006 season, with the team playing its games at The Home Depot Center, AEG.
Denver, Colorado was home to a team playing at Invesco Field at Mile High. The league added teams in the Chicago and San Francisco, MLL created a western conference for these four teams, and the MLL Western Conference play began with the 2006 season. In addition the Barrages home game against Boston was played in Boston, at the end of the 2008 season, four teams folded due to financial problems. Several of these teams had suffered from poor average attendance — New Jersey and this contraction forced the remaining six teams to form one conference. At the start of the 2009 season, the Toronto Nationals bought the rights to the Rochester Rattlers, the Toronto team gained the staff and players of the Rochester team, but the Rochester name and the team colors were left in Rochester for the possibility of a future team. The new Rochester franchise played at Sahlens Stadium, the stadium the older Rochester Rattlers used at the end of their tenure in Rochester before relocating to Toronto. During the early years of MLL, the league did not have any teams in the southeast, commissioner David Gross announced on December 9,2010 that two expansion teams would be created for the 2012 season.
Charlotte and Columbus were approved in January 2011 to host expansion teams to play in 2012. Gross stated there would be two more expansion teams for 2013, and that the long-term goal is to have 16 teams by 2020. For the 2011 season, the MLL had an attendance of 6,417
Kezar Pavilion, located adjacent to Kezar Stadium, is an indoor arena in the southeast corner of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, United States. Built in 1924, the Pavilion seats 4,000 people and is owned and operated by the City of San Francisco. The San Francisco Rumble, of the American Basketball Association, and the Academy of Art University Urban Knights, the University of San Francisco basketball team used Kezar Pavilion before War Memorial Gymnasium was constructed. The Santa Clara Broncos used the pavilion for home games from 1927 until World War II, due to alumni, the most regular tenant of Kezar Pavilion was the co-ed roller derby team the Bay Bombers. The Bombers skated home games at the venue from 1961 to the end of the Roller Derby in 1973, games played by the Bombers were videotaped and shown to a TV network of more than 100 stations. In 2007 the San Francisco Bay Bombers and roller derby returned to the pavilion, Kezar was not only used by the Bombers for home season games, but the team held tryouts in the building.
In 2011 the Bay Area Derby Girls hosted their first double-header at the pavilion, as of 2013, Kezar is a venue for San Francisco high school basketball games. The arena has accommodated numerous different sports, ranging from middle school volleyball to professional boxing, the versatility of the arena means that the differing requirements of various sports can be met, from professional basketball game to recreational indoor soccer. Kezar was discussed as a possible badminton or table tennis venue, for the purpose of training or qualifying, concerts for artists such as Throbbing Gristle, The String Cheese Incident, The Clash, and Smashing Pumpkins have been held at Kezar Pavilion. Kezar is popular as a venue due to the intimate high-school gymnasium atmosphere that exists. Throbbing Gristles Kezar show was the bands last ever live performance
San Francisco Seals (soccer)
San Francisco Seals began as the senior team of the San Francisco United Soccer Club founded in 1985, a 501c3. The club is based in San Francisco, the team played its home games at Negoesco Stadium on the campus of the University of San Francisco. The teams colors were black and white, after the first season and for five straight seasons the Seals dominated soccer on the West Coast winning 5 division titles,3 regional titles and went to 3 national championship finals. In 1997 the Seals was called the Team of the Year by USA today after beating the Seattle Sounders, the Kansas City Wiz, the Seals continued in the A-League until 2000 when the franchise stopped professional soccer and returned to youth development. The Seals continued as members of the Y-League and expanded their development to include college level players in 2006 by entering the PDL. Since 2009 the Seals have concentrated on youth development from U6 to U23 soccer, the San Francisco United Soccer Club was first organized as a youth soccer club in 1985 for Tom Simpsons two children.
SFUSC was the first San Francisco club to travel to the prestigious Gothia Cup in 1987. Drawing on talented players from throughout the Bay Area, SFUSC soon became a super club, in 1991 the club created two teams, the Red Team and the Blue Team, who both advanced deep into the California Youth Soccer Association – North State Cup. The 1991 Red Team won SFUSC won the Cal North Soccer State Cup, in 1992 SFUSC formed a team known as the San Francisco All Blacks based on its all black uniform and entered it in the USISL. After an initial 7–7 season with U19 players, the team excelled in the face of stiff national-level competition. In 1993 the New Zealand All Blacks sent a cease and desist letter claiming copyright infringement forcing the team to change their name to the San Francisco Bay Seals. In 1993,1994 and 1995 The Seals took first place in the Pacific Conference, won the regionals in 1995 and they won the Western Conference Division in 1996 and 1997, the Regional Title in 1996 and 1997, and went to the National Championships both years.
In 1998, the Seals moved up to the A-League, in 2000, SFSCU sold the team to new ownership, which renamed the team the Bay Area Seals. However, the Seals lasted only to the end of the 2000 season before folding, the Seals were division champions three times, in 1994,1995 and 1997. In 1997, the Seals made an incredible and historic run to the finals of the US Open Cup. After winning the D3 US Open Cup, the Seals knocked out the Seattle Sounders and they took out two Major League Soccer clubs. First came the Kansas City Wiz in the round of 16, the Seals Cinderella run through higher division clubs came to an end in the semi-finals when they lost 2–1 to D. C. Then, in 2006, after a gap, the original club owners resurrected the senior team
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns, Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath, with ca 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40. 5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many habitats, including wetlands, forests. Though commonly called grasses, seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family, the rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales. The name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα.
Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, a cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets, Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago. Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya, a multituberculate mammal with grass-eating adaptations seems to suggest that grasses were already around at 120 mya. This separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years. Grass leaves are always alternate and distichous, and have parallel veins. Each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem, the leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals, such as sword grass, are sharp enough to cut human skin. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath, flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes, the part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets, a floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, the perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea, these are generally interpreted to be modified sepals. This complex structure can be seen in the image on the right, the fruit of grasses is a caryopsis, in which the seed coat is fused to the fruit wall
Motorcycle sport is a broad field that encompasses all sporting aspects of motorcycling. The disciplines are not all races or timed-speed events, as several disciplines test a competitors various riding skills, Motorcycle racing is a motorcycle sport involving racing motorcycles. Motorcycle racing can be divided into two categories, tarmac-based road disciplines and off-road, track racing is a motorcycle sport where teams or individuals race opponents around an oval track. There are differing variants, with each variant racing on a different surface type, a road rally is a navigation event on public roads whereby competitors must visit a number of checkpoints in diverse geographical locations while still obeying road traffic laws. Speedway is a sport in which the motorcycles have one gear. Land speed is where a single rider accelerates over a 1 to 3-mile long straight track and is timed for top speed through a trap at the end of the run. The rider must exceed the top speed record for that class or type of bike for their name to be placed on the record books.
The courses are run over thick wooded terrain, sometimes with large obstacles such as logs, ditches. A competition based upon points for acrobatic ability on an MX bike over jumps, known in the US as Observed Trials, it is not racing, but a sport nevertheless. Trials is a test of skill on a motorcycle whereby the rider attempts to traverse an observed section without placing a foot on the ground, the winner is the rider with the least penalty points. Time and observation trials are trials with a time limit, the person who completes the route the quickest sets the standard time and all other competitors must finish within a certain amount of time of the standard time to be counted as a finisher. One of the most famous time and observation trials is the Scott trial held annually in North Yorkshire, indoor trials held in stadiums which by their very nature use man-made artificial sections in contrast to outdoor trials which rely heavily on the natural terrain. Similar to car Autocross, Motorcycle Gymkhana is a time trial sport round cones on a paved area.
The winner is the competitor who completes the course in the shortest time, time penalties are incurred by putting a foot down, hitting a cone, or going outside the designated area. Similar to football, but all players are riding motorcycles, Motorcycle Polo first began as an officially-organized sport in the mid-1930s. In France, there are organized competitions, and the sport was included in the inaugural Goodwill Games. In the United States the completions are usually held on off-road courses, in some cases, few riders actually complete the course and results are judged on the distance that they manage to achieve. Of those that do complete the course, the rider to reach the top with the shortest elapsed time wins, the motorcycle of choice in the early decades was the Harley-Davidson 45 cubic inch model due to its high torque at low rpms, similar to farm engines
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie