The Khanate of Kazan was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552. The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El, Chuvashia and parts of Udmurtia and Bashkortostan, it was one of the successor states of the Golden Horde, it came to an end when it was conquered by the Tsardom of Russia. The territory of the khanate comprised the Muslim Bulgar-populated lands of the Bolğar, Cükätäw, Qaşan duchies and other regions that belonged to Volga Bulgaria; the Volga and Vyatka were the main rivers of the khanate, as well as the major trade ways. The majority of the population were Kazan Tatars, their self-identity was not restricted to Tatars. Islam was the state religion; the local feudal nobility consisted of ethnic Bulgars, but the court and body guard of the Kazan khans were composed of steppe Tatar that lived in Kazan. According to the Ginghizide tradition, the local Turkic tribes were called Tatars by the steppe nobility and by the Russian elite.
Part of the higher nobility hailed from the Golden Horde. It included members of four leading noble families: Arghin, Barin and Shirin. Peoples subject to the khan included the Chuvash, Mordva, Mishar Tatars and Bashkir; the Permians and some of the Komi tribes were incorporated into the Khanate. The Mishars had arrived during the period of the Golden Horde and assimilated the resident Finnic Mordvins and Burtas, their territory was governed by former steppe Tatars. Some Mishar duchies were never controlled from Kazan and instead gravitated towards the Qasim Khanate or Muscovite Russia. Most of the khanate territory was covered by forests, only the southern part adjoined the steppe; the main population of the steppes were the nomadic Manghites known as Nogais, who sometimes recognized the rule of the Kazan khan, but more raided agricultural Tatars and Chuvash, as they had done in the Golden Horde period. Nogais were transplanted and replaced with Kalmyks. More this area was settled by Tatars and Russians, who erected defensive walls to guard the southern border.
Since the khanate was established, Tatar Cossack troops defended the khanate from the Nogais. Russian sources indicate; the first and foremost was the Tatar language, including the Middle dialect of the Kazan Tatars and the Western dialect of the Mishars. Its written form was the favoured language of the state; the Chuvash language was a descendant of the Bolgar language, spoken by the pagan Chuvash people. The Bolgar language strongly influenced the Middle dialect of Tatar language; the other three were the Mari language, the Mordvin languages and the Bashkir language developed from the Bolgar and Kipchak languages. The former territories of Volga Bulgaria may have regained a degree of independence within the disintegrating Golden Horde by the turn of the 15th century; the principality was maintained a dynasty of Bolgar rulers. Whatever the status of this proto-state, the founder of the khanate was Ulugh Muhammad, who assumed the title of khan and usurped the throne of Kazan with some help from local nobility in 1437 or 1438.
It has been suggested that the transfer of power from the local Bolgar dynasty to Muhammad was finalized by his son Maxmud in 1445. Throughout its history, the khanate struggles for the throne; the khans were replaced 19 times in 115 years. There were a total of some ascending the throne multiple times; the Khan was elected from the Gengizides by vernacular nobility and by the citizens themselves. When discussing the history of the khanate, we should take into account the scarcity of sources. Not only no single document of the khanate survived the Russian conquest, but the documents of early Russian colonial administration were all destroyed during the Time of Troubles. During the reign of Ulugh Muhammad and his son Maxmud, Kazan forces raided Muscovy and its subject lands several times. Vasily II of Moscow engaged in the Great Feudal War against his cousins, was defeated in a battle near Suzdal, was forced to pay ransom to the Kazan khan. In July 1487, Grand Duke Ivan III of Moscow occupied Kazan and seated a puppet leader, Möxämmädämin, on the Kazan throne.
After that, the Kazan Khanate became a protectorate of Moscow, Russian merchants were allowed to trade throughout its territory. Supporters of a union between the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate tried to exploit the population's grievances to provoke revolts, but with negligible results. In 1521, Kazan emerged from the dominance of Moscow, concluding a mutual aid treaty with the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate and the Nogay Horde; the combined forces of khan Muhamed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Muscovy. The reinforcement of Crimea displeased the pro-Moscow elements of the Kazan Khanate, some of these noblemen provoked a revolt in 1545; the result was the deposition of Safa Giray. A Moscow supporter, Şahğäli, occupied the throne. Following that year, Moscow organized several campaigns to impose control over Kazan, but the attempts were unsuccessful. With the help of the Nogays, Safa Giray returned to the throne, he executed 75 noblemen, the rest of his opposition escaped to Russia.
HMS Pandora was launched in 1806. She captured two privateers. Henry Hume Spence received his promotion to commander on 28 May 1806, commissioned Pandora in December, she served in the North Sea and on the Downs station. On 28 August 1807, Pandora was in company. On 13 January 1808, Pandora captured the French privateer Entreprenant, of 16 guns and 58 men, six or seven miles SSE of Folkestone, with the assistance of the hired armed cutter Active; the chase lasted an hour and 40 minutes and the French vessel did not strike until small arms fire from Pandora had wounded Captain Bloudin and five or six other men. Entreprenant had captured the brig Mary, of Sunderland. Pandora was among the many vessels present at the unsuccessful Walcheren Campaign and in the Scheldt in July-August 1809, she therefore shared in the subsequent prize money for the property the British army captured at that time. Spence received promotion to post captain on 24 August 1809, Commander Richard Gaire Janvrin, in charge of the port of Flushing during the British withdrawal, replaced him in October.
On 12 October Pandora, under Janvrin, was among the vessels in sight when her sister ship Raleigh captured the Danish brig Friheden. In October 1810 Commander John Macpherson Ferguson replaced Janvrin, promoted to post captain on 21 October. On 31 December Pandora captured the French privateer cutter Chasseur, of 36 men; the privateer threw her guns overboard during the chase. Chasseur had made no captures. Pandora wrecked on 13 February 1811 on the Scaw Reef off the coast of Jutland, she was in company with the frigate Venus and both vessels were at anchor in poor weather. When the weather eased, they launched their boats to capture her. Venus ordered Pandora to approach the brig to provide support for the boats. However, when the boats reached the brig they saw that she was a wreck and they turned around to return to their ships; the weather worsened. However, the weather again as Pandora attempted to locate Venus Pandora grounded, she lost her rudder, shortly after she had cut away her masts and fired distress guns she capsized on her side.
Pandora's boats were frozen to the deck and it was only on 15 February that the Danes were able to get boats to her and to rescue most of the crew. The Danes treated their prisoners with "all possible kindness and hospitality."In March, after the Battle of Anholt, in which the British captured a large number of Danish prisoners, Captain Joseph Baker of Tartar proposed taking his Danish prisoners to Randers and exchanging them for the officers and crew of Pandora. When Ferguson returned to England the court martial for the loss of Pandora reprimanded him as well as the pilot, William Famie, for their failure to take frequent depth soundings and for carrying too little sail. Gossett, William Patrick The lost ships of the Royal Navy, 1793-1900.. ISBN 0-7201-1816-6 Hepper, David J. British Warship Losses in the Age of Sail, 1650-1859.. ISBN 0-948864-30-3 Marshall, John Royal naval biography, or, Memoirs of the services of all the flag-officers, superannuated rear-admirals, retired-captains, post-captains, commanders, whose names appeared on the Admiralty list of sea officers at the commencement of the present year 1823, or who have since been promoted....
Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1
The Honourable John Dawnay of Cowick Hall, Yorkshire was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1713 and 1716. Dawnay was the son of Henry Dawnay, 2nd Viscount Downe and his wife Mildred Godfrey, daughter of William Godfrey, of Thornock, Lincolnshire, he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford on 16 July 1703, aged 16 and was created M. A. on 9 July 1706. At the 1713 general election Dawney was returned as Member of Parliament for Aldborough and Pontefract constituencies. There was a petition against the result at Aldborough, but this had not been resolved by the time the Parliament was dissolved in 1715. While there was an outstanding petition against one of the elections, he was not required to choose which constituency he would represent, so sat for both boroughs throughout the Parliament, he was returned for Pontefract at the 1715 general election until he was unseated on petition on 22 March 1716. Dawnay married Charlotte Louisa, daughter of Robert Pleydell, of Ampney Crucis, Gloucestershire, on 10 August 1724.
She died in April 1729. Dawnay died on 31 July 1740, aged 53, predeceasing his father by one year and was buried on 12 August at Snaith, his sons Henry and John both succeeded in turn to the viscountcy
Susy Avery is an American politician from the state of Michigan. She was Chairman of the Michigan Republican Party from 1995 to 1996 and the Party's 1996 nominee to represent Michigan's 10th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. A native of Kalamazoo, Susy Heintz graduated from the University of Michigan–Dearborn, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science and served on the Alumni Board of Governors. In 1995, she was recognized as the Distinguished Alumna of the Year by the University's Dearborn Alumni Society. In 1995, Avery became the chairman of Michigan Republican PartyParty until 1996. In the course of her political career, Heintz has served as vice chair of the Wayne County Commission, she has been a member of the Michigan Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, the Detroit Water Board and the board of directors of Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Michigan and was appointed to the Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority, where she served on the board of directors and executive committee of the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments.
In November 1996, after serving as the Republican Party's State Chairman, Susy Heintz mounted a strong challenge to the 10th district's veteran Democratic Representative, David Bonior, the House Minority Whip, who had represented the district since his election in 1976. On Election Day, Heintz received 106,444 votes to Bonior's 132,829. Following her defeat, she was appointed by Republican Governor John Engler in August 1997 as the director of his Southeastern Michigan office, she held the job until January 1999, when she was appointed to become the new director of the state's tourism agency Travel Michigan. Governor Engler appointed Susy Avery to be Director of Public Affairs for the Office of the Governor. Another of her appointments was to the Michigan Capitol Committee, a position in which she advised and made recommendations on the implementation of all permanent physical changes to be made in or on the Capitol building, or its grounds; the term expired January 24, 2003. Gov. Rick Snyder appointed her executive director of the Michigan Women's Commission, a post from which she retired in 2016.
In 2017, Susy Avery became the new co-director of the Michigan Political Leadership Program, Michigan State University's training program for up-and-coming leaders. On January 9, 1999, Avery married Lance Avery. Governor Appoints Four to Michigan Capitol Committee Governor Appoints Mervenne, Heintz to New Positions Candidates for seat on Board to participate in Oct. 23 forum Snyder Appoints Members to Women's Commission IPPSR Taps Susy Avery as New MPLP Co-Director
Iris zagrica is a species in the genus Iris, in the subgenus Hermodactyloides and section Reticulatae. It is a bulbous perennial plant, it was described by botanical authors Brian Mathew and Mehdi Zarrei in 2009, who published their findings in Curtis's Botanical Magazine volume 26, pages 245-252, table 653. Its name was verified in the US in 2003, by ARS Systematic BotanistsIt was named after the Zagros Mountains in Iran. In 2010, it was exhibited at the RHS London Early Spring Show by a Director of Kew, it was awarded a Botanical Certificate by the Joint Rock Garden Plant Committee of the Alpine Garden Society. It has a long icy blue flower stalk and a short tube; the blue standards have a darker central zone. The falls are imperial purple, with an orange central crest; some rare versions have pure white flowers. Kew Gardens has a bulb collected in 08/05/1962 from the'Zirreh Pass' in Iran, it was named Iris reticulata before being reclassified. Originating from and named after the Zagros, a mountain range in western Iran.
It can be found in Iraq. It can be found as high as 2000m above sea level. Data related to Iris zagrica at Wikispecies
Anisocarpus madioides is a North American species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name woodland madia. Anisocarpus madioides is native to the west coast of North America on Vancouver Island in the Canadian Province of British Columbia and in the US States of Washington and California, it is a plant of woodland habitat. Most of the populations occur in the Cascades and in the Coast Ranges from Vancouver Island to San Luis Obispo County, but there are additional collections from the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada and from the Agua Tibia Mountains of San Diego County. Anisocarpus madioides is a perennial herb growing up to about 75 centimeters in height, its stem coated in rough hairs and stalked resin glands; the lower leaves are up to 12 centimeters long, oppositely arranged, fused around the stem at the bases. The upper leaves are much smaller and alternately arranged; the inflorescence produces several flower heads on long peduncles, each with a rounded involucre of glandular phyllaries.
The heads bear yellow ray florets up to a centimeter many disc florets. The fruit is an achene a few millimeters long with a small pappus. Calflora Database: Anisocarpus madioides Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Anisocarpus madioides United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile UC Calphotos Photo gallery of Madia madioides