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Khanqah

A khanqah or khaniqah known as a ribat – among other terms – is a building designed for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation. In the past, to a lesser extent nowadays, they served as hospices for saliks and talibs. Khanqahs are often found adjoined to dargahs and madrasas. In the Arab world North Africa, the khanqah is known as a zāwiyah. In Turkey and Ottoman areas like Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina, they are locally referred to as tekije. In South Asia, the words khanqah and dargah are used interchangeably for Sufi shrines. In addition, there are lodges in Central and South Asia referred to as Qalander Khane that serve as rest houses for the unaffiliated malang and fakirs. Khanqahs spread across the Islamic world, from Morocco to Indonesia; the first khanqah in India is located in Maner Sharif. It is established approx more than 800 years ago. Khanquah Maner Sharif has been the centre of fourteen Sufi's Order. Of them, Soharvardia order and Firdausia order have spread vastly throughout the Indian sub-continent.

The Khanqah Maner Sharif still exists and are following on the path shown by Imam Taj Faqih and Sultan-ul-Makhdoom. All khanqahs, regardless of size, feature a large central hall; the daily ritual prayers incumbent on all Muslims, are held in this hall, as are the Sufi forms of dhikr and celebration of the divine. Large khanqahs grew up around the dargah of a tariqa's founder or of a Sufi saint; some khanqahs include dwellings for the Sufi sheikh or pir, his family, or cells for Sufis who wish to pursue their dhikr in quiet and isolation. They may include lodgings for traveling Sufis and pilgrims and premises for charities such as hospitals. Sufi movements have been banned in some Muslim-majority countries such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, or the communist and post-communist states of Central Asia. In these countries, khanqahs have been converted to other purposes, turned into mosques. In other countries, Sufism survives and the old khanqahs are still in use. Darbar-e-Sadria Khanqah-e-Moula Teqe of Frashër, an historical Bektashi site in Albania Khanquah Emadia Qalandaria Sufi Lodge.

An active contemporary example of a Sufi Khan Zawiyya Sufism Dervishes Islamic architecture Ottoman architecture Architecture of Iran Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad. "Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India". Studia Islamica. 8: 51–69. Doi:10.2307/1595247. Fernandes, Leonor E.. The Evolution of a Sufi Institution in Mamluk Egypt: The Khanqah. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz. ISBN 3-922968-68-6. Hattstein, M. and P. Delius -- Islam: Art and Architecture, 2000, ISBN 3-8290-2558-0 Berkey, Jonathan -- The Formation of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-58813-8 ḴĀNAQĀH. Encyclopedia Iranica. "Khanaqah" article in Oxford Islamic Studies Online

Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh

The Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh is a haveli mansion located in Lahore, Pakistan. Dating from the Sikh era of the mid-19th century, the haveli is considered to be one of the finest examples of Sikh architecture in Lahore, is the only Sikh-era haveli that preserves its original ornamentation and architecture; the haveli is located within the Walled City of Lahore, is located near the Mori Gate in the southern half of the walled city. The haveli is near the Bhatti Gate and Lohari Gate; the haveli was built around 1830 or 1840 for Nau Nihal Singh, by his grandfather and founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The mansion was intended to be a personal residence for Nau Nihal Singh; the haveli has been used, since the British colonial era. The base of the haveli is rectangular with its entrance on the western side; the façade is divided into two sections, with the portion housing the haveli's entryway profusely decorated with frescoes painted in the vivid Kangra style, the other pierced with numerous windows.

A large jharoka balcony with sculpted brickwork and a small bulbous half dome is above the haveli's entry, which acted as a Jharoka-e-Darshan from which the Maharaja could view his subjects gathered below. The jharoka features 5 small arches, is embellished imagery of winged humans and frontally-viewed fish that are carved in a style which displays East Asian influences; the winged humans resemble both Islamic descriptions of angels, but reflect influences of the mythical Hindu garuda. The base of the dome is decorated with a serpent-like figure; the Jharoka-e-Darshan is flanked by two smaller jharokas. Each of the haveli's jharokas is decorated with a floral pedestal; the building has four stories, a basement level. The fourth level is made of a small room known as Rang Mahal, or alternatively as Sheesh Mahal, with large screens that form a space in which to catch breezes; the remaining floors were built with high ceilings, to exaggerate the height of the structure in order to give the appearance of a citadel, rather than a private residence.

The ceilings of the haveli are made of decorated wood inlaid with glass and mirror, as well as sun-motifs in the central portion of the roof. Walls within the haveli are decorated with false arches that each contain a small 18 inch by 18 inch painting, with blues, golds and oranges dominating the haveli's colour palette; the interior is decorated with carved wood and floral frescoes. The haveli features a large 2 storied inner courtyard, profusely decorated - the bottom level of which has since been whitewashed. In front of the haveli is a small plaza known as Maydan ka Bhaiyan, once used as the haveli's garden; the haveli is protected by the Antiquities Act 1975. House of Dilip Kumar, Peshawar Kapoor Haveli

Cashier as a service

Cashier as a service refers to using a third party service as payment. When a shopper buys merchandise online, the shopper does not pay the merchant directly, but rather through a third party – the cashier; the cashier is trusted by both the shopper and the merchant and is expected to allow for reliable and secure transfer of money. By paying a merchant through a cashier, shoppers are able to pay for merchandise without giving away their financial information to the merchants; when using CaaS, shopping online involves three parties – the shopper and CaaS. The shopper is the user who pays the merchant for the items; the merchant sells merchandise from a website. To sell merchandise, the merchant must provide a way for shoppers to add items to the shopping cart, provide a way for the shopper to pay the merchant, keep track of customer information. Popular open source merchant software include nopCommerce and Interspire, which provide this functionality and integration of several different CaaS; the CaaS provides a method for the shopper to pay the merchant.

Examples of popular CaaS include PayPal, Amazon Payments, Google Wallet, Venmo. Integrating a CaaS to a merchant website introduces issues in securing a payment from the shopper to the merchant. With three parties instead of two, securing a transaction becomes more complex when there is a malicious shopper; the CaaS and the merchant now need to stay in sync with each other to keep a consistent view of the transactions. Moreover, the shopper may try to masquerade as the merchant or CaaS to trick the other parties into changing their state or giving signed messages to the shopper. For a successful transaction from a shopper S buying and item I from a merchant M, the following invariants must hold true. M owns I A payment is guaranteed to be transferred from an account S to that of M in the CaaS The payment is for the purchase of I, is valid for only one piece of I The amount of this payment is equal to the price of I When a shopper buys merchandise from a merchant, the shopper calls public APIs of the merchant and the CaaS with HTTP requests.

The merchant and CaaS may call each other's APIs to give information to each other. Below is a detailed description of the generic flow:RT1.a) The shopper checks out the items in his shopping cart. RT1.a.a) The merchant notifies the CaaS that a customer will be paying. RT1.a.b) The CaaS acknowledges the merchant. RT1.b) The merchant redirects the shopper to the CaaS providing the shopper with information to identify the order and gross information. RT2.a) The shopper provides the information given by the merchant to the CaaS. RT2.a.a) The CaaS notifies the merchant that the shopper has paid. RT2.a.b) The merchant acknowledges the CaaS. RT2.b) The CaaS redirects the shopper to the merchant providing the shopper with information to pass back to the merchant. RT3.a) The shopper provides the information given by the CaaS to the merchant. RT3.b) After the merchant updates the database, the merchant sends a confirmation response back to the shopper and the transaction is complete. RT4.a/b) Represents the shopper masquerading as the CaaS.

The shopper calls a merchant API. RT5.a/b) Represents the shopper masquerading as the merchant. The shopper creates a merchant store and receives API calls from the CaaS. HTTP Headers and Fiddlers are two of the popular debugging tools are available to exploit on live stores; the following are examples of how malicious shoppers may be able to exploit the logic flaws in the merchant and CaaS software to buy items for free. These are real examples and the flaws have been patched; the following notation will be used: A is the shopper/attacker. T is the merchant C is the CaaS * indicates that the message is signed In nopCommerce's integration of PayPal standard, the shopper places an order and is redirected to PayPal, given an orderID and gross by the merchant. However, these arguments are not signed by the merchant, therefore the shopper may change this information before passing it along to PayPal. By changing the gross amount to 0, the CaaS expects the shopper to pay that amount; when the shopper is redirected back to the merchant, the merchant contacts PayPal about the status of the payment for that particular order and PayPal will reply that the shopper paid for the item.

The merchant updates the status of the order to "paid" without comparing the gross information that PayPal gave back to the price of the item. Thus, the shopper bought an item from the merchant for free. In nopCommerce's integration of Amazon Simple Pay, the shopper will place an order and be redirected to Amazon; the arguments given by the merchant are signed as indicated by the *, therefore preventing the shopper from tampering with the arguments. The shopper will pass these arguments to Amazon, be redirected to the returnURL, provided; the merchant that "status=PAID" and will finish the transaction. In this case, the shopper can create a separate merchant account that can sign a message which Amazon will accept. Thus, when the shopper places an order at a merchant store, the shopper will not give Amazon the message provided by the merchant, but instead create his own message and sign it with his merchant account; the arguments in this message will be the same as in the merchant's message but since the shopper's merchant account signed the message, the shopper will be paying himself.

However, the shopper will be redirected to the merchant's website because of the returnURL and the merchant will update its database that the order was paid for because it received a signed message from Amazon with "status=PAID". The shopper has bought an item from a mercha

What U See Is What U Get

"What U See Is What U Get" is the first single from Xzibit's second album, 40 Dayz & 40 Nightz. In its first week the song peaked at #50 on the Billboard Hot 100, being Xzibit's highest charting single, it peaked at # 3 on his highest on that chart. A music video directed by Gregory Dark was filmed in Los Angeles; the deceptively simplistic premise of the video is Xzibit's trek to a nearby shop after being asked to pick up some milk. On his way, Xzibit greets several friends performs in a local concert and finds a dropped one hundred-dollar bill. However, he crosses paths with various chaotic incidents including a carjacking, bombing and store looting. In the end, Xzibit is able to pick up the milk and make his way home, only to be told that they needed hot sauce and asked to go back out again; the video closes with a dedication to then-recently-deceased music video director Michael Lucero. Lucero's production company, What You See Is What You Get had produced and Lucero had directed the music videos for Xzibit's songs "Paparazzi" and "The Foundation".

The music video peaked at #1 during 6 weeks at BET's Rap City. 12" "What U See Is What U Get" - 5:09 "What U See Is What U Get" - 5:09 "3 Card Molly" - 3:58 "3 Card Molly" - 3:58Promo "What U See Is What U Get" w/o intro - 4:21 "What U See Is What U Get" w/ intro - 4:31 "What U See Is What U Get" - 5:12 "What U See Is What U Get" - 5:09

List of Philippine Basketball Association awards

The Philippine Basketball Association presents twelve annual awards to recognize its teams and coaches for their accomplishments. An additional seven awards recognized by the PBA were given annually by the PBA Press Corps during a season break; this does not include the championship trophies for the Philippine, Commissioner's and Governors' Cups which are given to the winning team of its respective finals. The league awarded trophies with varying designs for their tournament/conference champions from 1975 to 1993 until the trophy designs were standardized in 1994 for the All-Filipino, Commissioner's and Governors' Cups; the Commissioner's and Governors' Cups were deactivated in 2003, when the name of the second and third conferences were changed to Invitational and Reinforced Conferences. Further changes in the tournament calendar were made in 2004 when the league decided to hold only two tournaments per season; the Philippine Cup trophy design varied from 2003 to 2006. In 2007, a new trophy, named the "Perpetual Trophy" named as the Jun Bernardino Trophy was made for the winners of the said tournament.

In 2010, the league re-adopted the three-conference season format and reactivated the Commissioner's and Governors' Cups as the second and third conference of the PBA season. Aside from these annual awards, the league has weekly honors during the conference for its players; each individual award, with the exception of the Best Player of the Conference, Best Import and Finals MVP, is awarded during the PBA Leo Awards, held before the start of the fourth game of the third conference's finals series. Note: The league awarded different trophy designs for the All-Filipino Conference/Philippine Cup from 1975 to 1994 and from 2003 to 2007; the other import-laced, non-consecutive and special conferences from 1975 to 2010 such as the Open, Reinforced and Fiesta Conferences have different trophy designs per tournament. The Commissioner's and Governors' Cups were first awarded in 1993, albeit a different trophy design. 40 Greatest Players in PBA History PBA Hall of Fame

Sophie de Tott

Sophie-Ernestine de Tott was a French painter. Born in Constantinople, Tott was the daughter of François Baron de Tott, who served as a consul in that city, was of Hungarian descent. A chanoinesse of Sainte-Anne de Munich, she was entitled by rank to be called "Madame" and is so described, although she never married. Madame de Tessé took an interest in her and served as a maternal influence, her sister married François, duc de La Rochefoucauld in 1793. Tott was the subject of a portrait by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and corresponded with Thomas Jefferson, she is the subject of a portrait miniature in which she is painting a portrait of Madame de Tessé. Tott fled the French Revolution, between 1801 and 1804 exhibited a handful of portraits at the Royal Academy. In 1807 she was a member of the household of Elizabeth Craven, she had returned to France by 1825, when she produced a copy of a portrait of the prince de Condé. Tott died in Versailles. A portrait by her of Augustus Curzon is in Kedleston Hall.

A copy of her will is in the National Archives of the United Kingdom