BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Best Actor in a Leading Role is a British Academy Film Award presented annually by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding leading performance in a film. Note: Dustin Hoffman's total of eight nominations, includes his 1968 Most Promising Newcomer nomination for The Graduate. From 1952 to 1967, there were two Best Actor awards: one for a British actor and another for a foreign actor. In 1968, the two prizes of British and Foreign actor were combined to create a single Best Actor award, its current title, for Best Actor in a Leading Role, has been used since 1995. Note: All nominations for multiple performances in a single year from the 1950s to the 1970s count as one nomination; the two mentions for Anthony Hopkins and Sean Penn count as two separate nominations. 5 winsPeter Finch 4 winsDaniel Day-Lewis3 winsMarlon Brando Jack Lemmon 2 winsDirk Bogarde Colin Firth Anthony Hopkins Dustin Hoffman Burt Lancaster Marcello Mastroianni Jack Nicholson Rod Steiger Academy Award for Best Actor Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Actor Guldbagge Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role BAFTA Awards Database
Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan
The Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan in 1896–1899 was a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War. The British had failed to organise an orderly withdrawal of Egyptian forces from Sudan, the defeat at Khartoum left only Suakin and Equatoria under Egyptian control after 1885; the conquest of 1896-99 defeated and destroyed the Mahdist state and re-established Anglo-Egyptian rule, which remained until Sudan became independent in 1956. There was a considerable body of opinion in Britain in favour of retaking Sudan after 1885 to'avenge Gordon'; however Lord Cromer, the British Consul-General in Egypt, had been the architect of the British withdrawal after the Mahdist uprising. He remained sure that Egypt needed to recover its financial position before any invasion could be contemplated. "Sudan is worth a good deal to Egypt," he said, "but it is not worth bankruptcy and oppressive taxation." He felt it was necessary to avoid "being driven into premature action by the small but influential section of public opinion which persistently and strenuously advocated the cause of immediate reconquest."
As late as 15 November 1895 he had been assured by the British government that it had no plans to invade Sudan. By 1896 however it was clear to Prime Minister Salisbury that the interests of other powers in the Sudan could not be contained by diplomacy alone - France and Germany all had designs on the region that could only be contained by re-establishing Anglo-Egyptian rule; the catastrophic defeat of the Italians by Menelik II of Ethiopia at the Battle of Adwa in March 1896 raised the possibility of an anti-European alliance between Menelik and the Khalifa of Sudan. After Adwa the Italian government appealed to Britain to create some kind of military diversion to prevent Mahdist forces from attacking their isolated garrison at Kassala, on 12 March the British cabinet authorised an advance on Dongola for this purpose. Salisbury was at pains to reassure the French government that Britain intended to proceed no further than Dongola, so as to forestall any move by the French to advance some claim of their own on part of Sudan.
The French government had in fact just dispatched Jean-Baptiste Marchand up the Congo River with the stated aim of reaching Fashoda on the White Nile and claiming it for France. This encouraged the British to attempt the full-scale defeat of the Mahdist state and the restoration of Anglo-Egyptian rule, rather than just providing a military diversion as Italy had requested. Lord Salisbury ordered the Sirdar, Brigadier Herbert Kitchener to make preparations for an advance up the Nile; as Governor-General of Suakin from 1886 to 1888, Kitchener had held off the Mahdist forces under Osman Digna from the Red Sea coast, but he had never commanded a large army in battle. Kitchener took a unhurried approach to recovering Sudan. In the first year his objective was to recover Dongola; the Egyptian army mobilised and by 4 June 1896 Kitchener had assembled a force of 9,000 men, consisting of ten infantry battalions, fifteen cavalry and camel corps squadrons, three artillery batteries. All the soldiers were Sudanese or Egyptian, with the exception of a few hundred men from the North Staffordshire Regiment and some Maxim gunners.
The use of British troops was kept to a minimum and Sudanese troops were used wherever possible because they were cheaper, because they could survive the extreme conditions of campaigning in Sudan which Europeans could not. To maximise the number of Sudanese troops deployed for the invasion, the Sudanese garrison was withdrawn from Suakin on the Red Sea and replaced with Indian soldiers; the Indians arrived in Suakin on 30 May, releasing the Xth Egyptian and Sudanese battalions for the Dongola expedition. The Egyptian army in the 1880s was consciously trying to distance itself from the times of Muhammad Ali, when Sudanese men had been captured, shipped to Egypt and enlisted. On the eve of the 1896 invasion the manumission status and precise recruitment conditions of many Sudanese soldiers in the Egyptian army was unclear. Egyptian conscripts were required to serve six years in the army, whereas Sudanese soldiers enlisted before 1903 were signed up for life, or until medically unfit to serve.
While no official requirement existed for the practice, it is clear that it many instances at least, new Sudanese recruits into the Egyptian army were branded by their British officers, to help identify deserters and those discharged seeking to re-enlist. Kitchener placed great importance on transport and communications. Reliance on river transport, the vagaries of the Nile flooding, had reduced Garnet Wolseley's Nile Expedition to failure in 1885, Kitchener was determined not to let that happen again; this required the building of new railways to support his invasion forces. The first phase of railway building followed the initial campaign up the Nile to the supply base at Akasha and on southward towards Kerma; this bypassed the second cataract of the Nile and thereby ensured that supplies could reach Dongola all year round, whether the Nile was in flood or not. The railway extended as far as Akasha on 26 June and as far as Kosheh on 4 August 1896. A dockyard was constructed and three new gunboats, larger than the Egyptian river boats deployed, were brought in sections by rail, assembled on the river.
Each carried two 6-pounders midships and four Maxim guns. At the end of August 1896 storms washed away a 12-mile section of the railway as preparations were being made to advance on Dongola. Kitchener supervised 5,000 men who worked nigh
West End of London
The West End of London refers to a distinct region of Central London, west of the City of London and north of the River Thames, in which many of the city's major tourist attractions, businesses, government buildings and entertainment venues, including West End theatres, are concentrated. Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross; the West End covers part of the boroughs of Camden. While the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city, it is the largest central business district in the United Kingdom, comparable to Midtown Manhattan in New York City, Causeway Bay in Hong Kong, Shibuya in Tokyo, or the 8th arrondissement in Paris. It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in. Medieval London comprised two adjacent cities – the City of London to the east, the City of Westminster to the west. Over time they came to form the centre of modern London, although each kept its own distinct character and its separate legal identity.
The City of London became a centre for the banking, financial and professional sectors, while Westminster became associated with the leisure, shopping and entertainment sectors, the government, home to universities and embassies. The modern West End is associated with this area of central London. Lying to the west of the historic Roman and medieval City of London, the West End was long favoured by the rich elite as a place of residence because it was upwind of the smoke drifting from the crowded City, it was close to the royal seat of power at the Palace of Westminster, is contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops and places of entertainment; the areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, Covent Garden contained poorer communities that were cleared and redeveloped in the 19th century. As the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate.
Westminster City Council's 2005 report Vision for the West End included the following areas in its definition: Covent Garden, Chinatown, Leicester Square, the shopping streets of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, the area encompassing Trafalgar Square, the Strand and Aldwych, the district known as Theatreland. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were covered by the document but were treated as "adjacent areas" to the West End. According to Ed Glinert's West End Chronicles the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Covent Garden and Marylebone. By this definition, the West End borders Temple and Bloomsbury to the east, Regent's Park to the north, Hyde Park and Knightsbridge to the west, Victoria and Westminster to the south. Other definitions include Bloomsbury within the West End. One of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called "West End"; this covers a similar area that defined by Glinert: Mayfair and parts of Fitzrovia and Marylebone.
The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575. Taking a broad definition of the West End, the area contains the main concentrations of most of London's metropolitan activities apart from financial and many types of legal services, which are concentrated in the City of London. There are major concentrations of the following buildings and activities in the West End: Art galleries and museums Company headquarters outside the financial services sector Educational institutions Embassies Government buildings Hotels Institutes, learned societies and think tanks Legal institutions Media establishments Places of entertainment: theatres, cinemas nightclubs, music venues and restaurants ShopsThe annual New Year's Day Parade takes place on the streets of the West End; the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. Berkeley Square Cambridge Circus Grosvenor Square Hyde Park Corner Leicester Square Manchester Square Marble Arch Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly Circus Russell Square Soho Square St Giles Circus Trafalgar Square London Underground stations in the West End include: London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography; the cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano, ASC who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark.
In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence. In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was also the director and the person physically handling the camera; as the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era. In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers, which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too; the ASC Vision Committee is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large.
However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags. We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." There are a number of national associations of cinematographers which represent members and which are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. These include: the American Society of Cinematographers the International Collective of Women Cinematographers the Canadian Society of Cinematographers the British Society of Cinematographers the Australian Cinematographers Society the Cinematographers Guild of Korea the Filipino Society of Cinematographers the French Society of Cinematographers the Italian Society of Cinematographers the Indian Society of Cinematographers the German Society of Cinematographers the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works the European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO the Uruguayan Society of Cinematographers the Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers Cinematographers XX IlluminatrixThe A.
S. C. defines cinematography as: A creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinematography is not a subcategory of photography. Rather, photography is but one craft that the cinematographer uses in addition to other physical, managerial and image-manipulating techniques to effect one coherent process. Camerimage Cinematography Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers Filmmaking Glossary of motion picture terms Indian cinematographers List of film director and cinematographer collaborations List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Cinematography.com Cinematography Mailing List International Cinematographers Guild The History of the Discovery of Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers The Guild of British Camera Technicians British Society of Cinematographers Indian Society of Cinematographers European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO Australian Cinematographers Society German Society of Cinematography, BVK Italian Society of Cinematography, AIC Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers, LAC
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, moved from orthodox religious study to a mystical interpretation of Islam. On 29 June 1881, he was proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith, his proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers and was supported by the messianic belief popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time. He led a successful war of liberation from the Ottoman-Egyptian military occupation and achieved a remarkable victory over the British, who were the de facto rulers of Egypt, he created a vast Islamic state extending from the Red Sea to Central Africa and founded a movement that remained influential in Sudan a century later. From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until 1898, many of the theological and political doctrines of the Mahdiyya were established and promulgated among the growing ranks of the Mahdi's supporters, the Ansars.
After Muhammad Ahmad's unexpected death on 22 June 1885, his chief deputy, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the administration of the nascent Mahdist state. Following Ahmad's death, Abdallahi ruled as Khalifa. However, while the Mahdi had created one of the few nineteenth-century African states to have freed itself from foreign colonial oppression, by 1899, the Khalifa's autocratic rule, as well as directly applied British military force, destroyed the Mahdi state in the Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan. Despite this, the Mahdi remains a respected figure in the Sudan, a direct descendant of Ahmad, Sadiq al-Mahdi, was twice prime minister of the Sudan and pursued democratizing policies. Muhammad Ahmad was born on 12 August 1844 at Labab Island, Dongola in northern Sudan to a humble family of boat-builders who trace their descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad through the line of his grandson Hassan; when Muhammad Ahmad was still a child, the family moved to the town of Karari, north of Omdurman, where Muhammad Ahmad's father, could find an adequate supply of timber for his successful boat-building business.
While his siblings joined his father's trade, Muhammad Ahmad showed a proclivity for religious study. He studied first under Sheikh al-Amin al-Suwaylih in the Gezira region around Khartoum, subsequently under Sheikh Muhammad al-Dikayr'Abdallah Khujali near the town of Berber in North Sudan. Determined to live a life of asceticism and worship, in 1861 he sought out Sheikh Muhammad Sharif Nur al-Dai'm, the grandson of the founder of the Samaniyya Sufi sect in Sudan. Muhammad Ahmad stayed with Sheikh Muhammad Sharif for seven years, during which time he was recognized for his piety and asceticism. Near the end of this period, he was awarded the title of Sheikh himself, began to travel around the country on religious missions, he was permitted to give Uhūd to new followers. In 1870, his family moved again in search for timber, this time to Aba Island on the White Nile south of Khartoum. On Aba Island, Muhammad Ahmad started to teach the Qur ` an, he soon gained a notable reputation among the local population as mystic.
The broad thrust of his teaching followed that of other reformers, his Islam was one devoted to the words of Muhammad and based on a return to the virtues of strict devotion and simplicity as laid down in the Qur'an. In 1872, Muhammad Ahmad invited Sheikh Sharif to move to al-Aradayb, an area on the White Nile neighboring Aba Island. Despite amicable relations, in 1878 the two religious leaders had a dispute motivated by Sheikh Sharif's resentment of his former student's growing popularity; as a result, Sheikh Sharif expelled his former student from the Samaniyya order, despite numerous attempts at reconciliation by Muhammad Ahmad, his mentor refused to make peace. After recognizing that the split with Sheikh Sharif was irreconcilable, Muhammad Ahmad approached another respected leader of the Samaniyya order named Sheikh al-Qurashi wad al-Zayn. Muhammad Ahmad resumed his life of religious devotion at Aba Island. During this period, he traveled to the province of Kordofan, west of Khartoum, where he visited with the notables of the capital, El-Obeid, who were enmeshed in a power struggle between two rival claimants to the governorship of the province.
On 25 July 1878, Sheikh al-Qurashi died and his followers recognized Muhammad Ahmad as their new leader. Around this time, Muhammad Ahmad first met Abdallahi bin Muhammad al-Ta'aishi, to become his chief deputy and successor in the years to come. On 29 June 1881, Muhammad Ahmad publicly announced his Mahdiyya so as to prepare the way for the second coming of the Prophet Isa. In part, his claim was based on his status as a prominent Sufi sheikh with a large following in the Samaniyya order and among the tribes in the area around Aba Island, yet the idea of the Mahdiyya had been central to the belief of the Samaniyya prior to Muhammad Ahmad's manifestation. The previous Samaniyya leader, Sheikh al-Qurashi Wad al-Zayn, had asserted that the long-awaited-for redeemer would come from the Samaniyya line. According to Sheikh al-Qurashi, the Mahdi would make himself known through a number of signs, some established in the early period of Islam and recorded in the Hadith literature, others having a more distinctly local origin, such as the prediction that the Mahdi would ride the sheikh's pony and erect a dome over his grave after his death.
Drawing from aspects of the Sufi tradition that were intimately familiar to both his followers and his opponents, Muhammad Ahmad claimed that he had been ap