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Khat

Khat or qat is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Khat contains the alkaloid cathinone, a stimulant, said to cause excitement, loss of appetite, euphoria. Among communities from the areas where the plant is native, khat chewing has a history as a social custom dating back thousands of years analogous to the use of coca leaves in South America and betel nut in Asia; the World Health Organization classified it in 1980 as a drug of abuse that can produce psychological dependence, although the WHO does not consider khat addiction to be problematic. The legality of khat varies by region. In many countries, khat might not be a controlled substance but may be illegal under more general laws, it is a controlled substance in some countries including Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. By contrast, the production and consumption are legal in the nations where its use is traditional of those cultures, including Djibouti, Uganda, Ethiopia and Yemen. In Israel, which hosts a population of Yemenite Jews, only the consumption of the plant's leaves in its natural state is permitted.

The Arabic name is قات romanized as qāt. In English, the spellings qat and khat were common until about 2000, when the khat spelling became more common. Other romanizations include kat, qaad, qhat and chat, it goes by various descriptive names, such as Abyssinian Tea, Somali Tea, Arabian Tea and Kafta in its endemic regions of the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In the African Great Lakes region, where Catha edulis is in some areas cultivated, it is known as miraa and muirungi. In South Africa, the plant is known as Bushman's Tea. Other names for khat include Chat Flower of Paradise; the genus name Catha is a Latinization of the Arabic name. Khat is a slow-growing shrub or tree that attains a height of 1–5 m. However, it can reach heights of up to 10 m in equatorial areas; the plant grows in arid environments, at a temperature range of 5–35 °C. It has evergreen leaves, which are 5 -- 1 -- 4 cm broad; the shrub's flowers are produced on short axillary cymes. Each flower is small, with five white petals.

The samara fruit is an three-valved capsule, which contains one to three seeds. The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in Yemen and jaad in Somalia, chat in Ethiopia, it is known as jimaa in the Oromo language and mayirungi in Luganda. Khat has been grown for use as a stimulant for centuries in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There, chewing khat is used in a similar social context. In Uganda it is grown in the central region in Kasenge, Butambala District, Mabira Forest, in some parts of the western region of the country. In Kenya it is grown in Meru County. Although the practice of khat-chewing is still restricted to its original area of cultivation in the Red Sea area, the khat plant has over the years found its way to Southern Africa as well as tropical areas, where it grows on rocky outcrops and in woodlands; the shrub is today scattered in the KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, in addition to Swaziland and Mozambique.

Its fresh leaves and tops are chewed or, less dried and consumed as tea, to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation. The leaves or the soft part of the stem can be chewed with either chewing gum or fried peanuts to make it easier to chew. In recent years, improved roads, off-road motor vehicles, air transportation have increased the global distribution of this perishable commodity, as a result, the plant has been reported in England, Rome, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States. In the US, freshly packed khat leaves are sold on the markets of New York, Los Angeles and Dallas, where the demand is highest. Traditionally, khat is used as a socialising drug as in Yemen where khat-chewing is predominantly a male habit. Khat is so popular in Yemen that its cultivation consumes much of the country's agricultural resources. An estimated 40% of Yemen's water supply goes towards irrigating it, with production increasing by about 10% to 15% every year. One "daily bag" of khat requires an estimated 500 litres of water to produce.

Water consumption is high and groundwater levels in the Sanaa basin are diminishing, so government officials have proposed relocating large portions of the population of Sana'a to the coast of the Red Sea. One reason for khat being cultivated in Yemen so is the high income it provides for farmers; some studies done in 2001 estimated that the income from cultivating khat was about 2.5 million Yemeni rials per hectare, while fruits brought only 0.57 million rials per hectare. Between 1970 and 2000, the area on which khat was cultivated was estimated to have grown from 8,000 to 103,000 hectares. In 2000, according to a World Bank estimate, khat accounted for 30% of Yemen's economy. In other countries, outside of its core area of growth and consumption, khat is sometimes chewed at parties or social functions, it may be used by farmers and labourers for reducing physical fatigue or hunger, by drivers and students for improving attention. It takes seven to eight years for the khat plant to reach its full height.

Other than access to sun and water, khat requires little maintenance. Ground water is pumped from deep wells by diesel engines to irrigate the crops, or br

Busch Field

This article is about the stadium used by William & Mary. For the St. Louis Cardinals baseball stadium, see Busch Stadium. Busch Field is a stadium on the campus of the College of William and Mary located in Williamsburg, Virginia, it is used by the college's field hockey team for home games, as well as many intramural and club sport contests. There are two fields in the designated "Busch Field" area. One is composed of artificial astro turf; the name for the stadium comes from Anheuser-Busch the largest American brewer. Anheuser-Busch has a large presence in the Williamsburg area, including a brewery and the theme park Busch Gardens Williamsburg. Adjacent to Busch Field are the Busch Tennis Courts sponsored by the company. Busch Field was, at one time, home to the school's soccer and lacrosse programs before those teams moved to the newly constructed Albert-Daly Field in 2004; the field has two sister stadiums: Coffey Stadium, located in Fairfax and Dragon Stadium, located in Southlake, Texas

Viva Santana!

Viva Santana! is a 1988 compilation album by Santana. The album's thirty tracks aim to provide an overview of Santana's first twenty years, concentrating on the late 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, it includes live unreleased versions of popular tracks and a few new, unreleased songs. Of the six released studio tracks included, only "Evil Ways" is in its original version. Four tracks were remixed in 1988 and one other is from a rehearsal session with new added vocal and remix done in 1987; the album peaked at #142 on the Billboard 200 chart. "Everybody's Everything" – 3:31 "Black Magic Woman/Gypsy Queen" – 5:21 "Guajira" – 5:39 "Jungle Strut" – 5:30 "Jingo" – 4:14 "Ballin'" – 6:25 "Bambara" – 1:27 "Angel Negro" – 4:10 "Incident at Neshabur" – 5:31 "Just Let the Music Speak" – 4:40 "Super Boogie/Hong Kong Blues" – 12:27 "Song of the Wind" – 5:03 "Abi Cama" – 1:49 "Vilato" – 0:44 "Paris Finale" – 3:38 "Brotherhood" – 4:21 "Open Invitation" – 6:21 "Aqua Marine" - 6:47 "Dance Sister Dance" – 6:39 "Europa" – 7:11 "Peraza I" – 2:42 "She's Not There" – 4:21 "Bambele" – 2:50 "Evil Ways" – 3:55 "Daughter of the Night" – 4:51 "Peraza II" – 1:26 "Black Magic Woman/Gypsy Queen" – 6:24 "Oye Como Va" – 4:13 "Persuasion" – 2:52 "Soul Sacrifice" – 8:49

Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus

Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus, Roman senator, who lived in the 1st century AD. Notable for his principled opposition to the emperor Nero and his interest in Stoicism, he was the husband of Arria, the daughter of A. Caecina Paetus and the elder Arria, father-in-law of Helvidius Priscus, a friend and relative by marriage of the poet Persius. Thrasea was the most prominent member of the political faction known today as the Stoic Opposition. According to Cassius Dio, Thrasea belonged to a wealthy family, it is certain that this family came from Patavium, but it is not known whether he was born there or in Rome. He maintained close links with Patavium, in life taking an important part in the city's traditional festival. Nothing is known for certain of his early career, nor through whose influence he succeeded in entering the senate. By the year 42, however, he was married to daughter of Caecina Paetus. In that year Caecina was implicated in the revolt of Scribonianus against Claudius with the aim of restoring the republic.

According to his daughter Fannia, whose account is preserved in a letter of Pliny, Thrasea attempted unsuccessfully to prevent his mother-in-law Arria from killing herself along with her husband. It was after the death of Caecina Paetus that Thrasea added the name Paetus to his own, a unusual step for a son-in-law and one which advertised his connection with an enemy of the emperor. We have no information on the chronology of Thrasea's progression through the lower ranks of the cursus honorum, it is possible, but by no means certain, that his political career was at a standstill at least in the early years of Claudius' reign. He was suffect consul November -December 56 under Nero due to the influence of Nero's adviser Seneca, who had preceded him in office in the same year. At some date not long after this, he was still in enough favour to be given an honorific priesthood as quindecimvir sacris faciundis. By the time of his consulship he had acquired an important political ally in his son-in-law Helvidius Priscus.

There are some indications that Thrasea's rise to prominence may have been helped by activity in the lawcourts. At some point between 52 and 62 he held some provincial governorship. Senators did not travel outside Italy for fun. In 57, Thrasea supported the cause of the Cilicians accusing their late governor, Cossutianus Capito, of extortion, the prosecution succeeded largely through his influence, but Tacitus' first reference to him in the Annals relates to the following year, when he surprised both friends and enemies by speaking against a routine motion in the senate, a request by the Syracusans to exceed the statutory number of gladiators at their games. The objections to this which Tacitus attributes to'detractors' show, if accurate, that Thrasea had a reputation for opposition to the status quo and for dedication to the ideal of senatorial freedom. To his friends, Thrasea explained that he was not unaware of the real state of affairs, but gave the senate the credit of understanding that those who paid attention to trivial matters would not pass over more important ones - leaving unspoken some such phrase as'if they were permitted real debate on such issues'.

In spring of the following year, he first showed his disgust at the behaviour of Nero and the obsequiousness of the senate after the emperor's letter justifying the murder of Agrippina had been read, various motions congratulating Nero proposed. Senatorial procedure required each individual in turn to give his opinion on the motion, Thrasea chose to walk out of the meeting'since he could not say what he would, would not say what he could'. In 62, the praetor Antistius Sosianus, who had written abusive poems about Nero, was accused on a maiestas charge by Thrasea's old enemy Cossutianus Capito, restored to the senate through the influence of his father-in-law Tigellinus. Thrasea dissented from the proposal to impose the death sentence and argued that the proper legal penalty for such an offence was exile, his view won majority assent, was passed, despite a unfavourable response from Nero, whom the consuls had consulted when the vote was taken. Whether Nero had intended Antistius to be put to death or whether, as many believed, he wished to make a display of his own clemency by saving him from a death sentence imposed by the senate, for the senate to have voted against the death penalty was a serious upset to his plans.

In the same year, at the trial of the Cretan Claudius Timarchus in the senate, the defendant was alleged to have said several times that it was in his power whether the proconsul of Crete received the thanks of the province or not. Thrasea proposed. Once again he carried the majority, but a senatus consultum was not passed until the consuls had ascertained the views of the emperor; the following year made plain Nero's displeasure with Thrasea. When a daughter was born to the emperor at Antium, the senate went in a body to offer congratulations, but Thrasea was expressly excluded by Nero. Such'renunciations of friendship' on the part of the emperor were the prelude to the victim's death, but unexpectedly Nero seems to have changed his mind at this point due to fluctuating power dynamics with Tigellinus, who as Capito's father-in-law might be presumed to have a strong motive to wish for Thrasea's elimination, it was said that when Nero told Senec

Heman Marion Sweatt

Heman Marion Sweatt was an African-American civil rights activist who confronted Jim Crow laws. He is best known for the Sweatt v. Painter lawsuit, which challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine and was one of the earliest of the events that led to the desegregation of American higher education. Heman Marion Sweatt was born on December 11, 1912, in Houston, the fourth of six children born to James Leonard Sweatt and Ella Rose Perry. James Sweatt had graduated in 1880 and became a school teacher, he worked as a principal in Beaumont and moved to Houston for better economic opportunity. Heman grew up in a desegregated area of Houston, the third ward on Chenevert Street. Though it was integrated, he still experienced racism and Jim Crow in full. In October 1920 the KKK opened its Houston chapter, his father passed his love of education on to his siblings. "At home, our father always stressed the value of an education, he instilled in us an idea of integration at an early age." All of them would go on to graduate from college.

Only Heman would attend school in Texas. In April 1940 he married his high school sweetheart, Constantine Mitchell, purchased a home. Like his father, before him, Heman's first interaction with the law was because of his concern with the practices within the postal workers union. “Concerned with discrimination against blacks in the post office, where a worker had to be a clerk before promotion to a supervisory position and where blacks were systematically excluded from such positions, Sweatt challenged these practices in his capacity as local secretary of the National Alliance of Postal Employees. “Heman Sweatt was a member of the Houston Baha'i community. During the early 1940s, he participated in voter-registration drives and raised funds for lawsuits against the white primary. Sweatt had an opportunity to write several columns for the Houston Informer, thanks to Sweatt's father's friend, black Dallas publisher Carter W. Wesley. Post offices stopped promoting blacks to supervisory positions by systematically excluding them from clerical positions which would make them eligible to be promoted.

Being a local secretary of the National Alliance of Postal Employees, Sweatt was concerned with discrimination and challenged these practices. While preparing documentation for this case with an attorney, he became more interested in the law. A few years in the mid-1940s, Sweatt decided to attend law school and asked William J. Durham to help him. Since Durham knew Texas didn't have law schools for blacks, he advised Sweatt to apply to the University of Texas School of Law. Sweatt not only sought admission but, responding to an appeal Lulu White made to a group of Houston blacks for a volunteer to file a lawsuit agreed to serve as the NAACP's plaintiff if he was rejected on the basis of race, he entered Wiley College in Marshall, Texas in 1930, graduated in 1934 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Heman was regarded as one of the most brilliant students at Wiley College. In 1936 he became a substitute principal in Cleburne, Texas. In 1937 he attended the University of Michigan, he enrolled in a number of challenging graduate courses including bacteriology and preventive medicine.

In the summer of 1938 Heman became a postal carrier and decided not to return to the University of Michigan due to the severe winters and remained in Texas being a postal carrier. Heman Marion Sweatt formally applied to the University of Texas School of Law; the president, Theophilus Painter, held on to the application while he waited to hear back from the attorney general regarding the segregation laws. Meanwhile, Sweatt met with Painter who informed him that although his credentials were adequate enough he could not allow him to enter UT. Painter went on to tell Sweatt “there is nothing available to you except for out-of-state scholarships”; the Court of Civil Appeals would write that "he possessed every essential qualification for admission, except that of race, upon which ground alone his application was denied." The attorney general decided to uphold the segregation laws and denied Sweatt entrance to UT. The case went to court, the judge's decision was that Texas had to build an equal law school within a six-month time frame.

After six months had passed the judge threw out the case because Texas A&M had planned a resolution to provide legal education for blacks. Sweatt and the NAACP decided to file an appeal for that original ruling. On May 26, 1947, it was brought to a lower court who agreed with the previous ruling of the Texas A&M planned resolution. In June 1950, the Supreme Court decided that students were not offered an equal quality law education in the state of Texas, as a result, UT would have to admit qualified black applicants. On September 19, 1950, Sweatt registered for classes at the UT law school. However, as a result of the tremendous amount of stress and emotional trauma from the long drawn out court cases Sweatt's mental and physical health had taken a turn for the worse; as Sweatt's health further declined, causing him to miss classes, he obtained poor grades and failed. These same tensions created a gap between him and his wife, who divorced him. In the summer of 1952 he decided to withdraw from law school due to the various health issues and failing grades.

He received a scholarship to Atlanta University Graduate School to study Social Work. In 1954 he graduated with a master's degree in Community Organizations, he moved to Cleveland and did so

Kate Cook (singer)

Kathryn Dee-Anne Cook was an Australian country singer and Australian Idol finalist. She had solo chart success with "Give the Girl a Spanner" and "Hit the Highway" from her debut extended play, Come a Long Way, she died on 3 March 2019, aged 36. Kathryn Dee-Anne Cook was born in 1983 in Queensland, she grew up with her father, Dave Cook, a diesel engineer, her mother and four siblings on a farm in Pine Mountain before moving to Lowood. Jenny Cook committed suicide shortly before her daughter's birthday. Cook resided in Rockhampton before returning to Lowood. Cook auditioned for Australian Idol on the Mothers Day weekend in 2009 to perform, "Make You Stay", dedicated to her mother, Jenny. By August of that year Cook was in the Top 24; the new-found fame by being on Australian idol put pressure on her domestic relationship, causing it to end. Cook made the final six of Australian Idol in October, she reflected, "Once you're out of the Australian Idol spotlight, you soon lose the support network of people who helped you during the show...

But I'm humbled by what Idol did for me and overwhelmed with how the country music industry has opened its arms to me." In May 2011 Cook performed her new single, "Survive", at the Lockyer Valley flood appeal. She toured Australia, appearing at various pubs and bars, showcasing her own style of country music, she played the Gympie Muster. She supported Troy Cassar-Daley and Beccy Cole. In July 2013, after two years of appearing at various venues, she decided to take a break, she headed to Rockhampton to join her younger sister Sam and work as a trades assistant, working on hydraulic machinery for CAT trucks and vehicles. It was there while working with other women in the job, it was "Give the Girl a Spanner". Her debut extended play, Come a Long Way, was released in July 2013; that year she was a nominee at the Tamworth Songwriters Competition, a finalist in the Music Oz Australian Independent Music Awards. By October 2013, a song from her EP was getting significant airplay in Australia; the song was "Give the Girl a Spanner".

It was about women finding strength in jobs that men did. The inspiration for the song was drawn from hard working women across the world, it was written by Allan Caswell. The song got as far as #3 in the Australian Tracks Top 30, she won an Australian Independent Music Award for the song. It did well at the Music Oz Awards as the 2013 country single of the year. In 2014, Cook had Country Songs Top 40 chart success with another song from the EP. "Hit the Highway" had made its way into the Australian country music chart. In April the song had moved up from #23 to #20, it peaked at #5 in May. After going missing on 3 March 2019, Cook was found dead in bushland close to her Lowood, Queensland home; the cause of death was not believed to be suspicious. She was 36 years old at the time of her death; the Queensland Times: Music refuses to let Kate go Chris Owen Shazam: Kate Cook Come A Long Way The Chronicle Kate Cook FB: Kate Cook Music