Trolleybuses in Urgench
The Urgench trolleybus system links Urgench, the capital city of Khorezm Province in western Uzbekistan, with the neighbouring city of Khiva. Since the closure of the Tashkent trolleybus system in 2010, it has been Uzbekistans only trolleybus system, the cross country line is 31.3 km long, a further urban line in Urgench has been abandoned. On 20 October 1997, urban trolleybuses came to Urgench, with the inauguration of line 1 between Aeroport and Temir Yul Vokzali, Urgench thereby became the last city in Uzbekistan in which a trolleybus system was opened. In 1998 came the overland line 2 to Khiva, near the border with Turkmenistan, as early as 2002, the urban line 1 was closed. Since then, only the overland line 2 has remained, on 26 October 2009, the Government of Uzbekistan decided to close the remaining trolleybus systems in Jizzakh and Namangan at the end of 2009, and in the capital Tashkent during 2010. The Urgench system was the one not slated for closure, instead of that. Since then, an extension section in Khiva, including a link to a depot, has been under construction.
The short section of the wire from the city centre to the railway station. Line 2 essentially follows the course of the Urgench–Khiva road, in the city centres of Urgench and Khiva, the route followed by this line is determined by one-way streets. The Aeroport terminus, which operates only when required, is located just outside Urgench Airport, the Khiva terminus is on the northern edge of the Itchan Kala fortress, east of its north gate. West of the fortress is another, short section of overhead wire and this section is not connected by switches with the regularly used section, but can be used to short cut the regular round trip. Another, not yet operational section, branches off immediately after the Khiva terminus, for the opening of the system in 1997, Škoda delivered six 14Tr trolleybuses with the numbers 001 to 006, and three more modern 14TrM trolleybuses numbered 007 to 009. They had been manufactured in the factory in Ostrov nad Ohri in the Czech Republic. The primary external difference between the 14Trs and the 14TrMs is the display on the latter models front.
In Urgench, this display is not used to show destinations, as at 2010, all nine vehicles were still in service. The systems depot is in Urgench and it is connected with the operating lines by a service line approximately 3 km long. However, there are no switches between the line and the operating lines. List of trolleybus systems Trolleybuses in former Soviet Union countries Haseldine, media related to Trolleybuses in Urgench at Wikimedia Commons Trolleybus city, Urgench
It had an estimated population of 239,185 as of 2011 and its county 433,105. Nearby are the mines that have supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. The city was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I as a Sasanian satrapy capital, Nishapur became the capital of Tahirid dynasty and was reformed by Abdullah Tahir in 830, and was selected as the capital of Seljuq dynasty by Tughril in 1037. From the Abbasid era to the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran, the city evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center within the Islamic world. Nishapur reached the height of its prosperity under the Samanids in the 10th century, but was destroyed by Mongols in 1221 and they worked at Nishapur between 1935 and 1940, returning for a final season in the winter of 1947–48. What remains of old Nishapur region is a 3500-hectare Kohandejh area, little archaeology has been done on this vast and complicated site. George Curzon remarked that Nishapur had been destroyed and rebuilt more times than any city in history.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art undertook excavations from 1935 that were interrupted in 1940, searching largely for museum-worthy trophies that they shared with the government of the Shah, the Metropolitans publications were limited to its own Nishapur ceramics. The site of Nishapur has been ransacked for half a century since World War II, shadiyakh was one of the main palaces of old Nishapur up to the 9th century AD, which became more important and populated after that. Some notable people like Attar lived there, attars tomb is nowadays in that area. This palace was completely ruined in the 13th century. Nishapur occupies an important strategic position astride the old Silk Road that linked Anatolia, on the Silk Road, Nishapur has often defined the flexible frontier between the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. The town derived its name from its founder, the Sassanian king Shapur I. Nearby are the mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. In the year 1000 CE, it was among the ten largest cities on earth, after the husband of Genghis Khans daughter was killed at Nishapur in 1221, she or Genghis ordered the death of the entire population of the city, which was reputedly 1.7 million.
Their skulls were reputedly piled in pyramids by the Mongols and this massacre, combined with subsequent earthquakes destroyed the pottery industry. US band Santana released a track entitled Incident at Neshabur on their 1970 LP release. Carlos Santana says this was a reference to a place in Haiti, yo-Yo Ma released an instrumental track entitled Blue as the Turquoise Night of Neyshabur as part of the Silk Road Project
Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin transcribed in English as Basil Verestchagin was one of the most famous Russian war artists and one of the first Russian artists to be widely recognized abroad. The graphic nature of his realist scenes led many of them to never be printed or exhibited, Vereshchagin was born at Cherepovets, Novgorod Governorate, Russia in 1842 as the middle of three brothers. His father was a landowner of noble birth, when he was eight years old he was sent to Tsarskoe Selo to enter the Alexander Cadet Corps, and three years he entered the Sea Cadet Corps at St Petersburg, making his first voyage in 1858. He served on the frigate Kamchatka, which sailed to Denmark, Vereshchagin graduated first in the list at the naval school, but left the service immediately to begin the study of drawing in earnest. He won a two years later, in 1863, from the St Petersburg Academy for his Ulysses Slaying the Suitors. In 1864 he proceeded to Paris, where he studied under Jean-Léon Gérôme, in the Paris Salon of 1866 he exhibited a drawing of Dukhobors chanting their Psalms.
In the next year he was invited to accompany General Konstantin Kaufmans expedition to Turkestan and he was granted the rank of ensign. His heroism at the siege of Samarkand from June 2–8,1868 resulted an award of the Cross of St George. He was a traveler, returning to St. Petersburg in late 1868, to Paris in 1869, back to St. Petersburg in the year. In 1871, he established an atelier in Munich, and made an exhibition of his works at the Crystal Palace in London in 1873. He made another exhibition of his works in St, in late 1874, he departed for an extensive tour of the Himalayas and Tibet, spending over two years in travel. He returned to Paris in late 1876, with the start of the Russo-Turkish War, Vereshchagin left Paris and returned to active service with the Imperial Russian Army. At the conclusion of the war, he acted as secretary to General Skobelev at San Stefano, after the war, Vereshchagin settled at Munich, where he produced his war pictures so rapidly that he was freely accused of employing assistants.
Vereshchagin painted several scenes of imperial rule in British India and his epic portrayal of The State Procession of the Prince of Wales into Jaipur in 1876 is claimed to be the third largest painting in the world. In 1882–1883, he traveled to India. He aroused much controversy by his series of three pictures of a Roman execution, of sepoys blown from the guns in India, and his picture Suppression of the Indian Revolt by the English depicted executions carried out by tying victims to the barrels of guns. Vereshchagins detractors argued that executions had only occurred in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Because of its style, the painting appeared to present itself as an impartial record of a real event
It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and this immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first self-proclaimed socialist state. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces, Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. The following day, the Winter Palace, was captured, the long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. The Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary party, the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the body rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, as the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 25th, in Russian, however, переворот has a similar meaning to revolution and means upheaval or overturn, so coup is not necessarily the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use and it is known as the November Revolution having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The Great October Socialist Revolution was the name for the October Revolution in the Soviet Union after the 10th anniversary of the Revolution in 1927. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicolas II of Russia, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular, a nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased, gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914.
In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, at the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913, russias national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles, the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. In these months alone, more than a million took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution, by October 1917, there had been over 4,000 peasant uprisings against landowners. When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants
Ichan Kala is the walled inner town of the city of Khiva, Uzbekistan. Since 1990, it has protected as a World Heritage Site. The old town retains more than 50 historic monuments and 250 old houses, djuma Mosque, for instance, was established in the tenth century and rebuilt from 1788 to 1789, although its celebrated hypostyle hall still retains 112 columns taken from ancient structures. The most spectacular features of Ichan Kala are its crenellated brick walls and four gates, although the foundations are believed to have been laid in the tenth century, present-day 10-meters-high walls were erected mostly in the late seventeenth century and repaired. Ichan Kala - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
Aryan is a term meaning noble which was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people. The closely related Iranian people used the term as a label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures. It was believed in the 19th century that it was a used by all Proto-Indo-Europeans. Scholars point out that, even in ancient times, the idea of being an Aryan was religious and linguistic, through Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Gobineaus ideas influenced the Nazi racial ideology, which saw Aryan peoples as innately superior to other putative racial groups. The English word Aryan is borrowed from the Sanskrit word ārya, आर्य and it was reintroduced into English with the new spelling by William Jones in the 18th century. Philologist J. P. Mallory argues that As an ethnic designation, the word is most properly limited to the Indo-Iranians, in early Vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta was the name given to northern India, where the Indo-Aryan culture was based. The Manusmṛti gives the name Āryāvarta to the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern to the Western Sea, initially the term was used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities and followed Vedic culture.
The Sanskrit term comes from proto-Indo-Iranian *arya- or *aryo-, the used by the Indo-Iranians to designate themselves. The Zend airya venerable and Old Persian ariya are derivates of *aryo-, in Iranian languages, the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like Alans and Iron. Similarly, the name of Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryans, the Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-European origins, while according to Szemerényi it is probably a Near-Eastern loanword from the Ugaritic ary, kinsmen. It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-European root word is *haerós with the members of ones own group, peer. The word *haerós itself is believed to have come from the root *haer meaning put together, the original meaning in Proto-Indo-European had a clear emphasis on the in-group status as distinguished from that of outsiders, particularly those captured and incoporated into the group as slaves. While in Anatolia, the word has come to emphasize personal relationship.
A review of other ideas, and the various problems with each is given by Oswald Szemerényi. Proto-Indo-Europeans, during the 19th century, it was proposed that Aryan was the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, Aryan language family, the Indo-Aryan languages, Iranian languages and Nuristani languages, Indo-Aryan languages specifically, called Indic. The term Aryan is used by Indian nationalists and Iranian nationalists to refer themselves as Aryan in contrast to the Indo-Aryan migration theory, during the 19th century it was proposed that Aryan was the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Based on speculations that the Proto-Indo-European homeland was located in northern Europe, a 19th-century hypothesis which is now abandoned and it has been used in Nazi racial theory to describe persons corresponding to the Nordic physical ideal of Nazi Germany. In Sanskrit and related Indic languages, ārya means one who does noble deeds, Āryāvarta abode of the āryas is a common name for North India in Sanskrit literature
Shem was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature. Genesis 10,21 refers to ages of Shem and his brother Japheth. The verse is translated in the KJV as Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. However, the New American Standard Bible gives, Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born. Genesis 11,10 records that Shem was 100 years old at the birth of Arphaxad, two years after the flood, and that he lived for another 500 years after this, making his age at death 600 years. The children of Shem were Elam, Arphaxad and Aram, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad. Islamic literature describes Shem as one of the sons of Noah. Some sources even identify Shem as a prophet in his own right, in one Muslim legend, Shem was one of the people whom God made Jesus resurrect as a sign to the Children of Israel.
According to some Jewish traditions, Shem is believed to have been Melchizedek, King of Salem whom Abraham is recorded to have met after the battle of the four kings. Shem is mentioned in Genesis 5,32,6,10,7,13,9,18,23, 26-27,10,11,10, some have reconstructed more complete genealogies based on this information as follows, Shem. Also Sem Literal meanings are named or renown, the sons of Shem were, Elam eternity - Asshur a step or strong - Arphaxad - Chaldeans, Hebrews Ziezi - son of Shem and a grandson of Noah. His name is mentioned in the excerpt Ziezi ex quo vulgares meaning Ziezi, of whom the Bulgars, according to Luke 3,36 Jesus is a descendant of Shem. Early Islamic historians like Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham always included Shems name in the genealogy of Muhammad, the following family tree contains information from the Hebrew Bible, without data from any other sources. According to Luke 3, a figure named Cainan is the son of Arpachshad. Finnegans Wake Wives aboard the Ark Herbermann, Charles, ed.
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek ὑπόστυλος hypóstȳlos meaning under columns, the roof may be constructed of with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete. The architectural form has many applications, occurring in the cella of Ancient Greek temples and in many Asian buildings, with a combination of columns and arches, the hypostyle hall became one of the two main types of mosque construction. In many mosques, especially the early congregational mosques, the hall has the hypostyle form. One of the finest examples of the mosques is the Great Mosque of Kairouan in the city of Kairouan. The hypostyle is widely used in modern architecture, peristyle Portico Apadana Ancient Egyptian architecture This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hypostyle
The Khanate of Astrakhan was a Tatar Turkic state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. The Khanate existed in the 15th and 16th centuries in the adjacent to the mouth of the Volga river. Its khans were the descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi. The Khanate was established in the 1460s by Mäxmüd of Astrakhan, the capital was the city of Xacítarxan, known as Astrakhan in Russian chronicles. Its territory included the Lower Volga valley and the Volga Delta, including most of what is now Astrakhan Oblast, the North-Western Caspian seaside was a southern boundary and the Crimean Khanate bounded Astrakhan on the west. The area surrounding the lower Volga was populated by various Turkic tribes since the 6th century AD, there were, for example, the Khazars. Following the invasion of Mongol tribes from the east and the splintering of their empire and this empire, was wracked by civil war, and the semi-independent Astrakhan Khanate was established by Qasim I around 1466.
Meñli I Giray, the khan of the Crimea who had destroyed the Big Hordes capital of Sarai-al-Jadid caused significant destruction to the khanate, most of the population of the Astrakhan khanate were Astrakhan Tatars and Nogays. Merchants carried on a trade between Muscovy, Crimea, Central Asia, and the Transcaucasus region. The nobility consisted of feudal ranks, which were, from highest to lowest, the rest of the population were known as qara xalıq, black people - the standard Turkic designation for commoners. With its conquest by the Russians in 1556, Islam was largely replaced by Russian Orthodox Christianity, in the 1530s Astrakhan cooperated with the Crimean Khanate and the Nogay Horde in a campaign against Russia. Later, Astrakhan was involved in conflicts against its erstwhile Tatar allies, in 1552 Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, better known as Ivan the Terrible, captured Kazan, shortly thereafter a pro-Muscovite party took power in Astrakhan. Ivan dispatched soldiers to Astrakhan, establishing Darwish Khan as a ruler of the Astrakhan Khanate in 1554.
Pro-muscovite nobles and Nogay tribesmen supported Russian forces occupying Astrakhan, after the threat of Crimean raid against Astrakhan had subsided, Darwish Khan conspired with the Crimean Khanate to drive the Russians out of the region. Ivan IV sent Russian Strelets and Cossack armies, who conquered and annexed the region in 1556, Xacitarxan was besieged, the khanate was absorbed by Russians and abolished. Darwish Khan escaped to the castle of Azov, after the fall of khanate, Tatars were attacked by Kalmyks, that displaced Nogai nomads. Many Nogay were transplanted in Kazakhstan and Daghestan, approximately 70,000 Astrakhan Tatars still live in Astrakhan Oblast. The capital of the khanate was Xacitarxan, located about 12 km from modern Astrakhan and subjects of Mughal rule are known to have traded in Astrakhan
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Xorazm Region or Khorezm Region as it is still more commonly known, is a viloyat of Uzbekistan located in the northwest of the country in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya River. It borders with Turkmenistan and Bukhara Region and it covers an area of 6,300 square kilometres. The population is estimated to be around 1,200,000, Khorezm Region is divided into 10 administrative districts. Other major towns include Xonqa, Khiva and Pitnak, the climate is a typically arid continental climate, with cold winters and extremely hot, dry summers. The city of Khiva in Khorezm Region is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with world famous architectural monuments, the economy of Khorezm Region is primarily based on cotton. Cotton is by far the main crop, although production has increased significantly in the last several years. There are orchards and vineyards and gourd plantations. Khorezm Region is famous for its gurvak melon in Uzbekistan, industry is heavily oriented to cotton, with cotton refining, cottonseed oil extraction and textiles predominating.
Khorezm is a place where many scholars were born, such as Abu Rayhan Biruni. The famous terms algorithm and algebra come from the works of the latter, algorithm is a modified spelling of Khwārizmī and algebra derives from his famous work al-jabr wa-l-muqābala. The region has a well-developed transportation infrastructure, with over 130 km of railways and 2000 km of surfaced roads, the region is connected by rail to European Russia and the Caucasus