Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān, is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen and the Sān or Sākhoen. Khoekhoen were known as “Hottentots”, an onomatopoeic term referring to the click consonants prevalent in the Khoekhoe languages, as they are in all the languages grouped under "Khoesān". Dutchmen in the early Cape settlement would ply Khoekhoen with liquor as an inducement for them to perform a ritual dance; the lyric accompanying the dance sounded, in Dutch ears, like “hot-en-tot”. Sān are popularly thought of as foragers in the Kalahari Desert and regions of Botswana, Angola, Zimbabwe and South Africa; the word sān is from the Khoekhoe language and refers to foragers who do not own livestock. As such it was used in reference to all hunter-gatherer populations of the Southern African region who Khoekhoe-speaking communities came into contact with, was a term referring to a lifestyle, distinct from a pastoralist or agriculturalist one, not any particular ethnicity.

While there are attendant cosmologies and languages associated with such a radical lifestyle, the term is an economic designator, rather than a cultural or ethnic one. However, Khoekhoen is considered to have ethnic meaning, as it refers to a number of historical populations of speakers of related languages that are considered to be the historical pastoralist communities in the South African Cape region, through to Namibia, where Khoekhoe populations of Nama and Damara people are prevalent ethnicities; these Khoekhoe nations and Sān are grouped under the single term Khoesān as representing the indigenous substrate population of Southern Africa prior to the hypothesised Bantu expansion reaching the area between 1,500–2,000 years ago. Many Khoesān peoples are the direct descendants of a early dispersal of anatomically modern humans to Southern Africa, before 150,000 years ago, their languages show a vague typological similarity confined to the prevalence of click consonants, they are not verifiably derived from a common proto-language, but are today split into at least three separate and unrelated language families.

It has been suggested that the Khoekhoeǁaen may represent Late Stone Age arrivals to Southern Africa displaced by Bantu immigration. The compound term Khoisan / Khoesān is a modern anthropological convention, in use since the early-to-mid 20th century. Khoisan popularised by Isaac Schapera, it enters wider usage from the 1960s, based on the proposal of a "Khoisan" language family by Joseph Greenberg. Khoesān peoples were also grouped as Cape Blacks or Western Cape Blacks to distinguish them from the Niger-Congo-speaking "Bantoid" or "Congoid" blacks of the other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Derived from this is the term Capoid used in 20th century anthropological literature. An equivalent term derived from the compound Khoisan is Khoisanid, in use in genetic genealogy; the term Khoisan has been introduced in South African usage as a self-designation after the end of apartheid, in the late 1990s. Since the 2010s, there has been a "Khoisan activist" movement demanding recognition and land rights from the Bantu majority.

It is suggested that the ancestors of the modern Khoisan expanded to Southern Africa before 150,000 years ago as early as before 260,000 years ago, so that by the beginning of the MIS 5 "megadrought", 130,000 years ago, there were two ancestral population clusters in Africa, bearers of mt-DNA haplogroup L0 in southern Africa, ancestral to the Khoi-San, bearers of haplogroup L1-6 in central/eastern Africa, ancestral to everyone else. Due to their early expansion and separation, the populations ancestral to the Khoisan have been estimated as having represented the "largest human population" during the majority of the anatomically modern human timeline, from their early separation before 150 ka until the recent peopling of Eurasia some 70 kya, they were much more widespread than today, their modern distribution being due to their decimation in the course of the Bantu expansion. They were dispersed throughout much of South-Eastern Africa. There was a significant back-migration of bearers of L0 towards eastern Africa between 120 and 75 kya.

Rito et al. speculate that pressure from such back-migration may have contributed to the dispersal of East African populations out of Africa at about 70 kya. "By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup L0. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, ma

Elizabeth Nel

Elizabeth Shakespear Nel was a personal secretary to Winston Churchill from 1941 to 1945. Elizabeth Layton was born on 14 June 1917 in Suffolk, her father, a veteran of the First World War suffered from tuberculosis. He was advised because of his health to emigrate to either Australia; the family settled in Vernon, British Columbia. She attended a London secretarial college in London, before working at an employment bureau. In the summer of 1939, she returned to Canada on holiday. After training in air raid protection, she returned to London, where she obtained work with the Red Cross, it was from here she was sent to Downing Street. In late May 1941 at around 22:30, she first met Winston Churchill, she sat at a silent typewriter where she fell foul of the Prime Minister by making a mistake. He liked his speeches typed as he dictated in double-spaced lines, she was ordered from the room as Churchill berated her using the words "fool", "mug" and "idiot". She accompanied Churchill. Layton met President Franklin D. Roosevelt while in Washington D.

C. with Churchill at the White House. Another trip saw her as part of the British delegation to the Yalta Conference in the Crimea. Churchill proposed a toast to "Miss Layton" at a banquet during the conference, she was the only woman present. Her last work in wartime was to take dictation of Churchill's VE-Day speech, she and Churchill wept in his room after his defeat in the 1945 general election. After the loss, Layton told the Churchills of her plans to marry Frans Nel. Frans was a South African soldier, released from prison camp following his capture at Tobruk. Churchill and his wife Clementine, upon hearing the news, advised their having four children. Reciting in unison, "One for Mother, one for Father, one for Accidents and one for Increase." In 1946, her oldest child was born. In 1958, she released. Churchill objected to the publication, sending a telegram. However, his views softened and he removed his objection when the matter was broached again. After the war, she migrated with her husband to South Africa.

In years, she was invited back to London on several occasions, including in 1990 for the 50th anniversary of Churchill becoming Prime Minister. She returned in 2005 to join the Queen for the opening of the Churchill museum in the underground Cabinet War Rooms, beneath what is now the Treasury on Horse Guards Road, she had two siblings: a brother Michael and sister Alison. Her brother Michael served as a pilot in the Second World War. After the war, she settled in Port Elizabeth, they had two daughters. Her husband died in 2000, she is portrayed in the 2017 British film Darkest Hour by Lily James where she is portrayed as starting to work as Churchill's secretary one year earlier, in 1940. In the film, her brother was said to have died during the retreat to Dunkirk; this is fictional. Grace Hamblin Obituary, The Scotsman Elizabeth Nel on IMDb

Fish 'n' Chips

Fish'n' Chips is the fourth studio album released by Pub Rock band Eddie and the Hot Rods. It is produced and mixed by Al Kooper, engineered by Bob Edwards and assistant Stuart Henderson and mastered by Mike Reese; the album was the first album for EMI Records who they signed to in 1979. According to Barrie Masters, the record company "just let it slip out" and it wasn't successful, subsequently resulting in the dissolution of The Hot Rods in late 1981; the band reformed for a year from 1984 to 1985 but it wouldn't be until 1992 that they completed another studio album. The album sees the departure of Paul Gray with him being replaced by T. C.. The album featured two singles: "Wide Eyed Kids" and "Farther on Down the Road", both of which did not chart on the UK Singles Chart. "Fish'n' Chips Part 1" - 0:40 "Wide Eyed Kids" - 4:05 "You Better Run" - 2:33 "Time Won't Let Me" - 2:33 "Unfinished Business" - 3:42 "Another Party" - 3:00 "This Is Today" - 3:18 "Farther on Down the Road" - 3:45 "Call It Quits" - 3:40 "We Want Mine" - 3:27 "Fish'n' Chips" - 3:59Bonus Tracks On Reissue: "At Night" - 2:39 "Looking Around" - 2:18 "Leave Us Alone" - 2:14 "Don't Call Me I'll Call You" - 3:09 "Hospital Food" - 2:22 "Act Sharper" - 2:30 "I See the Light" - 2:19 "Red Light, Blue Light" - 2:22 "I Got Mine" - 3:12 "Observations of the Second Time" - 4:57 "The Ties That Bind" - 3:12 "Romance in a Used Car" - 3:59 "Penetration Blues" - 3:21 Eddie and the Hot RodsBarrie Masters - vocals Steve Nicol - drums, backing vocals Dave Higgs - guitar, backing vocals Tony "T.

C." Cranney - bass, backing vocals