Khwarazm, or Chorasmia, is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the Iranian Khwarazmian civilization, a series of kingdoms such as the Khwarazmian dynasty and the Afrighid dynasty, whose capitals were Kath, Gurganj and – from the 16th century on – Khiva. Today Khwarazm belongs to Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan and to Turkmenistan. Khwarazm has been known as Chorasmia, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khorezm, Khorasam, Harezm and Chorezm. In Avestan the name is Xvairizem; the Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his Muʿǧam al-buldan wrote that the name was a Persian compound of khwar, razm, referring to the abundance of cooked fish as a main diet of the peoples of this area. C. E. Bosworth, believed the Persian name to be made up of xor and zam, designating "the land from which the sun rises", although a similar etymology is given for Khurasan.
Another view is that the Iranian compound stands for "lowland" from khar "low" and zam "land.". Khwarazm is indeed the lowest region in Central Asia, located on the delta of the Amu Darya on the southern shores of the Aral Sea. Various forms of khwar/khar/khor/hor are used in the Persian Gulf to stand for tidal flats, marshland, or tidal bays The name appears in Achaemenid inscriptions as Huvarazmish, declared to be part of the Persian Empire; some of the early scholars believed Khwarazm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as Airyanem Vaejah. These sources claim that Old Urgench, the capital of ancient Khwarazm for many years, was Ourva, the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. However, Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Airyanem Vaejah was located in what is now Afghanistan, the northern areas of which were a part of ancient Khwarazm and Greater Khorasan. Others, disagree. University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believes Khwarazm to be the "most locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people, Dehkhoda calls Khwarazm "the cradle of the Aryan tribe".
Al-Biruni, a native speaker of Chorasmian, says that the land belonging to the mythical king Afrasiab was first colonised 980 years before Alexander the Great when the hero of the Iranian epic Siyavash came to Khwarazm. C. Al-Biruni starts giving names only with the Afrighid line of Khwarazmshahs, having placed the ascension of Afrighids in 616 of the Seleucid era, i.e. in 305 A. D. Like Soghdiana, Khwarazm was an expansion of the BMAC culture during the Bronze Age which fused with Indo-Iranians during their migrations around 1000 BC. Early Iron Age states arose from this cultural exchange. List of successive cultures in Khwarazm region 3000–500 BC: Keltiminar Culture c. 3000 BC Suyargan Culture c 2000 BC Tazabag’yab Culture c. 1500 BC Amirabad Culture c 1000 BC Saka c. 500 BCDuring the final Saka phase, there were about 400 settlements in Khwarezm. Ruled by the native Afrighid Dynasty, it was at this point. An East Iranian language, was spoken in Khwarezm proper until soon after the Mongol invasion, when it was replaced by Turkic languages.
It was related to Sogdian. Other than the astronomical terms used by the native Iranian Khwarezmian speaker Al-Biruni, our other sources of Khwarezmian include Zamakhshari's Arabic-Persian–Khwarezmian dictionary and several legal texts that use Khwarezmian terms to explain certain legal concepts. In the early part of its history, the inhabitants of the area were from Iranian stock and they spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Khwarezmian; the famous scientist Al-Biruni, a Khwarezm native, in his Athar ul-Baqiyah verifies the Iranian origins of Khwarezmians when he wrote: أهل خوارزم کانوا غصناً من دوحة الفرس The area of Khwarezm was under Afrighid and Samanid control until the 10th century before it was conquered by the Ghaznavids. The Iranian Khwarezmian language and culture felt the pressure of Turkic infiltration from northern Khwarezm southwards, leading to the disappearance of the original Iranian character of the province and its complete Turkicisation today, but Khwarezmian speech lasted in upper Khwarezm, the region round Hazarasp, till the end of the 8th/14th century.
The Khwarezmian language survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Al-Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuu
Sant'Agrippino a Forcella is a church located on Via Forcella in Naples, Italy. A church at the site may have been present since the fifth century, but we have documentation of a consecration during the papacy of pope Clement IV in 1265-1268; the church retains some Gothic architecture details in the apse, but the remainder of the church demonstrates the Baroque reconstructions by Nicola Tagliacozzi Canale. The exterior 14th century portal was designed by pupil of Donatello. Vincenzo Regina, Le chiese di Napoli. Viaggio indimenticabile attraverso la storia artistica, letteraria, civile e spirituale della Napoli sacra, Newton e Compton editor, Naples 2004. Exterior Church of Sant'Agrippino a Forcella su Napoligrafia
Major General Altay Ramazan oglu Mehdiyev is the Commander of Azerbaijani Air Forces. After the assassination of the Commander of Azerbaijani Air Force, Lieutenant General Rail Rzayev on February 11, 2009 the position remained unfilled until May 12, 2009 when President Ilham Aliyev appointed Mehdiyev to take over the command. Before the appointment, Mehdiyev served as the Chief of Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces in Nakhchivan. He's considered to be a professional, well trained for air force operations. Mehdiyev was awarded with Veten Ughrunda Medal for service to his country on June 22, 2006
Red Alert is the debut album by the Poway, California punk rock band Agent 51, released by Alphabet Records in 1998. It established the band's presence in the local punk rock scene; some of the songs and the album artwork detail the band's fascination with UFOs, extraterrestrials and the possible coverup of their existence by the United States government. An independent music video was filmed for the title track. After the song "San Diego's Burning" the album has 31 blank tracks at 0:51 into track 51 there is a "hidden" semi-instrumental version of "Red Alert," with vocals only on the chorus. After the song, on the same track, there is a clip from the "Area 51" radio program. All tracks are written by Chris Armes. Tracks 20–50 each consist of 4–6 seconds of silence. Chris "Broken" Armes - guitar, vocals Eric "Airwick" Davis - guitar, vocals Greg Schneider - bass, vocals Rob Hunter - drums Record label: Alphabet Records Recorded at DML Studios November 24–26, 1997 by Scott Exum Mastered at DML Studios Produced by Agent 51 All songs copyright 1996-1997 Agent 51, except "Swingin' Doors" by Merle Haggard Cover design by Agent 51 Layout by David Klinker
Le Bougainville is the third ship of the Ponant Explorers-class of cruise ships operated by Ponant. Each member of the class has been allocated the name of a famous French explorer, Le Bougainville is named after Louis Antoine de Bougainville, a French admiral and explorer. Built by VARD, Le Bougainville had her hull constructed in VARD's Tulcea yard in Romania. By October 2018, she was ready to be transferred to the builder's Søviknes facility in Ålesund, for final outfitting, she was delivered to Ponant in Norway in early April 2019. On 8 April 2019, Le Bougainville departed from Søvik, for Malaga, where she began her maiden voyage on 15 April 2019, she was christened on 4 June 2019 in Marseille. Compagnie du Ponant official site page about the ship
James Wan is a Malaysian-born Australian film director, screenwriter and comic book writer. He rose to prominence as co-creator of the Saw film franchise, he served as a producer on all eight films in the series, in addition to directing Saw and co-writing Saw III. He directed Dead Silence and Death Sentence, The Conjuring and Insidious: Chapter 2, Furious 7, The Conjuring 2, Aquaman. Furious 7 and Aquaman each grossed over $1 billion, making Wan the eighth director with two films that have reached that milestone. Wan was born on 26 February 1977 in Kuching, Malaysia, is of Chinese descent. Wan and his family moved to Western Australia when he was seven, he attended Lake Tuggeranong College in Canberra, before returning to Perth as an adult. Wan relocated from Perth to Melbourne. Before his success in the mainstream film industry, he made his first feature-length film, with Shannon Young, which won "Best Guerrilla Film" at the Melbourne Underground Film Festival in 2000. Prior to 2003, Wan and his friend, screenwriter Leigh Whannell, had begun writing a script based for a horror film, citing inspiration from their dreams and fears.
Upon completing the script and Whannell had wanted to select an excerpt from their script to be known as Saw and film it to pitch their film to studios. With the help of Charlie Clouser, who had composed the score for the film and a few stand-in actors and Whannell shot the film with no budget. Whannell decided to star in the film. After the release of the full-length Saw, the film was met with overwhelming success in the box office both domestically and internationally; the film ended up grossing $55 million in America, $48 million in other countries, totaling over US$103 million worldwide. This was over over 80 times the production budget; this led the studio to greenlight the sequel Saw II, the rest of the Saw franchise based on the yearly success of the previous installment. Since its inception, Saw has become the highest grossing horror franchise of all time worldwide in unadjusted dollars. In the United States only, Saw is the second highest grossing horror franchise, behind only the Friday the 13th films by a margin of $10 million.
Since creating the franchise and Leigh Whannell have served as executive producers to the sequels Saw II, Saw III, Saw IV, Saw V, Saw VI, Saw 3D and the recent Jigsaw. The release of Saw 3D, complete with its subtitle, was to signify the completion of the franchise; the sixth sequel continued the profit margin performance of the original film and earned US$136 million in the global market, against a production budget of US$20 million. In August 2012, various online horror publications stated that a source at Lionsgate, the franchise's production company, had revealed intentions for an eighth Saw sequel, but it was at a "tinkering" stage at the time of the disclosure. In 2007, Wan directed two feature films; the first was the horror film Dead Silence, the result of advice from Wan and Whannell's agent at the time. Our'representatives' promptly told us that we should get another deal for a film stitched up before it was released, it was presented as a kind of insurance – if'Saw' was a flop, we had another film to fall back on.
Seems logical. There was only one problem – I didn't have any ideas for a new film. I had been able to catch my breath throughout the whole'Saw' experience, let alone dream up another film idea. Instead of telling our representatives that they had to wait until I came up with an idea I liked though, I locked myself in the bedroom of the crappy apartment we had rented in Hollywood and tried to force an idea out like a stubborn hangover shit, it was creativity at gunpoint. If I could go back in time, I would politely tell everyone to go fuck themselves, but back then....no. I paced and paced and took up smoking for a while, so stressed out was I. Dead Silence featured Australian actor Ryan Kwanten, is based on the premise of a legend, whereby the ghost of a ventriloquist, Mary Shaw, removes the tongue of any person who screams in its presence. Rather than a gore movie, Wan described the film as "a creepy doll movie. It's in the spirit of Hammer Horror Films. Old-school."Wan's second directorial film of 2007 was Death Sentence, a film adapted from the Brian Garfield novel of the same name, written as the sequel to Death Wish.
The film's protagonist is played by Kevin Bacon and has no connection to the horror genre—instead, Bacon stars as a father who seeks revenge for his murdered son, killed by a local gang. Whannell features as a minor character in the film, playing one of the gang members, killed by Bacon's character. Wan described the film as "a raw and gritty, 70s styled revenge thriller... It's my arthouse movie with guns."Having worked on his previous three films continuously, Wan told CraveOnline that he was ready for "a bit of time off just to chill... but at the same time I'm using this opportunity to write again" following the completion of Death Sentence. In 2008, Wan directed a trailer for the survival horror video game Dead Space. Next, Wan directed the hor