Kern County, California
Kern County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 839,631, Kern County comprises the Bakersfield, CA Metropolitan statistical area. The county spans the end of the Central Valley. Its northernmost city is Delano and its southern reach expands just beyond Lebec to the Grapevine, the countys economy is heavily linked to agriculture and to petroleum extraction. There is an aviation and military presence, such as Edwards Air Force Base, the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station. It is one of the fastest growing areas in the United States in terms of population growth, and suffers from significant water supply issues and poor air quality. The area was claimed by the Spanish in 1769, and in 1772 Commander Don Pedro Fages became the first European to enter it, in the beginning, the area that became Kern County was dominated by mining in the mountains and in the desert. The south of Tulare County was organized as Kern County in 1866, with additions from Los Angeles and its first county seat was in the mining town of Havilah, in the mountains between Bakersfield and Tehachapi.
The flatlands were considered inhospitable and impassable at the due to swamps, tule reeds. This changed when settlers started draining lands for farming and constructing canals, within 10 years the valley surpassed the mining areas as the economic center of the county, and the county seat was moved as a result from Havilah to Bakersfield in 1874. The discovery well of the Kern River Oil Field was dug by hand in 1899, soon the towns of Oil City, Oil Center and Oildale came into existence. The county derives its name from the Kern River, which was named for Edward Kern, frémonts 1845 expedition, which crossed Walker Pass. The Kern River was originally named Rio Bravo de San Felipe by Father Francisco Garces when he explored the area in 1776, severe earthquakes have struck Kern County within historical times, including the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. On July 21,1952, an earthquake occurred with the epicenter about 23 miles south of Bakersfield and it measured 7.3 on the moment magnitude scale and killed 12 people.
In addition to the deaths, it was responsible for hundreds of injuries, the main shock was felt over much of California and as far away as Phoenix and Reno, Nevada. The earthquake occurred on the White Wolf Fault and was the strongest to occur in California since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Tehachapi suffered the greatest damage and loss of life from the earthquake, though its effects were widely felt throughout central and southern California. Ground disturbances that were created by the earthquakes were surveyed, the details of these false accusations are covered extensively in the 2008 documentary Witch Hunt, narrated by Sean Penn. Kern county is considered to be a hotbed of country music, the Buck Owens Crystal Palace is located in Bakersfield
Pacific Crest Trail
The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,659 mi long and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada. The route passes through 25 national forests and 7 national parks and its midpoint is near Chester, where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet. It was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not officially completed until 1993, the PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932. It received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968 and it is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6, 875-mile Great Western Loop. The route is mostly through National Forest and protected wilderness, the trail avoids civilization and covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail is a 2, the PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes. The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C, Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California and Washington.
The original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, the Skyline Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail. The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, from 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, which has been closely followed by the modern PCT route. In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT, the PCT was constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was officially declared finished, thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip. The Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, and Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U. S, successfully thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.
Thru-hiking is a commitment, usually taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip, while most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow. If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, however, it is not currently possible to legally enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail. Hikers have to determine their resupply points, resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U. S, post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as likely to become extinct. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered worldwide, the figures for 1998 were, respectively,1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species, for example, population numbers and species conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population. The conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood that it will become extinct, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 40% of the species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally,199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered, in the United States, such plans are usually called Species Recovery Plans. Those species of Near Threatened and Least Concern status have been assessed and found to have relatively robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline.
The IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, Extinct Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, critically endangered Faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future, vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future, Least concern No immediate threat to species survival. A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five generations, there is data from the United States that shows a correlation between human populations and threatened and endangered species. Under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, species may be listed as endangered or threatened, the Salt Creek tiger beetle is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA.
Some endangered species laws are controversial, lobbying from hunters and various industries like the petroleum industry, construction industry, and logging, has been an obstacle in establishing endangered species laws. The Bush administration lifted a policy that required federal officials to consult an expert before taking actions that could damage endangered species. Under the Obama administration, this policy has been reinstated, being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species. Another problem with the species is its effect of inciting the use of the shoot, shovel
California State Route 178
State Route 178 is a route that exists in two constructed segments. The gap in between segments is connected by local roads and State Route 190 through Death Valley National Park. SR178 serves many different purposes and it connects SR99 and Downtown Bakersfield with East Bakersfield and Lake Isabella. It is one of two crossings over the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite, connecting the southern San Joaquin Valley with the upper Mojave Desert and this provides access to Death Valley National Park. If the unconstructed portion were built, it would provide an easy route between Ridgecrest and Las Vegas, via Pahrump, Nevada. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, the first segment starts at State Route 99 just west of Downtown Bakersfield. The road continues as 24th street, but splits at B St. utilizing 24th street as its westbound usage, SR178 becomes a freeway as it leaves Downtown, and winds through East Bakersfield.
The freeway travels east as it enters Northeast Bakersfield, a mile east of the Morning Drive Interchange, the freeway segment ends with the first at-grade intersection at Canteria Drive. From here, the narrows to a 4 lane highway. The highway continues through the rural, but growing Rio Bravo section of Bakersfield, turning northeast, the route continues to the mouth of Kern Canyon. For the next approximately 8 miles, the route is a narrow 2-lane road, average speed is 35 mph, with sharp turns and steep dropoffs. After approximately 8 miles, the road becomes a much gentler 4-lane,60 ft. expressway, the route continues east, and reaches the town of Lake Isabella, which is just south of the Lake Isabella Reservoir. The road briefly expands to a freeway through Lake Isabella. The road winds a little bit until it ascends to Walker Pass, the highway descends from the mountains to its junction with State Route 14. It proceeds eastward across US395 into the town of Ridgecrest, the constructed highway ends at the turnoff for the Trona Pinnacles National Natural Landmark.
It meets up with State Route 127,178 branches northward from 127 to the California-Nevada State Line. In Nevada, the roadway continues as State Route 372 ending at State Route 160 near the center of Pahrump in Nye County, plans to connect the two constructed segments in California are unlikely due to the would-be links passage through Death Valley National Park. The segment of State Route 178 from State Route 127 to the California-Nevada State Line as well as all of Nevada State Route 372 are both known as the Charles Brown Highway, SR178 was one of the routes created with the third bond act of 1919
Joshua Tree National Park
Joshua Tree National Park is located in southeastern California. Declared a U. S. National Park in 1994 when the U. S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act and it is named for the Joshua trees native to the park. It covers a area of 790,636 acres —an area slightly larger than the state of Rhode Island. A large part of the park, some 429,690 acres, is a wilderness area. The Little San Bernardino Mountains run through the southwest edge of the park, in 1950, the size of the park was reduced by about 265,000 acres to exclude some mining property. The park was elevated to a National Park on 31 October 1994 by the Desert Protection Act, the higher and cooler Mojave Desert is the special habitat of Yucca brevifolia, the Joshua tree for which the park is named. It occurs in patterns from dense forests to distantly spaced specimens, in addition to Joshua tree forests, the western part of the park includes some of the most interesting geologic displays found in Californias deserts. The dominant geologic features of landscape are hills of bare rock.
These hills are popular amongst rock climbing and scrambling enthusiasts, the flatland between these hills is sparsely forested with Joshua trees. Together with the piles and Skull Rock, the trees make the landscape otherworldly. Temperatures are most comfortable in the spring and fall, with an average high/low of 85 and 50 °F respectively, winter brings cooler days, around 60 °F, and freezing nights. It occasionally snows at higher elevations, summers are hot, over 100 °F during the day and not cooling much below 75 °F until the early hours of the morning. Joshua trees dominate the open spaces of the park, but in among the outcroppings are piñon pine, California juniper, Quercus turbinella, Quercus john-tuckeri. These communities are under stress, however, as the climate was wetter until the 1930s, with the same hot. These cycles were nothing new, but the vegetation did not prosper when wetter cycles returned. The difference may have been human development, cattle grazing took out some of the natural cover and made it less resistant to the changes.
But the bigger problem seems to be invasive species, such as cheatgrass, in drier times, they die back, but do not quickly decompose. This makes wildfires hotter and more destructive, which some of the trees that would have otherwise survived
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Bureau of Land Management
President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies, the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is to sustain the health, originally BLM holdings were described as land nobody wanted because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits, the agency manages 221 wilderness areas,23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands, total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups. The BLMs roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.
As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored, during the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies. After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, France, in the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function, Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted, the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error, once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, in 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled, over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.
Several different types of patents existed and these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, and town lots. A system of land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory. This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States, the laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, gas, the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees. The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, in 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for new agency to integrate and reorganize
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus /dʒuːˈnɪpərəs/ of the cypress family Cupressaceae. The highest-known Juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 feet in south-eastern Tibet, Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves and they can be either monoecious or dioecious. The female seed cones are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a structure, 4–27 mm long. In some species these berries are red-brown or orange but in most they are blue, they are often aromatic, the seed maturation time varies between species from 6–18 months after pollination. The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6–20 scales, in zones 7 through 10, junipers can bloom and release pollen several times each year. A few species of juniper bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring.
Many junipers have two types of leaves and some twigs of trees have needle-like leaves 5–25 mm long. When juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most often found on shaded shoots, leaves on fast-growing whip shoots are often intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is of the juvenile needle-like type, in some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed. The needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage very prickly to handle and this can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise very similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Duplicana feed on the bark around injuries or canker, the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving very different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, and Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear.
The section Juniperus is a monophyletic group though. The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, and jointed at the base, Cones with 3 separate seeds, needles with one stomatal band. Juniperus communis - Common Juniper Juniperus communis subsp, alpina - Alpine Juniper Juniperus conferta - Shore Juniper Juniperus rigida - Temple Juniper or Needle Juniper Juniperus sect. Oxycedrus, Cones with 3 separate seeds, needles with two stomatal bands, Cones with 3 seeds fused together, needles with two stomatal bands. Juniperus drupacea - Syrian Juniper Juniperus sect, the adult leaves are mostly scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, and the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base
Sequoia National Forest
Sequoia National Forest is located in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The U. S. National Forest is named for the majestic Giant Sequoia trees which populate 38 distinct groves within the boundaries of the forest, the Giant Sequoia National Monument is located in the national forest. Other notable features include glacier-carved landscapes and impressive granite monoliths, the Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. Forest headquarters are located in Porterville, there are local ranger district offices in Dunlap, Lake Isabella, and Springville. The Sequoia National Forest covers 1,193,315 acres and its Giant Sequoia groves are part of its 196,000 acres of old growth forests. Other tree species include, Jeffrey Pine Red Fir Coast Douglas-fir Ponderosa Pine White Fir Lodgepole Pine The Needles are a series of granite atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. There are six areas within Sequoia NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Some of these extend into neighboring National Forests, as indicated, two of them extend into land that is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The forest is adjacent to Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, Sequoia National Forest was established on July 1,1908 from a portion of Sierra Forest Reserve. On March 2,1909 Theodore Roosevelt added land by Presidential Proclamation, on July 1,19101,951,191 acres was removed from the forest to create the Kern National Forest. This land was returned to Sequoia National Forest on July 1,1915, the Sequoia National Forest has 34 giant sequoia groves. It can be accessed by paved roads, the grove contains many young sequoias approaching diameters of up to 10 feet. Once the second-largest grove, but much logged around 1890-1900, nearly 100 widely scattered old-growth Giant Sequoias remain, good regrowth of younger trees. Home of the Boole Tree, which the loggers spared as it was by far the largest tree in the grove and is now identified as the sixth-largest tree by volume.
Although not among the very largest Giant Sequoias, the General Noble Tree was perhaps among the top 30 largest Giant Sequoias before it was cut, immediately north of the Agnew Grove, near Monarch Wilderness boundary. 36°48N 118°4930W 2050–2250 m. Agnew & Deer Meadow Grove, located between Converse Basin Grove and General Grant Grove, near McGee Overlook. Cherry Gap Grove is a sequoia grove of about thirty-five acres in Sequoia national forest. Listed by Rundel and Flint, very small, too few trees to qualify as a grove according to Willard, contains the 13th largest giant sequoia in the world, The Ishi Giant
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province. The vast majority of the lies in the state of California. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles across east-to-west, the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, and two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks, the character of the range is shaped by its geology and ecology. More than one hundred years ago during the Nevadan orogeny. The range started to uplift four M. A. ago, the uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra. The Sierra Nevada has a significant history, the California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855.
Due to inaccessibility, the range was not fully explored until 1912, the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a very small but historically important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevadas elevation increases gradually from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to an height of about 10,500 feet at its crest only 50–75 miles to the east. The east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment, unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift. The Sierra Nevada stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass in the north to Tehachapi Pass in the south and it is bounded on the west by Californias Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province. The geographical boundary between the Sierra and the Cascades is virtually indistinguishable, with the Fredonyer Pass designation being traditional, physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.
The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, the northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, and the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River. The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower, its rivers flow out into the endorheic Great Basin of eastern California and western Nevada. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California, the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases gradually from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet. The crest near Lake Tahoe is roughly 9,000 feet high, farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell
Lake Isabella, California
Lake Isabella is a census-designated place in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Kern County, United States. It is named after the Lake Isabella reservoir and located at its edge,6 miles south of Wofford Heights in the Kern River Valley. The town of Lake Isabella is located 35 miles east-northeast of Bakersfield, the population was 3,466 at the 2010 census, up from 3,315 at the 2000 census. Lake Isabella is located in Hot Springs Valley, part of the Kern River Valley, according to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 22.1 square miles, over 98% of it land. Lake Isabella is at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Kern River and these rivers are wild, in that they are not controlled by any dam upstream. Upstream on the North Fork white water enthusiasts play in the spring, the famous Golden Trout originate in these rivers in the high country to the north. The area was inhabited for millennia by the indigenous Tübatulabal and Owens Valley Paiute, gold was discovered nearby in 1853, leading to a gold rush and the founding of Keyesville.
The 1863 Keyesville massacre occurred a few miles north, the town of Isabella was founded by Steven Barton in 1893 and named in honor of Queen Isabella of Spain while her name was current during the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Lake Isabella was created in 1953 by a dam on the Kern River, the Isabella post office, which had opened in 1896, operated at the new site until the name was changed to Lake Isabella in 1957. The dams reservoir inundated the site of Kernville. Like Isabella, it was relocated, along several of its historic buildings. The area is a mecca for hikers, water skiers, birders, wind surfers, tourist trade is a major part of the areas economy. The 2010 United States Census reported that Lake Isabella had a population of 3,466, the population density was 156.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lake Isabella was 3,069 White,6 African American,96 Native American,18 Asian,7 Pacific Islander,73 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339 persons. The Census reported that 3,466 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 138 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 14 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 592 households were made up of individuals and 299 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.14.
There were 888 families, the family size was 2.76. The median age was 47.2 years, for every 100 females there were 95.2 males