Michael Wood's Story of England
Michael Wood's Story of England is a six-part BBC documentary series written and presented by Michael Wood and airing from 22 September 2010. It tells the story of one place, the Leicestershire village of Kibworth, throughout the whole of English history from the Roman era to modern times; the series focuses on tracing history through ordinary people in an ordinary English town, with current residents of Kibworth sharing what they know of their ancestors and participating in tracing their history. A four-part version aired on PBS in the United States in 2012. With the help of the local people and using archaeology, language and DNA, Michael uncovers the lost history of the first thousand years of the village, featuring a Roman villa, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings and graphic evidence of life on the eve of the Norman Conquest. Wood's unique portrait moves on to 1066, he reveals how occupation affected the villagers from the gallows to the alehouse, shows the medieval open fields in action in the only place where they still survive today.
With the help of the residents, he charts events in the village leading to the people's involvement in the Civil War of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. Intertwining the local and national narratives, this is a moving and informative picture of one local community through time. Wood's fascinating tale reaches the catastrophic 14th century. Kibworth goes through the worst famine in European history, as revealed in the astonishing village archive in Merton College Oxford, two thirds of the people die in the Black Death. Helped by today's villagers - field walking and reading the historical texts - and by the local schoolchildren digging archaeological test pits, Wood follows stories of individual lives through these times, out of which the English idea of community and the English character begin to emerge. Wood's gripping tale moves on to dramatic battles of conscience in the time of the Hundred Years' War. Amazing finds in the school archive help trace peasant education back to the 14th century and we see how the people themselves set up the first school for their children.
Some villagers join in a rebellion against King Henry V, while others rise to become middle class merchants in the textile town of Coventry. On the horizon is the Protestant Reformation, but the rise of capitalism and individualism sow the seeds of England's future greatness; the tale reaches the dramatic events of Henry VIII's Reformation and the battles of the English Civil War. We track Kibworth's 17th century dissenters, travel on the Grand Union Canal, meet Anna Laetitia Barbauld, an 18th-century feminist writer from Kibworth, a pioneer of children's books; the story of a young highwayman exiled to Australia comes alive as his living descendents come back to the village to uncover their roots. Lastly, the Industrial Revolution comes to the village with framework knitting factories, changing the village and its people forever. In this final episode, helped by today's villagers Michael uncovers the secret history of a Victorian village more colourful than Dickens could have imagined. Recreating their penny concerts of the 1880s, visiting World War I battlefields with the school and recalling the Home Guard, local land girls and the bombing of the village in 1940, the series moves into the brave new world of'homes fit for heroes' and the villagers come together to leave a reminder of their world for future generations.
A book and DVD followed the series. The Village Ulverton, a 1992 novel by Adam Thorpe Michael Wood's Story of England on IMDb
History of England
England became inhabited more than 800,000 years ago, as the discovery of stone tools and footprints at Happisburgh in Norfolk has revealed. The earliest evidence for early modern humans in North West Europe, a jawbone discovered in Devon at Kents Cavern in 1927, was re-dated in 2011 to between 41,000 and 44,000 years old. Continuous human habitation in England dates to around 13,000 years ago, at the end of the last glacial period; the region has numerous remains from the Mesolithic and Bronze Age, such as Stonehenge and Avebury. In the Iron Age, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by the Celtic people known as the Britons, including some Belgic tribes in the south east. In AD 43 the Roman conquest of Britain began; the end of Roman rule in Britain facilitated the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, which historians regard as the origin of England and of the English people. The Anglo-Saxons, a collection of various Germanic peoples, established several kingdoms that became the primary powers in present-day England and parts of southern Scotland.
They introduced the Old English language, which displaced the previous British language. The Anglo-Saxons warred with British successor states in Wales and the Hen Ogledd, as well as with each other. Raids by Vikings became frequent after about AD 800, the Norsemen settled in large parts of what is now England. During this period, several rulers attempted to unite the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, an effort that led to the emergence of the Kingdom of England by the 10th century. In 1066, a Norman expedition conquered England; the Norman dynasty established by William the Conqueror ruled England for over half a century before the period of succession crisis known as the Anarchy. Following the Anarchy, England came under the rule of the House of Plantagenet, a dynasty which inherited claims to the Kingdom of France. During this period, the Magna Carta was signed. A succession crisis in France led to the Hundred Years' War, a series of conflicts involving the peoples of both nations. Following the Hundred Years' Wars, England became embroiled in its own succession wars.
The Wars of the Roses pitted two branches of the House of Plantagenet against one another, the House of York and the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrian Henry Tudor ended the War of the Roses and established the Tudor dynasty in 1485. Under the Tudors and the Stuart dynasty, England became a colonial power. During the rule of the Stuarts, the English Civil War took place between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists, which resulted in the execution of King Charles I and the establishment of a series of republican governments — first, a Parliamentary republic known as the Commonwealth of England a military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell known as The Protectorate; the Stuarts returned to the restored throne in 1660, though continued questions over religion and power resulted in the deposition of another Stuart king, James II, in the Glorious Revolution. England, which had conquered Wales in the 13th century, united with Scotland in 1707 to form a new sovereign state called Great Britain.
Following the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain ruled a colonial Empire, the largest in recorded history. Following a process of decolonisation in the 20th century caused by the weakening of Great Britain's power in the two World Wars all of the empire's overseas territories became independent countries. However, as of 2018, its cultural impact remains deep in many of them; the time from Britain's first inhabitation until the last glacial maximum is known as the Old Stone Age, or Palaeolithic era. Archaeological evidence indicates that what was to become England was colonised by humans long before the rest of the British Isles because of its more hospitable climate between and during the various glacial periods of the distant past; this earliest evidence, from Happisburgh in Norfolk, includes the oldest human footprints found outside Africa, points to dates of more than 800,000 BP. These earliest inhabitants were hunter-gatherers. Low sea-levels meant that Britain was attached to the continent for much of this earliest period of history, varying temperatures over tens of thousands of years meant that it was not always inhabited.
England has been continually inhabited since the last Ice Age ended around 9,000 BC, the beginning of the Middle Stone Age, or Mesolithic era. Rising sea-levels cut off Britain from the continent for the last time around 6500 BC; the population by was anatomically modern humans, the evidence suggests that their societies were complex and they were manipulating their environment and prey in new ways selective burning of omnipresent woodland to create clearings for herds to gather and hunt them. Hunting was done with simple projectile weapons such as javelin and sling. Bow and arrow was known in Western Europe since least 9000 BC; the climate continued to warm and the population rose. The New Stone Age, or Neolithic era, began with the introduction of farming from the Middle East, around 4000 BC, it is not known whether this was caused by a substantial folk movement or native adoption of foreign practices or both. People began to lead a more settled lifestyle. Monumental collective tombs were built for the dead in the form of chambered cairns and long barrows.
Towards the end of the period, other kinds of monumental ston
Kibworth railway station
Kibworth railway station was opened by the Midland Railway in 1857 on what is now the Midland Main Line. Plans had lapsed; however the Midland, running to Rugby at that time and dependent on the LNWR for its path into London, was looking for an alternative. It revived its plans for Bedford to go forward to Hitchin to join the Great Northern Railway; the station was near the summit of the Kibworth Incline, the most northerly of the Leicester to Hitchin section. It was built next to the bridge carrying the highway from Kibworth Beauchamp, still known at Station Street, access was by means of wooden stairs to each platform; the station buildings were of brick in the Midland Ecclesiastical Gothic style. The booking office and other facilities were on the down platform, with a small waiting-room on the southbound. On the down side were two bay platforms, one running through a goods shed; these joined the running lines by a crossing, but led back to longer sidings next to the down line. Next to the up line on the other side of the road bridge, was a short loop serving a cattle dock, an unusual siding curving away from the running lines to some small sheds.
At grouping in 1923 it became part of the London Scottish Railway. Goods services ended on 4 July 1966, the station closed to passengers on 1 January 1968. In recent years, it has housed a fencing and wood merchants business but became empty in 2002. In the early 2000s,a number of houses were built on the car park. At some point, access to the line was removed, as were the platforms
A6 road (England)
The A6 is one of the main historic north–south roads in England. It runs from Luton in Bedfordshire to Carlisle in Cumbria, although it started at a junction with the A1 at Barnet, it is the fourth longest numbered road in Britain, behind only the A1, A38 and A30. Running north-west from Luton, the road travels through Bedford, bypasses Rushden and Market Harborough, continues through Leicester, Loughborough and Matlock before going through the Peak District to Bakewell, Stockport, Salford, Irlams o' th' Height, Swinton, Linnyshaw, Little Hulton, Chorley, Lancaster and Penrith before reaching Carlisle. South of Derby, the road is paralleled by the M1 motorway, between Manchester and Preston the M6 and M61 motorways approximate its course, from Preston to its northern terminus in Carlisle it is paralleled by the M6 only. Between Derby and Manchester the A6 follows a different routing to the motorway network, crossing the Peak District rather than going around it; because of these duplications, the A6 is less important.
The A6 begins as St Mary's Road at an elongated roundabout with the A505 road – part of the Luton inner ring road. The A6 into New Bedford Road, it meets the A5228 outer ring road at a roundabout. On the outskirts of Luton, now Barton Road, it meets the Icknield Way Path. Leaving Luton, it enters Central Bedfordshire after a roundabout with Quantock Rise. There is a roundabout at Streatley, where the road becomes the dual-carriageway Luton Road, passing through the Bartonhill Cutting; the road becomes single carriageway at the roundabout with the B655 at the other end of the Barton-le-Clay bypass. It meets the A507 at a roundabout at Clophill, it passes by Maulden Wood as the dual-carriage up Deadman's Hill passes Haynes West End. It enters the district of bypasses Wilstead, it meets the A421 at the Elstow Interchange grade-separated junction. The A6 meets the A5134 at a large signal-controlled junction; the road crosses the Marston Vale Line enters Bedford as Ampthill Road. There is a roundabout with the A5141 it crosses the railway again near Bedford St Johns railway station.
It meets the A600 and A5140 at a roundabout passes Bedford College and crosses the River Great Ouse as King Street. It takes two one-way routes through the town centre, which meet at a roundabout,it continues for around 700 yards, It meets the A5141 again at a roundabout near Bedford Modern School and a large Sainsbury's supermarket and becomes the dual-carriageway Paula Radcliffe Way, it passed through Clapham itself before the construction of the Paula Radcliffe Way Bypass in; the A6 crosses the River Great Ouse twice more, is crossed by the John Bunyan Trail, near a GSJ for Clapham and Oakley. There is another GSJ for Highfield Parc Industrial Estate. At the end of the bypass, the road loses the broad expanse of tarmac and looks like a minor B road and becomes Bedford Road, it passes through Milton Ernest, passing the Queen's Head pub and the exit for the notorious Yarl's Wood Immigration Removal Centre. It carries on for around three miles, passing the Falcon pub near Bletsoe passes Sharnbrook at a Roundabout.
Around a mile it crosses the border into Northamptonshire and enters the district of East Northamptonshire. It passes through the village of Wymington, passes the exit to the well known Santa Pod Raceway, bypasses the towns of Rushden and Higham Ferrers, arriving at the Chown's Mill roundabout with the A45. From here the road bridges the Nene Way before bypassing Irthlingborough; the A6 passes through the town of Finedon and intersects the A510 at a roundabout. Leaving Finedon, the road passes the Burton Wold Wind Farm and bypasses the town of Burton Latimer arriving at Junction 10 of the A14 at Barton Seagrave. Kettering was bypassed; the road enters Leicestershire and the district of Harborough as Harborough Road at the start of the five-mile Market Harborough Bypass. It re-enters Northamptonshire again, at this point there is a roundabout with the A427 and A4304, an exit for Great Bowden, it is crossed by the Leicestershire Round. There is a turn for Foxton Locks, it is crossed by the Midland Main Line.
The A6 still passes through Kibworth. The road becomes Leicester Road, it crosses the River Sence and there is a roundabout. The bypass ends with a roundabout, just before the road enters the district of Wigston. On the outskirts of Leicester the road becomes London Road. There is a roundabout with Florence Wragg Way, where the road becomes Glen Road It becomes Leicester Road before reaching the outer ring-road, next to Leicester Racecourse, it becomes London Road, where the dual-carriageway ends, it enters the city of Leicester, passing the Leicester High School for Girls. There is a crossroads, for Stoughton Road at Stoneygate, a roundabout with the Victoria Park Road, it passes close to many take-away shops. It crosses the Midland Main Line near Leicester railway station. In the centre of Leicester, it is subsumed into Leicester's inner ring-road, the A594, it crosses the River Soar as St Margarets Way. It becomes dual-carriageway on the northern outskirts of Leicester, passes the National Space Centre in Belgrave as Abbey Lane.
It meets a roundabout with the A563 outer ring-road entering the borough of C
Second Barons' War
The Second Barons' War was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led by the king himself and by his son, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham; the reign of Henry III is most remembered for the constitutional crisis in this period of civil strife, provoked ostensibly by Henry III's demands for extra finances, but which marked a more general dissatisfaction with Henry's methods of government on the part of the English barons, discontent, exacerbated by widespread famine. French-born Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, had been one of the foreign upstarts so loathed by many lords as Henry's foreign councillors, but having inherited through his mother the English title Earl of Leicester, he married Henry's sister Eleanor without Henry's permission, without the agreement of the English Barons.
As a result, a feud developed between de Henry. Their relationship reached a crisis in the 1250s, when de Montfort was put on trial for actions he took as lieutenant of Gascony, the last remaining Plantagenet lands across the English Channel. Montfort took advantage of rising anti-Jewish sentiments in England. An alleged Jewish child murder of Hugh of Lincoln had led to the hanging of 18 Jews. Official anti-Judaic measures sponsored by the Catholic Church combined with resentment about debts among the Barons gave an opportunity for Montfort to target this group and incite rebellion by calling for the cancellation of Jewish debts. Henry became embroiled in funding a war against the Hohenstaufen Dynasty in Sicily on behalf of Pope Innocent IV in return for the Hohenstaufen title King of Sicily for his second son Edmund; this made many barons fearful that Henry was following in the footsteps of his father King John and, like him, needed to be kept in check. When Henry's treasury ran dry, Innocent withdrew the title, in regranting it to Charles of Anjou in effect negated the sale.
Simon de Montfort became leader of those who wanted to reassert the Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. In 1258, initiating the move toward reform, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of twenty-four barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a great council in the form of a parliament every three years, to monitor their performance. Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to uphold the Provisions. Seeking to restore his position, in 1259 Henry purchased the support of King Louis IX of France by the Treaty of Paris, agreeing to accept the loss of the lands in France, seized from him and from his father King John by Louis and his predecessors since 1202, to do homage for those that remained in his hands. In 1261 he obtained a papal bull releasing him from his oath, set about reasserting his control of government.
The baronial opposition responded by summoning their own Parliament and contesting control of local government, but with civil war looming they backed down and de Montfort fled to France, while the other key opposition leader, Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, switched over to the King's side. Under the Treaty of Kingston an arbitration system was agreed to resolve outstanding disputes between Henry and the barons, with de Clare as the initial arbiter and the option of appealing his verdicts to Louis IX. However, continued Poitevin influence and the failures and renewal of provocative policies by Henry's government soon inflamed hostility once more; the King's position was further weakened by the death of Richard de Clare and the succession of his son Gilbert, who sided with the opposition, by the reversal of the papal annulment of his oath to uphold the Provisions. In April 1263 Simon de Montfort returned to England and gathered a council of dissident barons at Oxford. Fighting broke out in the Welsh Marches, by the autumn both sides had raised considerable armies.
De Montfort marched on London and the city rose in revolt, trapping the King and Queen at the Tower of London. They were taken prisoner and de Montfort assumed effective control of government in Henry's name. However, his support soon fractured and Henry was able to regain his liberty. With violent disorder spreading and the prospect of all-out war, Henry appealed to Louis for arbitration, after initial resistance de Montfort consented to this. In January 1264, by the Mise of Amiens, Louis declared in Henry's favour, annulling the Provisions of Oxford; some of the barons who had opposed Henry acquiesced in this verdict, but a more radical faction led by de Montfort prepared to resist any reassertion of royal power, both they and the king gathered their forces for war. Fighting resumed in February 1264, with attacks by Simon de Montfort's sons Henry and Simon on royalist supporters in the Welsh Borders. Cancellation of debts was part of Montfort's call to arms. A series of attacks on Jewish communities followed, organised by key allies of Montfort, hoping to gain by destroying the records of their debts to moneylenders.
These pogroms killed the majority of Jews in Worcester, in this case led by de Montfort's son Henry and Robert Earl Ferrers. At London, one of his key followers John fitz John, led the attack and is said to have killed leading Jewish figures Isaac fil
National Lottery Heritage Fund
The National Lottery Heritage Fund the Heritage Lottery Fund, distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom. Since it was set up in 1994, under the National Lottery Act, it has awarded over £7.1billion to more than 40,000 projects and small, helping people across the UK explore and protect their heritage. The fund supports all kinds of projects, as long as they make a lasting difference for heritage and communities; these vary from restoring natural landscapes to rescuing neglected buildings, from recording diverse community histories to providing life-changing skills training. The income of all the National Lottery distributors comes from the sale of National Lottery tickets. Of every £2 spent on a ticket, 56 pence goes to the "good causes"; the current operator of the National Lottery is Camelot Group. The fund is responsible for distributing 20 per cent of funds raised for "good causes"; this amount varies from year to year, depending on National Lottery income, is in the region of £300m per year.
The Heritage Fund provides grants to not-for-profit organisations in response to applications for funding. It uses a variety of methods to distribute funding. Most of its grants go to voluntary and community organisations which apply within a range of funding programmes. However, in certain cases to meet a specific need, it will seek applications from organisations with recognised expertise or make a substantial grant to a partner to award funds on its behalf. Ninety percent of the fund’s grant decisions are made locally. Decisions about its strategic direction, grant applications over £2million, are made by the Trustees of the NHMF. Funding decisions under £2million are taken by local committees and staff across the nine English regions and in Scotland and Northern Ireland; the Heritage Fund is a non-departmental public body accountable to Parliament via the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport. Although it is not a government department, the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport issues financial and policy directions to the organisation, which reports to Parliament through the Department.
Decisions about individual applications and policies are independent of the Government. The fund is administered by a pre-existing non-departmental public body, the National Heritage Memorial Fund; the chief executive is Ros Kerslake OBE and its board of trustees is chaired by Sir Peter Luff. The Heritage Fund has offices across the UK, its head office is in Holbein Place, London but it has local offices across the English regions and in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Heritage Fund provides grants from £3,000 to over £5million. A complete list of funding programmes can be found on the fund's website, they include: Sharing Heritage Grants from £3,000 to £10,000, to help discover and share local heritage. This can be anything from recording personal memories to conserving wildlife. Our Heritage Grants from £10,000 to £100,000. Projects can focus on anything from personal memories and cultural traditions to archaeological sites, museum collections and rare wildlife. Heritage Grants Grants of over £100,000 for larger heritage projects of any kind.
Examples of high-profile Heritage Grant recipients include: Stonehenge Visitor Centre. It has a range of targeted grant programmes which fund projects with a particular focus, including: First World War, its Heritage Enterprise and Townscape Heritage programmes focus on place-based regeneration. The fund’s Resilient Heritage and Heritage Endowment programmes aim to support the long-term financial sustainability of the UK’s heritage; the Heritage Fund has published research into the value and importance of heritage in the UK today, the role heritage can play in modern life. Recent research includes: Heritage, Place Investing in Success – Heritage and the UK’s tourism economy State of the UK's Public Parks Heritage and the 2020 Knowledge Economy New Ideas Need Old Buildings 20 years in 12 places Official website
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, 20 miles east of Liverpool, 20 miles west of Manchester. The population in 2017 was estimated at 209,700, more than double that of 1968 when it became a New Town. Warrington is the largest town in the county of Cheshire. Warrington was founded by the Romans at an important crossing place on the River Mersey. A new settlement was established by the Saxons. By the Middle Ages, Warrington had emerged as a market town at the lowest bridging point of the river. A local tradition of textile and tool production dates from this time. Part of Lancashire, the expansion and urbanisation of Warrington coincided with the Industrial Revolution after the Mersey was made navigable in the 18th century; the West Coast Main Line runs north to south through the town, the Liverpool to Manchester railway west to east. The Manchester Ship Canal cuts through the south of the borough; the M6, M56 and M62 motorways form a partial box around the town.
The modern Borough of Warrington was formed in 1974 with the amalgamation of the former County Borough of Warrington, part of the Golborne Urban District, the Lymm Urban District, part of the Runcorn Rural District, the Warrington Rural District and part of the Whiston Rural District. Warrington has been a major crossing point on the River Mersey since ancient times and there was a Roman settlement at Wilderspool. Local archaeological evidence indicates. In medieval times Warrington's importance was as a market town and bridging point of the River Mersey; the first reference to a bridge at Warrington is found in 1285. The origin of the modern town was located in the area around St Elphin's Church, now included in the Church Street Conservation Area, established whilst the main river crossing was via a ford 1 km upriver of Warrington Bridge. Warrington was the first paved town in Lancashire, which took place in 1321. Warrington was a fulcrum in the English Civil War; the armies of Oliver Cromwell and the Earl of Derby both stayed near the old town centre.
Popular legend has it that Cromwell lodged near the building which survives on Church Street as the Cottage Restaurant. The Marquis of Granby public house bears a plaque stating that the Earl of Derby'had his quarters near this site'. Dents in the walls of the parish church are rumoured to have been caused by the cannons from the time of the civil war. On 13 August 1651 Warrington was the scene of the last Royalist victory of the civil war when Scots troops under Charles II and David Leslie, Lord Newark, fought Parliamentarians under John Lambert at the Battle of Warrington Bridge; the expansion and urbanisation of Warrington coincided with the Industrial Revolution after the Mersey was made navigable in the 18th century. As Britain became industrialised, Warrington embraced the Industrial Revolution becoming a manufacturing town and a centre of steel, brewing and chemical industries; the navigational properties of the River Mersey were improved, canals were built, the town grew yet more prosperous and popular.
When the age of steam came, Warrington welcomed it, both as a means of transport and as a source of power for its mills. Many people Americans, remember Warrington best as the location of RAF Station Burtonwood Burtonwood RAF base. During World War II, it served as the largest US Army Air Force airfield outside the United States, was visited by major American celebrities like Humphrey Bogart and Bob Hope who entertained the GIs; the RAF station continued in use by the USAAF and subsequently USAF as a staging post for men and material until its closure in 1993. Warrington was designated a new town in 1968 and the town grew in size, with the Birchwood area being developed on the former ROF Risley site. Heavy industry declined in the 1970s and 1980s but the growth of the new town led to a great increase in employment in light industry and technology. On 20 March 1993, the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated two bombs in Warrington town centre; the blasts killed two children: three-year-old Jonathan Ball died and twelve-year-old Tim Parry, from the Great Sankey area died five days in hospital.
Around 56 other people were injured, four seriously. Their deaths provoked widespread condemnation of the organisation responsible; the blast followed a bomb attack a few weeks earlier on a gas-storage plant in Warrington. Tim Parry's father Colin Parry founded The Tim Parry Johnathan Ball Foundation for Peace as part of a campaign to reconcile communities in conflict; the centre opened on the seventh anniversary of the bombing, 20 March 2000. He and his family still live in the town. In 1981, Warrington was the first place to field a candidate for the new Social Democratic Party. On 23 November 1981, an F1/T3 tornado formed over Croft and passed over Warrington town centre, causing some damage. There was a RAF training camp at Padgate, a Royal Naval air base at Appleton Thorn and an army base at the Peninsula Barracks in O'Leary Street; the Territorial Army was based at the Bath Street drill hall. In October 1987, Swedish home products retailer IKEA opened its first British store in the Burtonwood area of the town, bringing more than 200 retail jobs to the area.
In Lancashire, Warrington was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1847 under the Municipal Corporat