Kickapoo people

The Kickapoo People are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe. Anishinaabeg say the name "Kickapoo" means "Stands here and there," which may have referred to the tribe's migratory patterns; the name can mean "wanderer". This interpretation is contested and believed to be a folk etymology. Today there are three federally recognized Kickapoo tribes in the United States: Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas; the Oklahoma and Texas bands are politically associated with each other. The Kickapoo in Kansas came from a relocation from southern Missouri in 1832 as a land exchange from their reserve there. Around 3,000 people are enrolled tribal members. Another band, the Tribu Kikapú, resides in Múzquiz Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Smaller bands live in Durango; the Kickapoo are an Algonquian-language people who migrated to or developed as a people in a large territory along the Wabash River in the area of modern Terre Haute, Indiana.

They were confederated with the larger Wabash Confederacy, which included the Piankeshaw to their south, the Wea to their north, the powerful Miami Tribe, to their east. A subgroup occupied the Upper Iowa River region in what was known as northeast Iowa and the Root River region in southeast Minnesota in the late 1600s and early 1700s; this group was known by the clan name "Mahouea", derived from the Illinoian word for wolf, m'hwea. The earliest European contact with the Kickapoo tribe occurred during the La Salle Expeditions into Illinois Country in the late 17th century; the French colonists set up remote fur trading posts throughout the region, including on the Wabash River. They would set up posts at or near Native American villages, Terre Haute was founded as a French village; the Kickapoo had to contend with a changing cast of Europeans. They increased their own trading with the Kickapoo; the United States acquired this territory east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River after it gained independence from the United Kingdom.

As white settlers moved into the region from the United States eastern areas, beginning in the early 19th century, the Kickapoo were under pressure. They negotiated with the United States over their territory in several treaties, including the Treaty of Vincennes, the Treaty of Grouseland, the Treaty of Fort Wayne, they moved north to settle among the Wea. Rising tensions between the regional tribes and the United States led to Tecumseh's War in 1811; the Kickapoo were one of Tecumseh's closest allies. Many Kickapoo warriors participated in the Battle of Tippecanoe and the subsequent War of 1812 on the side of the British, hoping to expel the American settlers from the region. A prominent, nonviolent spiritual leader among the Kickapoo was Kennekuk, who led his followers during Indian Removal in the 1830s to their current tribal lands in Kansas, he died there in 1852. The close of the war led to a change of federal Indian policy in the Indiana Territory, the state of Indiana. American leaders began to advocate the removal of tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River, to extinguish their claims to lands wanted by American settlers.

The Kickapoo were among the first tribes to leave Indiana under this program. They accepted an annual subsidy in exchange for leaving the state. Kickapoo speak an Algonquian language related to that of the Sauk and Fox, they are classified with the Central Algonquians, are related to the Illinois Confederation. In 1985 the Kickapoo Nation's School in Horton, began a language immersion program for elementary school grades to revive teaching and use of the Kickapoo language in grades K-6. Efforts in language education continue at most Kickapoo sites. In 2010, the Head Start Program at the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas reservation, which teaches the Kickapoo language, became "the first Native American school to earn Texas School Ready! Project certification."Also in 2010, Mexico's "Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia participated in the elaboration of a Kickapoo alphabet that may be used by more than 700 members of the group that dwell in Mexico and the United States, in the states of Coahuila and Texas.

No Kickapoo alphabet was used in Mexico. The Kickapoo in Mexico are known for their whistled speech. Texts, a vocabulary of the language are available; the Kickapoo language and members of the Kickapoo tribe were featured in the movie The Only Good Indian, directed by Greg Wilmott and starring Wes Studi. This was a fictionalized account of Native American children forced to attend an Indian boarding school, where they were forced to speak English and give up their cultures. There are eleven consonant phonemes in Kickapoo: The voiceless sounds can sometimes be voiced as, but infrequently; some speakers may pronounce /tʃ/ as. The eight vowel sounds in Kickapoo are as follows: short /a, ɛ, i, o/ and long /aː, ɛː, iː, oː/. Three of the vowels /a, ɛ, o/, have allophones:. There are three federally recognized Kickapoo communities in the United States: one in Kansas, one in Texas, the third in Oklahoma; the Mexican Kickapoo are tied to the Texas and Oklahoma communities. These groups migrate annually among the three locations to main

Coelotrochus tiaratus

Coelotrochus tiaratus, whose common names include tiara top shell, brown top shell and mitimiti is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The shell grows to a length of 18 mm; the depressed conical shell is deeply false-umbilicate and rather thin. The spire has convex; the apex is acute, lemon yellow when eroded. The 5 to 5½ whorls are nearly planulate, but the upper margin of each whorl is prominent and projecting beyond the periphery of the preceding; the body whorl is carinated at the periphery. The sculpture above consists of spiral lirae, about 5 to 8 on each whorl, cut into close oblique beads; the interstices are obliquely finely striate, one or two of the broader ones with a central riblet. The color of the shell is whitish or yellowish, finely tessellated or articulated with reddish brown The tessellations are formed by the disintegration of narrow radiating stripes, which are on the base continuous; the base of the shell is nearly flat, with seven or eight concentric close fine lines, which are crenulated in a peculiarly irregular manner by distinct short oblique impressed marks.

The interstices are finely radiately striate. The subrhomboidal aperture is smooth within; the columella is oblique, nearly straight, with an obsolete, scarcely perceptible fold above, inserted upon the side of the umbilicus, not in its center. The smooth umbilical area is yellow; the false-umbilicus is deep and narrow, but filled by a white callus, not tapering to a point. Specimens from rocky shores are eroded and encrusted with coralline algae, while those from shell, gravel, or cobble substrata are clean. A grazer of hard surfaces, most abundant among beds of bivalves. Occurs in tidal channels at the mouths of harbours, where it grazes over empty shells of pipis; this marine shell occurs off New Zealand and the Chatham Islands subtidally down to 30m, in a range of habitats. Powell, A. W. B. 1979: New Zealand Mollusca: Marine and Freshwater Shells. Collins, Auckland 500p Marshall, B. A. 1998. A review of the Recent Trochini of New Zealand. Moll. Res.1, 19:73-106 To World Register of Marine Species "Coelotrochus tiaratus". Retrieved 15 January 2019. Bruce A. Marshall and brachiopod taxa introduced by F. W. Hutton in The New Zealand journal of science.

Straight Cliffs Formation

The Straight Cliffs Formation is a stratigraphic unit in the Kaiparowits Plateau of south central Utah. It is Late Cretaceous in age and contains fluvial and marginal marine siliciclastic strata, it is well exposed around the margin of the Kaiparowits Plateau in the Grand StaircaseEscalante National Monument in south central Utah. The formation is named after the Straight Cliffs, a long band of cliffs creating the topographic feature Fiftymile Mountain; the Straight Cliffs Formation was deposited in a marginal marine basin system along the western edge of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. It is bounded below by the Tropic Shale and above by the Wahweap Formation. A variety of fossil species have been found within the Straight Cliffs including ammonites, foraminifera, sharks, amphibians, lizards, crocodyliforms and mammals; the Straight Cliffs Formation overlies the Cenomanian-Turonian Tropic Shale Formation and underlies the Campanian Wahweap Formation. It preserves fluvial and marginal marine strata from the Kaiparowits Basin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway.

The formation is composed of sandstone and has lesser amounts of siltstones, mudstones and conglomerates. It is the partial lateral equivalent of the Mancos Shale formation further east; the Straight Cliffs Formation is latest Turonian to early Campanian in age. The stratigraphy of the formation was studied for its coal resources and has more been studied as an analog for petroleum reservoirs; the stratigraphy of the Straight Cliffs has been analyzed in detail. The Straight Cliffs Formation was deposited in the Kaiparowits Basin of the Western Interior Seaway; the basin received sediment from the Mogollon highlands, the Sevier fold-thrust and the Cordilleran volcanic arc. The Mogollon highlands were mountains in central Arizona; the Sevier fold-thrust belt was a mountain range forming to the west of the Kaiparowits while the Cordilleran volcanic arc was further west in California. Although the Straight Cliffs Fm was deposited in an ancient basin it is preserved in a modern physiographic plateau.

The Kaiparowits Plateau covers 3,600 km2 and preserves strata located 120 km east of the leading edge of the thrust front at the time of deposition. First analyzed for its coal content, the Straight Cliffs Formation was assessed by Gregory and Moore and by Peterson and Vaninetti; the formation has four members in ascending order, the Tibbet Canyon Member, the Smoky Hollow Member, the John Henry Member and the Drip Tank Member. The lithostratigraphy was first examined by Peterson, who broke the John Henry Member into seven sandstone intervals and three coal zones. Shanley and McCabe outlined sequence boundaries and systems tracts for the plateau based on the facies seen on the southern and eastern sides of the plateau; the formation is thought to represent the final transgression of the Tropic Sea. Shanley and McCabe described two major sequence boundaries, which separate the Calico Bed from the underlying shales and the Drip Tank Member from the top of the John Henry Member. In addition they describe two minor sequence boundaries, one within the Tibbet Canyon Member while the other above the A-sandstone within the John Henry Member.

Work done by Allen and Johnson in the Rogers Canyon area reassessed some of the interpretations made by Shanley and McCabe and found multiple retrogradationally stacked parasequences creating overall transgressive-regressive cycles. The Tibbet Canyon Member consists of shallow- marine and estuarine deposits, it is well exposed in the central parts of the Kaiparowits Plateau. The type locality of the Tibbet Canyon Member is near the mouth of Tibbet Canyon, it is about 70–185 ft thick and composed of yellow and gray fine to medium sandstone. The base of the unit is transitional into the underlying Tropic Shale, the top of the member is marked by the contact with overlying mudstones and carbonaceous shales of the Smoky Hollow Member; the member is interpreted as beach and shallow marine deposits. As a whole, it represents the withdrawal of the Tropic Sea; the Smoky Hollow Member ranges from coal-bearing coastal plain strata to braided river strata. It is moderately well exposed along the southern margin of the plateau.

The Smoky Hollow is 24 – 331 feet thick and increases in thickness in the northern corner of the plateau. The top of the formation is distinguished by the Calico Bed, a braided fluvial unit, named for its white and orange coloring; the Calico Bed is a useful marker bed as it is present across the Kaiparowits Plateau and is distinguished in outcrop. The Smoky Hollow was deposited in non-marine environments, including lagoonal, coastal plain, fluvial settings; the John Henry Member is the thickest of the four members of the Straight Cliffs. It contains strata; the lithologies seen include gray shales, sandstones, carbonaceous shales, occasional coals and shell has beds. It ranges in thickness from 200 – 500 meters; the A – F sandstone intervals have been studied in detail on the eastern margin of the plateau and can be correlated to fluvial units in the southwest and coastal plain coals in the center of the plateau. The overlying Drip Tank Member consists of a coarse-grained fluvial facies thought to reflect a braided river environment.

The base of the member creates a bench at the top of the plateau. The upper contact of the Drip Tank grades into the Wahweap Formation creating sloped interval; the Drip Tank is 141 –