SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kiel

Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023. Kiel lies 90 kilometres north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula and the southwestern shore of the Baltic Sea, Kiel has become one of the major maritime centres of Germany. For instance, the city is known for a variety of international sailing events, including the annual Kiel Week, the biggest sailing event in the world. Kiel is known within modern history for the Kiel Mutiny, where German sailors refused to board Navy vessels in protest against Germany's continued fighting in World War I which led to the abdication of the Kaiser and the formation of the Weimar Republic; the Olympic sailing competitions of the 1936 and the 1972 Summer Olympics were held in the Bay of Kiel. Kiel has been one of the traditional homes of the German Navy's Baltic fleet, continues to be a major high-tech shipbuilding centre.

Located in Kiel is the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel at the University of Kiel. Kiel is an important sea transport hub, thanks to its location on the Kiel Fjord and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, Kiel Canal. A number of passenger ferries to Sweden, Norway and other countries operate from here. Moreover, today Port of Kiel is a popular desination for cruise ships touring the Baltic Sea. Kiel's recorded history began in the 13th century, but the city was a Danish village, in the 8th century; until 1864 it was administered by Denmark in personal union. In 1866 the city was annexed by Prussia and in 1871 it became part of Germany. Kiel was one of the founding cities of original European Green Regi51 Award in 2006. In 2005 Kiel's GDP per capita was €35,618, well above Germany's national average, 159% of the European Union's average. Kiel Fjord and the village of Kiel was the last settled by Vikings who wanted to colonise the land that they had raided, for many years they settled in German villages.

This is evidenced by the architecture of the fjord. The city of Kiel was founded in 1233 as Holstenstadt tom Kyle by Count Adolf IV of Holstein, granted Lübeck city rights in 1242 by Adolf's eldest son, John I of Schauenburg. Being a part of Holstein, Kiel belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and was situated only a few kilometres south of the Danish border. Kiel, the capital of the county of Holstein, was a member of the Hanseatic League from 1284 until it was expelled in 1518 for harbouring pirates. In 1431, the Kieler Umschlag was first held, which became the central market for goods and money in Schleswig-Holstein, until it began to lose significance from 1850 on, being held for the last time in 1900, until when it has been restarted; the University of Kiel was founded on 29 September 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. A number of important scholars, including Theodor Mommsen, Felix Jacoby, Hans Geiger and Max Planck, studied or taught there. From 1773 to 1864, the town belonged to the king of Denmark.

However, because the king ruled Holstein as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire only through a personal union, the town was not incorporated as part of Denmark proper. Thus Kiel belonged to Germany. Though the empire was abolished in 1806, the Danish king continued to rule Kiel only through his position as Duke of Holstein, which became a member of the German Confederation in 1815; when Schleswig and Holstein rebelled against Denmark in 1848, Kiel became the capital of Schleswig-Holstein until the Danish victory in 1850. During the Second Schleswig War in 1864, Kiel and the rest of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were conquered by a German Confederation alliance of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the war, Kiel was administered by both the Austrians and the Prussians, but the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 led to the formation of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein and the annexation of Kiel by Prussia in 1867. On 24 March 1865 King William I based Prussia's Baltic Sea fleet in Kiel instead of Danzig.

The Imperial shipyard Kiel was established in 1867 in the town. When William I of Prussia became Emperor William I of the German Empire in 1871, he designated Kiel and Wilhelmshaven as Reichskriegshäfen; the prestigious Kiel Yacht Club was established in 1887 with Prince Henry of Prussia as its patron. Emperor Wilhelm II became its commodore in 1891; because of its new role as Germany's main naval base, Kiel quickly increased in size in the following years, from 18,770 in 1864 to about 200,000 in 1910. Much of the old town centre and other surroundings were levelled and redeveloped to provide for the growing city; the Kiel tramway network, opened in 1881, had been enlarged to 10 lines, with a total route length of 40 km, before the end of the First World War. Kiel was the site of the sailors' mutiny which sparked the German Revolution in late 1918. Just before the end of the First World War, the German fleet stationed at Kiel was ordered to be sent out on a last great battle with the Royal Navy.

The sailors, who thought of this as a suicide mission which would have no effect on the outcome of the war, decided they had nothing to lose and refused to leave the safety of the port. The sailors' actions and the lack of response of the government to them, fuelled by an critical view of the Kaiser, sparked a revolution which caused the abolition of the monarchy and the creation of the Weimar Republic. During the Second World War, Kiel remained one of the major naval bases and shipbuilding centres of t

The voice from sky

The voice from sky are words spoken by Gabriel claimed as one of the signs of Muhammad al-Mahdi's reappearance in Islamic traditions. The voice from sky by Gabriel is amongst five certain signs for reappearance of Muhammad al-Mahdi; the voice will be heard by everyone of his/her own language. Sky is introduced as the sound source in many narrations; the voice will awaken sleeping people. It is mercy for the believers and for disbelievers is the torment Muhammad al-Mahdi will become renowned. Though the voice from sky is claimed as a convinced sign but there is a discrepancy in the event time. According to a narration from Muhammad al-Baqir this voice will be heard in Ramadan before reappearance of Muhammad al-Mahdi. In compliance with Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, as well as others, there is a Hadith which state a synchronicity between reappearance of Muhammad al-Mahdi and the voice from sky. Based on another narration it will happen on twenty-third day of Ramadan; as claimed by most narration, contents of the voice will be about Muhammad al-Mahdi and his characteristics.

Shiite victory will be mentioned. It is been narrated about the voice of Satan at the end of the day of heavenly voice, which its aim is making doubts to follow Muhammad al-Mahdi. Sufyani Al-Yamani Nafs-e-Zakiyyah

Wings of Desire

Wings of Desire is a 1987 romantic fantasy film directed by Wim Wenders. The film is about invisible, immortal angels who populate Berlin and listen to the thoughts of its human inhabitants, comforting the distressed. Though the city is densely populated, many of the people are isolated or estranged from their loved ones. One of the angels, played by Bruno Ganz, falls in love with a beautiful, lonely trapeze artist, played by Solveig Dommartin; the angel chooses to become mortal so that he can experience human sensory pleasures, ranging from enjoying food to touching a loved one, so that he can discover human love with the trapeze artist. Inspired by art depicting angels visible around West Berlin, at the time enclaved by the Berlin Wall and author Peter Handke conceived of the story and continued to develop the screenplay throughout the French and German co-production; the film was shot by Henri Alekan in both colour and a sepia-toned black-and-white, the latter being used to represent the world as seen by the angels.

The cast includes Curt Bois and Peter Falk. For Wings of Desire, Wenders won awards for Best Director at both the Cannes Film Festival and European Film Awards; the film was a critical and financial success, academics have interpreted it as a statement of the importance of cinema, the circus, or German unity, containing New Age, secular or other themes. It was followed by a sequel, Faraway, So Close!, released in 1993. City of Angels, a U. S. remake, was released in 1998. In 1990, numerous critics named Wings of Desire as one of the best films of the 1980s. In a Berlin divided by the Berlin Wall, two angels and Cassiel, watch the city and unheard by its human inhabitants, they observe and listen to the thoughts of Berliners, including a pregnant woman in an ambulance on the way to the hospital, a young prostitute standing by a busy road, a broken man who feels betrayed by his wife. Their raison d'être is, as Cassiel says, to "assemble, preserve" reality. Damiel and Cassiel have always existed as angels.

Among the Berliners they encounter in their wanderings is an old man named Homer, who dreams of an "epic of peace". Cassiel follows the old man as he looks for the then-demolished Potsdamer Platz in an open field, finds only the graffiti-covered Wall. Although Damiel and Cassiel are pure observers, visible only to children, incapable of any interaction with the physical world, Damiel begins to fall in love with a profoundly lonely circus trapeze artist named Marion, she lives by herself in a caravan in West Berlin, until she receives the news that her group, the Circus Alekan, will be closing down. Depressed, she dances alone to the music of Crime & the City Solution, drifts through the city. Meanwhile, actor Peter Falk arrives in West Berlin to make a film about the city's Nazi past. Falk was once an angel, having grown tired of always observing and never experiencing, renounced his immortality to become a participant in the world. Growing weary of infinity, Damiel's longing is for the genuineness and limits of human existence.

He meets Marion in a dream, is surprised when Falk senses his presence and tells him about the pleasures of human life. Damiel is persuaded to shed his immortality, he experiences life for the first time: he bleeds, sees colours, tastes food and drinks coffee. Meanwhile, Cassiel taps into the mind of a young man just about to commit suicide by jumping off a building. Cassiel tries to save the young man but is unable to do so, is left tormented by the experience. Sensing Cassiel's presence, Falk reaches out to him as he had Damiel, but Cassiel is unwilling to follow their example. Damiel meets the trapeze artist Marion at a bar during a concert by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, she greets him and speaks about finding a love, serious and can make her feel complete; the next day, Damiel considers how his time with Marion taught him to feel amazed, how he has gained knowledge no angel is capable of achieving. After living and working in the United States for eight years, director Wim Wenders returned to his native West Germany and wished to reconnect to it with a film about his favourite part of it, West Berlin.

Planning to make Until the End of the World in 1985, he realised the project would not be ready for two years, wishing to return to photography as soon as possible, he considered another project. Rainer Maria Rilke's poetry inspired the story. Wenders claimed angels seemed to dwell in Rilke's poetry, the director had jotted "angels" in his notes one day, noted angel-themed artwork in cemeteries and around Berlin. In his treatment, Wenders considered a backstory in which God exiled his angels to Berlin as punishment for defending humans after 1945, when God had decided to forsake them. Wenders employed Peter Handke, who wrote much of the dialogue, the poetic narrations, the film's recurring poem "Song of Childhood". Wenders found the names Damiel and Cassiel in an encyclopedia about angels, had photographs of Solveig Dommartin, Bruno Ganz and Otto Sander that served as muses; the idea that angels could read minds led to Wenders considering personal dialogue no one would say aloud. Wenders did not view the angel protagonist as representative of himself, instead deciding the angel could be an embodiment of film, that the purpose of film could be to help people by opening their eyes to possibilities.

Handke did not feel able to write a single coherent story, but promised to send notes on ideas during production. Screenwriter Richard Reitinger assisted Wenders in scripting scenes around Handke's contrib