Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Maruyama Ōkyo, born Maruyama Masataka, was a Japanese artist active in the late 18th century. He moved to Kyoto, during which he studied artworks from Chinese and Western sources. A personal style of Western naturalism mixed with Eastern decorative design emerged, Ōkyo founded the Maruyama school of painting. Although many of his fellow artists criticized his work as too slavishly devoted to natural representation, it proved a success with laymen. Ōkyo was born into a farming family in Ano-o, in present-day Kameoka, Kyoto. As a teenager, he joined the townspeople class, he apprenticed for a toy shop. The shop began selling European stereoscopes, novelties that when looked into presented the illusion of a three-dimensional image, it was Ōkyo's first look at Western-style perspective, in 1767 he tried his hand at one of the images. He created a small picture in single-point perspective. Ōkyo soon mastered the techniques of drawing stereoscope images.Ōkyo decided to pursue a career as an artist. He first studied under Ishida Yūtei, a member of the Kanō school and a bigger influence on Ōkyo than the stereoscope images.
During these formative years, Ōkyo studied Chinese painting as well. He admired the works of Ch'ien Hsüan, a 13th-century painter known for his detailed flower drawings, Qiu Ying, a 16th-century figure painter. In fact, the "kyo" in Ōkyo's name was adopted in tribute to Ch'ien Hsüan. Ōkyo briefly adopted the Chinese practice of signing his name with one character, so for a time he was known as Ōkyo En. He studied the works of Shen Quan, a Chinese artist who lived in Nagasaki from 1731 to 1733 and painted images of flowers. However, Ōkyo did not like the artist's treatment of proportion, preferring the works of Watanabe Shikō, he studied Ming and Qing paintings. Most Ōkyo eagerly studied any Western paintings or prints he could find. Ōkyo's first major commission came in 1768 from Yūjō, abbot of a temple in Ōtsu called Enman'in. Over the next three years, Ōkyo painted The Seven Misfortunes and Seven Fortunes, a depiction of the results of both bad and good karma; the three scrolls total about 148 ft in length.
Ōkyo tried to find models for the people depicted in them for the shocking images such as a man being ripped in two by frightened bulls. His introduction to the work states that he believed that people needed to see reality, not imaginary images of Nirvana or Hell, if they were to believe in Buddhist principles. Other painters were critical of Ōkyo's style, they found it to be overly concerned with physical appearances, alleging that he was too beholden to the real world and produced undignified works. His style proved popular with the public, commissions came in to do Western-style landscapes, decorative screens, nudes, he used them for material in his paintings. Ōkyo was the first Japanese artist to do life drawings from nude models. The subject was still considered pornographic in Japan. During his career he painted for wealthy merchants, the shogunate the emperor; the public's perception of Ōkyo's skill is evident in a legend recounted by Van Briessen. The story goes. Once the work was completed, the ghost image flew away.
Success prompted Ōkyo to start a school in Kyoto. He was a talented art teacher, he soon took on many students, he taught them to rely on nature to render images in a realistic picture of light and forms. The school grew popular, branches soon appeared in other locations, including Osaka. Much of the school's work is today preserved at a temple in Kasumi. Noteworthy pupils include Ōkyo's son, Maruyama Ōzui, Nagasawa Rosetsu, Matsumura Goshun. Goshun joined Ōkyo's school in 1787; that year, the Maruyama school took a commission to paint screens for Daijō-ji. That year, Kyoto suffered a devastating fire, so Ōkyo and Goshun moved into a temple called Kiunin; the two became fast friends, Ōkyo refused to regard their relationship as that of a teacher and student. Goshun went on to found the Shijō school. Ōkyo's painting style merged a tranquil version of Western naturalism with the Eastern decorative painting of the Kanō school. His works show a Western understanding of shadow, his realism differed from previous Japanese schools in its devotion to nature as the ultimate source with no regard for sentiment.
Ōkyo's intricately detailed plant and animal sketches show a great influence from European nature drawings. An album of leaves in the Nishimura Collection in Kyoto depicts several animals and plants, each labeled as if in European guidebook. Still, Ōkyo's works remain Japanese. Unlike European painting, Ōkyo's images have few midtones. Moreover, he follows the Eastern tradition in depicting objects with little setting; the result is a more immediate naturalism with a reflective feel. This was achieved through skillful brush handling; this created broad strokes. Nature was not his only subject, his Geese Alighting on Water, painted at Enman'in, Ōtsu in 1767, is an early example of his mature style. The subject is treated as a part of nature.
The Kanō school is one of the most famous schools of Japanese painting. The Kanō school of painting was the dominant style of painting from the late 15th century until the Meiji period which began in 1868, by which time the school had divided into many different branches; the Kanō family itself produced a string of major artists over several generations, to which large numbers of unrelated artists trained in workshops of the school can be added. Some artists married into the family and changed their names, others were adopted. According to the historian of Japanese art Robert Treat Paine, "another family which in direct blood line produced so many men of genius... would be hard to find". The school began by reflecting a renewed influence from Chinese painting, but developed a brightly coloured and outlined style for large panels decorating the castles of the nobility which reflected distinctively Japanese traditions, while continuing to produce monochrome brush paintings in Chinese styles, it was supported by the shogunate representing an official style of art, which "in the 18th century monopolized the teaching of painting".
It drew on the Chinese tradition of literati painting by scholar-bureaucrats, but the Kanō painters were professional artists generously paid if successful, who received a formal workshop training in the family workshop, in a similar way to European painters of the Renaissance or Baroque. They worked for the nobility, shōguns and emperors, covering a wide range of styles and formats. Innovative, responsible for the new types of painting of the Momoyama period, from the 17th century the artists of the school became conservative and academic in their approach; the school was founded by the long-lived Kanō Masanobu, the son of Kagenobu, a samurai and amateur painter. Masanobu was a contemporary of Sesshū, a leader of the revival of Chinese influence, who had visited China in mid-career, in around 1467. Sesshū may have been a student of Shūbun, recorded from about 1414 and 1465, another key figure in the revival of Chinese idealist traditions in Japanese painting. Masanobu began his career in Shūbun's style, works are recorded between 1463 and 1493.
He was appointed court artist to the Muromachi government, his works evidently included landscape ink wash paintings in a Chinese style, as well as figure paintings and birds and flowers. Few works from his hand survive. Masanobu's Chinese-style Zhou Maoshu Appreciating Lotuses in the Kyushu National Museum is a National Treasure of Japan. Masanobu trained his sons the younger Yukinobu. Motonobu is credited with establishing the school's distinctive technique and style, or rather different styles, which brought a firmer line and stronger outlines to paintings using Chinese conventions. Less interest was taken in subtle effects of atmospheric recession that in the Chinese models, elements in the composition tend to be placed at the front of the picture space achieving decorative effects in a distinctively Japanese way. Motonobu married the daughter of Tosa Mitsunobu, the head of the Tosa school, which continued the classic Japanese yamato-e style of narrative and religious subjects, Kanō paintings subsequently included more traditional Japanese subjects typical of that school.
The school was instrumental in developing new forms of painting for decorating the new styles of castles of the new families of daimyōs that emerged in the struggles of the Azuchi–Momoyama period of civil war that ended with the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603. The new lords had risen to power by military skill, lacked immersion in the sophisticated traditions of Japanese culture long cultivated in Buddhist monasteries and the Imperial court. Bold and vigorous styles using bright colour on a gold leaf background appealed to the taste of these patrons, were applied to large folding screens and sets of sliding doors. In the grandest rooms most of the walls were painted, although interrupted by wooden beams, with some designs continuing regardless of these. Many examples in castles have been lost to fires, whether accidental or caused in war, but others were painted for monasteries, or given to them from castles, which if they survived World War II bombing have had a better chance of survival.
Common subjects were landscapes as a background for animals and dragons, or birds, trees or flowers, or compositions with a few large figures, but crowded panoramic scenes from a high viewpoint were painted. The animals and plants shown had moral or political significance, not always obvious today; some of the most famous examples of castle decoration can be found at the Nijō Castle in Kyoto. In 1588 the warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi is said to have assembled a walkway between 100 painted screens as the approach to a flower party. That, unlike scrolls, sliding doors were by convention not signed, screens only considerably complicates the business of attributing works to painters who were able to paint in several styles. At the same time the school continued to paint monochrome ink-on-s
The Zenken Kojitsu is a collection of biographies of Japanese historical figures by Kikuchi Yōsai, first published from the late Edo period into the Meiji period. It consists of twenty books in total. Moving through time from antiquity through the Nanboku-chō period, it contains portraits and rough biographies in kanbun of 585 Imperial family members, loyal retainers, historical heroines, it was groundbreaking for its visualizations of Japanese historical figures and has been treasured as a bible for historical art since the rise in national consciousness of the middle Meiji period. According to a postscript by Yōsai's grandson Kikuchi Takeku, Yōsai began writing the series in 1818 and finished in 1868. Meanwhile, a foreword by the Confucian scholar Matsuda Nobuyuki noted that the manuscript had been completed, so it may be assumed that an initial draft was complete by that time. Additionally, the first edition of Volume 2, Book 4 was released in 1843, but after that publication stalled for business reasons.
The series was not released in complete form until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868. According to the introduction of the series, it seems that Yōsai had intended to create an additional volume of historical investigations. In 1903, Takeku and the editor Yamashita Shigetani released a version called the Kōshō Zenken Kojitsu, which contained an additional volume of investigations into the systems and customs of old Japan for a total of 11 volumes; the style of the work is based on the biographical portraits of Chinese artists such as Shangguan Zhou. In the creation of the sketches, Yōsai borrowed from the patterns of the Shūko Jisshu and emulated respected artists of the past, such as Ariwara no Narihira and Ono no Michikaze. However, some of his sketches held by the Tokyo National Museum show that he used models to capture poses. In addition, a bibliography at the end of Volume 10 lists 264 different texts used for background research, including history books including the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki and literature including the Kokin Wakashū and The Tale of Genji.
Additionally, the Tokyo National Museum possesses a version of the Zenken Kojitsu that includes sketches of the references used on each page, providing the sources for the costumes and possessions of the illustrated figures. In 1850, a special copy of one book of the Zenken Kojitsu made its way, through the regent Takatsukasa Masamichi, to the eyes of Emperor Kōmei. Additionally, in 1868, a woodblock print copy of the complete series was presented to Emperor Meiji by Sanjō Sanetomi and Higashikuze Michitomi. For his achievement, Yōsai was in 1875 granted the title of Master Painter of Japan. However, it is important to note that this achievement is recorded only in documents associated with Yōsai himself, has not been confirmable based on official documents; the Zenken Kojitsu had an immense impact on the art historical art, of the Meiji period, in which it was used as an iconic reference and textbook on the systems and customs of old Japan. The historical researcher and painter Seki Yasunosuke recalled that "it wouldn't be an exaggeration to say that in those days, there wasn't a single historical artist who didn't study the Zenken Kojitsu."
Those who borrowed from his style included not only his students, including Matsumoto Fūko, Watanabe Shōtei, Suzuki Kason, but other Japanese painters like Hashimoto Gahō and Kobori Tomoto. Kajita Hango, who adored Yōsai's work, taught his students by making them copy the Zenken Kojitsu, producing excellent historical painters such as Seison Maeda and Kokei Kobayashi; the ukiyo-e woodblock prints of the Meiji era frequently borrowed from the Zenken Kojitsu. Tsukioka Yoshitoshi adopted some of its techniques as early as 1867 in his Shuzōsuikomeimei-den, his works continued to show its influence. Yoshitoshi, who once aspired to be Yōsai's disciple, transformed Yōsai's scrupulous style into more intense scenes through dynamic compositions and strong colors. Yoshitoshi's pupils Toshihide Migita and Mizuno Toshikata, along with other artists of the period such as Kobayashi Kiyochika and Ogata Gekkō reflected the its influence, making the Zenken Kojitsu a basis for the ukiyo-e art of the period; the influence of the Zenken Kojitsu reached into the fields of sculpture and Western-style paintings.
The historical paintings of the Western-style artists of the Meiji Bijutsu-kai, such as Honda Kinkichirō and Ishii Teiko reflect its influence. Hara Bushō diligently copied the Zenken Kojitsu in his youth, according to his friend Miyake Kokki, his comrades at art school did likewise; the sculptor Sano Akira, who studied under Vincenzo Ragusa, made a sculpture of Umashimaji-no-mikoto, the ancestor god of the Mononobe clan, which shows the effect of the Zenken Kojitsu, is now in the Hamarikyu Gardens. The Zenken Kojitsu made its mark on public education. Various educational materials, including the 1881 book of ethics Yōgaku-Kōyō, edited by Motoda Nagasane and illustrated by Matsumoto Fūko, the 1891 elementary-school history textbook Higher elementary school history, illustrated by the Western-style artist Indō Matate, show its influence in their depictions of historical heroes. In the early 20th century, though this popular work became old-fashioned. Shikō Imamura, Yasuda Yukihiko, Maeda Seison, Kokei Kobayashi, the other members of the next generation of Japanese historical art, the disciples of Yōsai's disciples, continued to produce works based on the Zenken Kojitsu while they studied.
However, as their focus shifted away from historical accuracy and the investigation of customs