The Kikuyu is the largest ethnic group in Kenya. They speak the Bantu Kikuyu language. At a population of 8.1 million as of 2019, they account for close to 17% of the total population of Kenya. The term Kikuyu is derived from the Swahili form of the word Gĩkũyũ. Gĩkũyũ means "large sycamore tree". Hence Agĩkũyũ in the Kikuyu language translates to "children of the huge sycamore"; the alternative name Nyũmba ya Mũmbi translates to House of the Creator. Agĩkũyũ can be a shortened form of Mũũgĩ kũrĩ ũyũ, hence "one, wise to others"; the Kikuyu belong to the Northeastern Bantu branch. Their language is most related to that of the Embu and Mbeere. Geographically, they are concentrated in the vicinity of Mount Kenya; the exact place that the Northeast Bantu speakers migrated from after the initial Bantu expansion is uncertain. Some authorities suggest that the Kikuyu arrived in their present Mount Kenya area of habitation from earlier settlements further to the north and east, while others argue that the Kikuyu, along with their related Eastern Bantu neighbors the Embu, Meru and Kamba moved into Kenya from points further north.
From archaeological evidence, their arrival at the northern side of Mt. Kenya dates to around the 3rd century, as part of the larger group known as Thagicu. By the 6th century, there was a community of Agikuyu newly established at Gatung'ang'a in Nyeri; the Agikuyu established themselves in their current homeland of Mt. Kenya region by the 13th century. Before the establishment of East Africa Protectorate in the 1880s, the Agĩkũyũ preserved geographic and political power from all external influence for many generations. Before the arrival of the British, Arabs involved in slave trade and their caravans passed at the southern edges of the Agĩkũyũ nation. Slavery as an institution did not exist amongst the Agĩkũyũ, nor did they make raids for the capture of slaves; the Arabs who tried to venture into Agĩkũyũ land met instant death. Relying on a combination of land purchases, blood-brotherhood, intermarriage with other people, their adoption and absorption, the Agĩkũyũ were in a constant state of territorial expansion.
Economically, the Agĩkũyũ were shrewd businesspeople. Besides farming and business, the Agĩkũyũ were involved in small scale industries with professions such as bridge building, string making, wire drawing, iron chain making; the Agĩkũyũ had a great sense of justice. The Agĩkũyũ nation was divided into nine clans; each clan traced its lineage to a daughter of Mumbi. The clans were not restricted to any particular geographical area, they lived side by side; some clans had a recognised leader, others did not. However, in either case, real political power was exercised by the ruling council of elders for each clan; each clan forwarded the leader of its council to the apex council of elders for the whole community. The overall council of elders representing all the clans, was led by a headman or the nation's spokesman; the Gĩkũyũ were – and still are – monotheists believing in an omnipotent God whom they refer to as Ngai. All of the Gĩkũyũ, Kamba use this name. Ngai was known as Mũrungu by the Meru and Embu tribes, or Mũlungu.
The title Mwathani or Mwathi comes from the word gwatha meaning to rule or reign with authority, was and is still used. All sacrifices to Ngai were performed under a sycamore tree and if one was not available, a fig tree would be used; the olive tree was a sacred tree for women. Ngai or Mwene-Nyaga is giver of all things, he created the first Gĩkũyũ communities, provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain and animals. Ngai cannot be seen but is manifested in the sun, stars and meteors, thunder and lightning, rainbows, in the great fig trees; these trees served as places of worship and sacrifice and marked the spot at Mũkũrũe wa Gathanga where Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi – the ancestors of the Gĩkũyũ in the oral legend – first settled. Ngai has human characteristics, although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, Gĩkũyũ lore says that Ngai comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings, mete out punishment; when he comes, Ngai rests on Mount Kilimambogo.
Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of Ngai and lightning is the weapon used by Ngai to clear the way when moving from one sacred place to another. Some people believe. In one legend, Ngai made the mountain his resting place while on an inspection tour of earth. Ngai took the first man, Gikuyu, to the top to point out the beauty of the land he was giving him; the cardinal points in this Traditional Gĩkũyũ Religion Philosophy were squarely based on the general Bantu peoples thought as follows: The universe is composed of interacting and interconnected forces whose manifestation is the physical things we see, including ourselves and those we don't see. All those forces in the universe came from God who, from the beginning of time, have had the vital divine force of creation within himself. Everything created by God retains a bond from God to the created; the first humans who were created by God have the strongest vital force because they got it directly from God. Because these first humans sit just below God in power, they are like Gods or can be Gods.
The current parent of an individual is the link to God through the immediate dead and through ancestors. On Earth, humans have
"Dumb Love" is a song by American recording artist Sean Kingston. The song was released as the third single from Kingston's third studio album, Back 2 Life, but was taken off for unknown reasons, it was released on September 2010 as a digital download in the United States. It has peaked at number 84 on the Billboard Hot 100 and 92 on the Canadian Hot 100; the song rose to popularity due to Sean's appearance and performance of the song on The Suite Life on Deck. The song was written by Carlos Battey and The Smeezingtons; the song's chorus interpolates elements from "Come Go With Me" by The Del-Vikings, as written by Clarence Quick. The single was released on iTunes on September 7, 2010. Kingston sang the song on The Suite Life on Deck episode Party On!, which he guest starred on, in order to win London Tipton's affection. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Kevin James Wilson is a Northern Irish former professional footballer who played as a striker. His last job was at Nuneaton Town. Born in Banbury, Wilson started his career at Southern League club Banbury United, before signing for Derby County in 1979 for £20,000, which remains the record transfer fee received by Banbury. After Derby he played for Ipswich, Notts County, Bradford City and Northampton Town. At international level, Wilson played for Northern Ireland 42 times, scoring six goals, he is a former manager of Bedford Town, Kettering Town and Hucknall Town. He was the manager of Corby Town until January 2008. On 1 June 2009 he was appointed manager of Conference North side Ilkeston Town. In May 2015 Wilson left Ilkeston to become manager of Nuneaton Town, following their relegation from the Conference Premier. In 2014–15 he had led Ilkeston to the Northern Premier League play-off final, where they lost to Curzon Ashton. Walsall Football League Third Division runner-up: 1994–95 Kevin Wilson at Soccerbase Kevin Wilson management career statistics at Soccerbase
I Am a Singer is a Chinese reality show broadcast on Hunan Television. It is based on I Am a Singer the Korean show with the same name; the competition was opened to well-known professional singers from the music industry across worldwide, featured a rotating cast of singers performing each week with seven singers, who performed in front of a 500-member audience. The votes cast from the audience were the sole determinant for the results and one singer who received the fewest votes is eliminated while a new singer substituted in place of that singer, featuring a changinng lineup of artist throughout the series; the first season featured 12 contestants, but increased to as many as 17 due to twists and competition rules added in seasons. The inaugural series was first taped on 10 January 2013 and premiered on 18 January 2013. After four seasons under the name of I Am a Singer, in 2017, the competition went on a re-branding with a simplified title of Singer, but retaining similar competition format.
The eighth and current season of I Am a Singer, entitled Singer 2020, or Singer: Year of the Hits, began taping on January 3, 2020. Each round of I Am a Singer had seven singers; the order that they performed was determined through ballot or based on prior performances, depending on each week. Each audience member cast votes for the top three singers of their preference, these votes were tabulated to determine each singer's placement for the night. Since season 7, with the implementation of Electronic voting, each scores accounted a 50% weightage towards final results; each season of I Am a Singer was divided into four or five rounds, which consist of non-elimination "Qualifiers" and "Knockouts". Votes were accumulative on both rounds and the singer receiving a lower count of votes at the end of the Knockout round was eliminated. Eliminated singers were entitled to a Returning Performance on the next show and a chance to return to the competition via the Breakout Round, though eliminations could be cancelled if another singer chose to withdraw from the competition, or if any contestant was given a bye due to health conditions.
At the end of each round, a new singer would take the place of the eliminated/withdrawn singer and the competition cycle would repeat until the final Knockout round was completed. At the end of the episode a table was shown to indicate the rankings; as part of the "2+1" format introduced in the third season, the "Challenge" round followed each Knockout round, where the number of rounds was one less than that of Knockout rounds. A new singer would substitute for an eliminated singer during the start of the round, was given a challenge in which the singer was required to beat a majority of the singers or facing elimination. Season 5 replaced Qualifiers with Challenge rounds after the first Knockout round to accommodate two substitute singers coming to the competition. Season 6 temporarily revised the format, where the challenger enters the competition during the Knockouts and had to avoid last place on their first week in addition to finishing in the top four on the second week. However, in Season 7, due to the season-exclusive Pre-Challenge Face-off, the challenge round format was reverted to the season 3 to 5 format, with the challenger winning the face-off facing the Challenge round.
The Challenge round was absent instead replacing with another variant round. "Breakout" round follows after the last Knockout round, which featured eliminated singers performing for a chance to return to the game and take part in the finals. During the inaugural season, Breakout rounds was called "Revival" and all remaining singers were exempt from this round, leaving eliminated singers to compete for the only place in the Semi-Finals. Beginning in the second season, the rules were modified for the remaining singers based on the entry status: initial singers were exempt from the Breakout rounds while other singers were required to participate the Breakout round to vie for the number of places, determined by how many initial singers were exempt, to complete the sever-singer lineup; the outcome was decided on which singers received a higher count of votes, the singers who were successful on the "Breakouts" were qualified in the Finals. Since Season 6, additional twists were featured where singers receiving a lower count of votes in a prior voting losing the Breakout regardless of the outcome.
The last stage of the competition, the Finals, was divided into Semi-Finals
The Play-offs of the 2008 Fed Cup Americas Zone Group II were the final stages of the Group II Zonal Competition involving teams from the Americas. Using the positions determined in their pools, the thirteen teams faced off to determine their placing in the 2008 Fed Cup Americas Zone Group II; the top two teams advanced to Group I for next year. The first placed teams of each pool were placed against each other in two head-to-head rounds; the winner of the rounds advanced to Group I for 2009. The second-placed teams from each pool were drawn in head-to-head rounds to find the fifth and seventh placed teams; the third-placed teams from each pool were drawn in head-to-head rounds to find the ninth and eleventh placed teams. As there was only three teams from Pools A, B and C as opposed to the four from Pool D, the last-placed team from Pool D had no equivalent to play against, thus the Bermudians were automatically allocated thirteenth place. Venezuela and Bahamas advanced to the Americas Zone Group I for the next year.
The Bahamians placed fifth overall, meaning that they were relegated back to Group II for 2010, while the Venezuelans did not compete. Fed Cup structure Fed Cup website
William Kamkwamba is a Malawian innovator and author. He gained fame in his country in 2002 when he built a wind turbine to power multiple electrical appliances in his family's house in Wimbe, 32 km east of Kasungu, using blue gum trees, bicycle parts, materials collected in a local scrapyard. Since he has built a solar-powered water pump that supplies the first drinking water in his village and two other wind turbines, the tallest standing at 12 meters, is planning two more, including one in Lilongwe, the political capital of Malawi. Kamkwamba was born in a family of relative poverty and relied on farming to survive, he enjoyed playing with his friends and Geoffrey, using recycled materials. According to his autobiography, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind, his father had been an aggressive man who changed after becoming a Christian. A crippling famine forced Kamkwamba to drop out of school, he was not able to return to school because his family was unable to afford the tuition fee. In a desperate attempt to retain his education, Kamkwamba began to visit the local school library.
It was there. Before, he had once set up a small business repairing his village's radios, but this work did not earn him much money. Kamkwamba, after reading a book called Using Energy, decided to create a makeshift wind turbine, he experimented with a small model using a cheap dynamo and made a functioning wind turbine that powered some electrical appliances in his family's house. Local farmers and journalists investigated the spinning device and Kamkwamba's fame in international news skyrocketed. A blog about his accomplishments was written on Hacktivate and Kamkwamba took part in the first event celebrating his particular type of ingenuity called Maker Faire Africa, in Ghana in August 2009; when The Daily Times in Blantyre, the commercial capital, wrote a story on Kamkwamba's wind turbine in November 2006, the story circulated through the blogosphere, TED conference director Emeka Okafor invited Kamkwamba to talk at TEDGlobal 2007 in Arusha, Tanzania as a guest. His speech moved the audience, several venture capitalists at the conference pledged to help finance his secondary education.
His story was covered by Sarah Childress for The Wall Street Journal. He became a student at African Bible College Christian Academy in Lilongwe, he went on to receive a scholarship to the African Leadership Academy and in 2014 graduated from Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Among other appearances, Kamkwamba was interviewed on The Daily Show on 7 October 2009. In addition, he was invited to and attended the 2011 Google Science Fair introductory meeting, where he was a guest speaker. Kamkwamba's book, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind, was selected as the 2013 "1 Book, 1 Community" title for Loudoun County, Virginia's Public Library system. "1book 1community is a countywide reading program that promotes community dialog and understanding through the shared experience of reading and discussing the same book." Copies of the book were purchased from the A. V. Symington and Irwin Uran Gift Funds. Kamkwamba is the subject of the documentary film William and the Windmill, which won the Grand Jury Prize for Best Documentary Feature at the 2013 South By Southwest film festival in Austin, Texas.
In 2010, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind was selected as the University of Florida and Boise State University common book, required for all incoming students to read. In 2014, it was selected as the common book at Auburn University and University of Michigan College of Engineering, as well. William made an appearance at each university to discuss his life. In 2013 TIME magazine named Kamkwamba one of the "30 People Under 30 Changing The World". Kamkwamba is featured in the book Extraordinary People by Michael Hearst and is the subject of a song from the companion album Songs For Extraordinary People. In 2014, Kamkwamba received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Environmental Studies from Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire where he was elected to the Sphinx Senior Honor Society. In 2019, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind was adapted into a film, starring Chiwetel Ejiofor, who wrote and directed. William Kamkwamba's blog The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope Moving Windmills William Kamkwamba on Twitter William Kamkwamba at TED William Kamkwamba talks at MIT William Kamkwamba on IMDb Works by or about William Kamkwamba in libraries