Tommaso Whitney is an American professional wrestler who performs under the ring name Tommaso Ciampa. He is signed to WWE, where he is on the NXT brand, he is a former NXT Champion and NXT Tag Team Champion, making him one of only three wrestlers to have won both titles. He is best known for his work in Ring of Honor, where he is a former World Television Champion, several other independent promotions, including Beyond Wrestling, Chaotic Wrestling, Top Rope Promotions, Pro Wrestling Guerrilla. Whitney was trained by WWE Hall of Famer Killer Kowalski, debuted in January 2005, he predominantly wrestled for independent promotions located in Massachusetts, most notably Chaotic Wrestling and Top Rope Promotions. On May 22, 2005, he wrestled an IWF Junior Heavyweight Championship match against champion Sean Royal, but was unsuccessful; that day he failed to win a battle royal to earn the number one contendership to the IWF Heavyweight Championship. Whitney debuted in Chaotic Wrestling as "Tommy Penmanship" in 2005.
On April 1, he lost a qualifying match for entry in the Chaotic Wrestling Heavyweight Championship Tournament to Fred Sampson. In June, Penmanship teamed with Arch Kincaid to unsuccessfully challenge the Logan Brothers for the Chaotic Wrestling Tag Team Championship. Penmanship won his first championship on August 8, by defeating Chase del Monte for the Chaotic Wrestling New England Championship, he held it for half a year defending it against former del Monte, Jason Blade, Psycho, before losing it to Psycho at Cold Fury 5. Penmanship spent a couple of months without winning a singles match losing to Matt Logan and Psycho, but alongside Psycho, he won a Lethal Lottery Tournament first round match. Penmanship and Psycho qualified for a battle royal to determine the number one contender to the CW Heavyweight Championship, but the match was won by Luis Ortiz. At Breaking Point 2006 Penmanship lost to Psycho once again in a Psycho Rules match with Tommy Dreamer as the special referee. On May 19, Penmanship became Chaotic Wrestling Heavyweight Champion.
As the Chaotic Heavyweight champion Penmanship defeated del Monte and Max Bauer. He held the Championship until February 2007, when he lost it to Brian Milonas in a "Loser leaves CW" match, he appeared on the July 14, 2005, episode of SmackDown as Thomas Whitney, ESQ one of Muhammad Hassan's lawyers and confronted The Undertaker. Tommaso read a statement from Hassan before being attacked by The Undertaker. On the December 17 episode of Velocity, under the ring name Demarso Whitney, he was defeated by Jamie Noble. On the August 25, 2006 episode of Heat he and Kofi Kingston had a dark match against Lance Cade and Trevor Murdoch. On February 4, 2007, it was announced that Whitney signed a developmental contract with WWE and was sent to Ohio Valley Wrestling, he wrestled as Tommaso. After suffering an injury, he was forced to step away from in ring competition and became known as Dr. Thomas, Anger Management Specialist – during which time he managed Bolin Services, winning the OVW tag team titles.
Dr Thomas would make his in ring debut during a 6-man tag at Six Flags, tagging with Bolin Services to take on Elijah Burke and Cryme Tyme. On June 27, 2007, Whitney debuted a new gimmick. On August 9, Whitney was released from his WWE developmental contract. In late 2007, he returned to the independent circuit. On September 29 Tommaso defeated A. J. Styles and Eddie Edwards to become the MWF Television Champion. In September 2008 Ciampa debuted in Harley Race's World League Wrestling. In October he took part in Nine Man Battle Royal for the vacant WLW Heavyweight Championship, won by Go Shiozaki. Ciampa unsuccessfully challenged WLW Tag Team Championship twice: on November 22, 2008 alongside Steve Anthony and on March 21, 2009 alongside Marc Godeker. After returning to New England in 2008, Ciampa went on to compete in the ECWA Super 8 Tournament in 2009 and 2010 before winning the tournament in 2011 when he defeated Adam Cole. On August 30, 2013, Ciampa made his debut for Pro Wrestling Guerrilla, when he entered the 2013 Battle of Los Angeles, losing to Brian Cage in his first round match.
At Honor Reclaims Boston he, Alex Payne and Ernie Osiris lost a dark match to Bobby Dempsey, Grizzly Redwood and Rhett Titus. Ciampa appeared in dark matches for Ring of Honor in both 2007 and 2009. In January 2011, Ciampa began working for ROH. On the January 22 Ring of Honor Wrestling tapings, he defeated Mike Sydal, he joined Prince Nana in his heel stable The Embassy. He defeated Adam Cole and Grizzly Redwood. On April 1 he debuted on internet pay-per-view at Honor Takes Center Stage Night One, taking part in a Four Corners match, won by Homicide. Ciampa went on to defeat Homicide twice, once on the second show of Honor Takes Center Stage and again on May 6, at ROH Revolution: USA; the next day, at ROH Revolution: Canada, Ciampa was part of the first "Double Danger Scramble" match, won by Michael Elgin. On July 13, Ring of Honor announced. On September 17 at Death Before Dishonor IX, Ciampa pinned Homicide in a tag team match, where he teamed with Rhino and Homicide with Jay Lethal. At an ROH house show on January 21, 2012, Ciampa defeated ROH World Television Champion Jay Lethal in a Proving Ground Match to earn a future match for the ROH World Television Championship.
On March 4 at the 10th Anniversary Show, Ciampa's match with Lethal for the ROH World Television Championship ended in a fifteen-minute time limit draw. Ciampa cont
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company, known for professional wrestling. WWE has branched out into other fields, including movies, real estate, various other business ventures; the WWE name refers to the professional wrestling promotion itself, founded by Jess McMahon and Toots Mondt in 1952 as the Capitol Wrestling Corporation. As of 2019, it is the largest wrestling promotion in the world, holding over 500 events a year, with the roster divided up into various globally traveling brands, is available to about 36 million viewers in more than 150 countries; the company's global headquarters is located in Stamford, with offices in major cities across the world. As in other professional wrestling promotions, WWE shows are not legitimate contests, but purely entertainment-based, featuring storyline-driven and choreographed matches, though matches include moves that can put performers at risk of injury if not performed correctly.
This was first publicly acknowledged by WWE's owner Vince McMahon in 1989 to avoid taxes from athletic commissions. Since the 1980s, WWE publicly has branded their product as sports entertainment, acknowledging the product's roots in competitive sport and dramatic theater; the company's majority owner is its chairman and CEO, Vince McMahon, who retains a 42% ownership of the company's outstanding stock and 83% of the voting power. The current entity, incorporated on February 21, 1980, was known as Titan Sports, Inc., founded that same year in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. It acquired Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. the holding company for the World Wrestling Federation, in 1982. Titan was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. in 1998 World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. in 1999, the current World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. in 2002. Since 2011, the company has branded itself as WWE though the company's legal name was not changed. WWE's origins can be traced back as far as 1952 when Roderick James "Jess" McMahon and Toots Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. which joined the National Wrestling Alliance in 1953.
McMahon, a successful boxing promoter, began working with Tex Rickard in 1926. With the help of Rickard, he began promoting boxing and wrestling at the third Madison Square Garden, it was not the first time McMahon had promoted wrestling cards, as he had done so during the 1910s. In November 1954, McMahon died and Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt's associates, brought in McMahon's son Vincent James; the younger McMahon and Mondt were successful and soon controlled 70% of the NWA's booking due to their dominance in the populated Northeastern United States. In 1963, McMahon and Mondt had a dispute with the NWA over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers being booked to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Both men left the company in protest and formed the WWWF in the process, awarding Rogers the newly created WWWF World Heavyweight Championship in April of that year, he lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack a week before the match. Capitol operated the WWWF in a conservative manner compared to other pro wrestling territories: it ran its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly featuring a babyface champion wrestling various heels in programs that consisted of one to three matches.
After gaining a television program deal and hiring Lou Albano as a manager for Sammartino's heel opponents, the WWWF was doing sellout business by 1970. Mondt left Capitol in the late 1960s and although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon, Sr. re-joined in 1971. Capitol renamed the World Wide Wrestling Federation to the World Wrestling Federation in 1979. Vincent J. McMahon's son, Vincent K. McMahon, his wife Linda, established Titan Sports, Inc. in 1980 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. The company was incorporated on February 1980, in the Cape Cod Coliseum offices; the younger McMahon bought Capitol from his father in 1982 seizing control of the company. Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the country, the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the wrestling business. At the annual meeting of the NWA in 1983, the McMahons and former Capitol employee Jim Barnett all withdrew from the organization. McMahon worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States.
This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions ending the territory system, in use since the founding of the NWA in the 1940s. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted: In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge; each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U. S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords. McMahon gained significant traction when he hired American Wrestling Association talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling, notably for his appearance in the film Rocky III. McMahon signed Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, shortly afterward Jesse Ventura as an announcer.
Other wrestlers joined the roster, such as Jimmy Snuka, Don Muraco
Bruno Leopoldo Francesco Sammartino was an Italian-born American professional wrestler, best known for his work with the World Wrestling Federation. There, he held the WWF World Heavyweight Championship for more than 11 years across two reigns, the first of, the longest single reign in the promotion's history at 2,803 days. Called "The Italian Strongman" and "The Strongest Man in the World" early in his career, Sammartino earned the title "The Living Legend" during his lifetime. Known for his powerful bearhug finishing move, he is regarded as one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all time. Bruno Leopoldo Francesco Sammartino was born in Pizzoferrato, Italy, to Alfonso and Emilia Sammartino on October 6, 1935, he was the youngest of seven children. When he was four, his father immigrated to Pennsylvania. During World War II, his mother hid him and his siblings from German soldiers in a mountain called Valla Rocca. During this time, his mother would sneak into their German-occupied town for food and supplies.
In 1950, she and the children joined her husband in Pittsburgh. When the Sammartinos arrived in the U. S. Bruno was sickly from the privations of the war years; this made him an easy target for bullies at Schenley High School. He turned to wrestling to build himself up, his devotion to weightlifting nearly resulted in a berth on the 1956 U. S. Olympic team, which went instead to eventual gold medalist Paul Anderson. In 1959, Sammartino set a world record in the bench press with a lift of 565 pounds, done without elbow or wrist wraps; when he brought the bar down, he did not bounce it off his chest, but set it there for two seconds before attempting the press. He trained in wrestling with the University of Pittsburgh team coach, he became known for performing strongman stunts in the Pittsburgh area, sportscaster Bob Prince put him on his television show. It was there that he was spotted by local professional wrestling promoter Rudy Miller, who recruited the young man into the ring. Sammartino made his professional debut in Pittsburgh on December 17, 1959, pinning Dmitri Grabowski in 19 seconds.
Sammartino's first match in Madison Square Garden in New York City was on January 2, 1960, defeating Bull Curry in five minutes. Feeling like he was being held back in the New York territory in favor of National Wrestling Alliance star Buddy Rogers, Sammartino gave his notice to Capitol Wrestling Corporation owner Vince McMahon Sr. and planned to go to San Francisco to work for Roy Shire. While on his way to California, he missed two bookings in Baltimore and Chicago, as a result was suspended in those territories. California honored the other state's suspension. In his autobiography, Sammartino states that he believed McMahon set him up, by double-booking him and not informing him of his match in Baltimore, as a way of punishment. Sammartino found work as a laborer. On the advice of wrestler Yukon Eric, Sammartino contacted Toronto promoter Frank Tunney hoping to take advantage of Toronto's large Italian population. Sammartino made his Toronto debut in March 1962 and quickly, with the help of self-promotion in local newspapers and radio programs, became an attraction.
His ability to speak Italian ingratiated him with that immigrant population. With Whipper Billy Watson, Sammartino won his first professional wrestling championship in September 1962, the local version of the International Tag Team Championship. Soon, he was in demand by other promoters in different Canadian territories. Sammartino challenged NWA World Heavyweight Champion Lou Thesz twice for the championship in Canada. One match ended in a draw and the other with Thesz scoring a fluke pin after a collision, despite Sammartino controlling the 20 minute match from the beginning; this match was booked by NWA promoter Sam Muchnick as a preliminary to the forming of the WWWF, to ensure the dominance of the senior organization and its championship. Promoters Toots Mondt and McMahon Sr. cleared up Sammartino's suspension by paying his $500 fine, allowing him to return to wrestling in the United States. After many weeks of phone calls from McMahon Sr. trying to lure him back, Sammartino agreed if he received a title match against "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers, the-then WWWF World Heavyweight Champion.
Sammartino won the title on May 1963, defeating Rogers in 48 seconds. Sammartino and Rogers faced each other two months at Madison Square Garden in a tag team match, with Rogers and Handsome Johnny Barend defeating Sammartino and Bobo Brazil by 2 falls to 1. Rogers pinned Sammartino for the third and deciding fall. Rogers retired prior to their scheduled title rematch on October 4, 1963, in Jersey City, New Jersey's Roosevelt Stadium. Sammartino instead that night had his first match against Gorilla Monsoon. Monsoon won the match but since it was by disqualification which under such a set of circumstances a title is not transferable, Sammartino retained his belt. On December 8, 1969, he teamed with Tony Marino to win the WWWF International Tag Team Championship by defeating The Rising Suns. Company policy meant that Sammartino could not hold two championships so he was replaced by Victor Rivera. Sammartino held the WWWF World Heavyweight Championship for seven years, eight months, one day. On January 18, 1971, Sammartino lost the championship at Madison Square Garden to Ivan Koloff.
Sammartino recalled the shocked silence that greeted the result, remarking he thought he had damaged
Teaneck, New Jersey
Teaneck is a township of Bergen County in New Jersey, United States, a suburb in the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 39,776, reflecting an increase of 516 from the 39,260 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,435 from the 37,825 counted in the 1990 Census; as of 2010 it was the second-most populous among the 70 municipalities in Bergen County, behind Hackensack, which had a population of 43,010. Teaneck was created on February 19, 1895 by an act of the New Jersey Legislature from portions of Englewood Township and Ridgefield Township, both of which are now defunct, along with portions of Bogota and Leonia. Independence followed the result of a referendum held on January 14, 1895, in which voters favored incorporation by a 46–7 margin. To address the concerns of Englewood Township's leaders, the new municipality was formed as a township, rather than succumbing to the borough craze sweeping across Bergen County at the time.
On May 3, 1921, June 1, 1926, portions of what had been Teaneck were transferred to Overpeck Township. Teaneck lies at the junction of Interstate 95 and the eastern terminus of Interstate 80; the township is bisected into north and south portions by Route 4 and east and west by the CSX Transportation River Subdivision. Commercial development is concentrated in four main shopping areas, on Cedar Lane, Teaneck Road, DeGraw Avenue, West Englewood Avenue and Queen Anne Road, more known as "The Plaza". Teaneck's location at the crossroads of river, road and other geographical features has made it a site of many momentous events across the centuries. After the American defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington, George Washington and the troops of the Continental Army retreated across New Jersey from the British Army, traveling through Teaneck and crossing the Hackensack River at New Bridge Landing, which has since been turned into a state park and historic site commemorating the events of 1776 and of early colonial life.
In 1965, Teaneck voluntarily desegregated its public schools, after the Board of Education approved a plan to do so by a 7–2 vote on May 13, 1964. Teaneck has a diverse population, with large Jewish and African American communities, growing numbers of Hispanic and Asian residents; the origin and meaning of the name "Teaneck" is not known, but speculation is that it could come from various Dutch or English words, or it could be Native American in origin, meaning "the woods". An alternative is from the Dutch "Tiene Neck" meaning "neck where there are willows"; the earliest uses of the word "Teaneck" were in reference to a series of Lenni Lenape Native American camps near the ridge formed by what became Queen Anne Road. Chief Oratam was the leader of a settlement called "Achikinhesacky" that existed along Overpeck Creek in the area near what became Fycke Lane. A neighborhood variously called East Hackensack or New Hackensack was established along a ridge on the east bank of the Hackensack River, site of a Native American trail that followed the river's path along what is now River Road, with the earliest known buildings constructed dating back as far as 1704.
Other early European settlements were established along what became Teaneck Road, the site of a number of Dutch stone houses that remain standing since their construction in the 1700s, several of which have been added to the National Register of Historic Places. During November 1776, General George Washington passed through Teaneck in the aftermath of the Battle of Fort Lee, as part of the hasty retreat of ragtag Colonial forces from Fort Lee on the Hudson River in the wake of the successful British invasion and defeat of Continental Army forces in Manhattan on the opposite side of the river during the Battle of Fort Washington. Early on the morning of November 20, 1776, Washington rode by horseback from his headquarters in Hackensack through Teaneck and across Overpeck Creek to Fort Lee. There he watched, he had his troops abandon their position on the Palisades in a poorly organized retreat in which most of their supplies were abandoned, with Washington's troops moving inland across Overpeck Creek and through Teaneck to New Bridge Landing and crossing the bridge, one of the few available at the time.
The soldiers, many poorly dressed, ill-equipped and without shoes, faced the cold rain, leading Thomas Paine to compose the pamphlet, The American Crisis, in which he captured the depth of the defeat by describing those days with the words "These are the times that try men's souls". Throughout the war, both British and American forces occupied local homesteads at various times, Teaneck citizens played key roles on both sides of the conflict. After the war, Teaneck returned to being a quiet farm community. Fruits and vegetables grown locally were taken by wagon to markets in nearby Paterson and New York City. New growth and development were spurred in the mid-19th century by the establishment of railroads throughout the area. Wealthy New Yorkers and others purchased large properties on which they built spacious mansions and manor houses, they traveled daily thus becoming Teaneck's first suburban commuters. The largest estate built in Teaneck belonged to William Walter Phelps, the son of a wealthy railroad magnate and New York City merchant.
In 1865, Phelps arrived in Teaneck and enlarged an old farmhouse into a large Victorian mansion on the site of the present Municipal Government Complex. Phelps' "Englewood Farm" encompassed nearly 2,000 acres of landscaped property within the central part of Teaneck, on which some 600,000 trees were planted. Subsequent develo
William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey, nicknamed "Kid Blackie" and "The Manassa Mauler", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1914 to 1927, reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1919 to 1926. A cultural icon of the 1920s, Dempsey's aggressive fighting style and exceptional punching power made him one of the most popular boxers in history. Many of his fights set financial and attendance records, including the first million-dollar gate. Dempsey is ranked tenth on The Ring magazine's list of all-time heavyweights and seventh among its Top 100 Greatest Punchers, while in 1950 the Associated Press voted him as the greatest fighter of the past 50 years, he is a member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame, was in the previous Boxing Hall of Fame. Born William Harrison Dempsey in Manassa, Colorado, he grew up in a poor family in Colorado, West Virginia, Utah; the son of Mary Celia and Hiram Dempsey, his family's lineage consisted of Irish and Jewish ancestry. Following his parents' conversion to Mormonism, Dempsey was baptized into the LDS Church in 1903 following his 8th birthday, the "age of accountability", according to Mormon doctrine.
Because his father had difficulty finding work, the family traveled and Dempsey dropped out of elementary school to work and left home at the age of 16. Due to his lack of money, he traveled underneath trains and slept in hobo camps. Desperate for money, Dempsey would visit saloons and challenge for fights, saying "I can't sing and I can't dance, but I can lick any SOB in the house." If anyone accepted the challenge, bets would be made. According to Dempsey's autobiography, he lost these barroom brawls. For a short time, Dempsey was a part-time bodyguard for Thomas F. Kearns, president of The Salt Lake Tribune and son of Utah's U. S. Senator Thomas Kearns. Dempsey fought under the pseudonym, "Kid Blackie," although during his stint in the Salt Lake City area, he went by "Young Dempsey". Much of his early career is not recorded, stated thus, in The Ring Record Book as compiled by Nat Fleischer, he first competed as "Jack Dempsey" in Cripple Creek, Colorado. His brother, who fought under the pseudonym, "Jack Dempsey"—this a common practice of the day, in fighters' admiration of middleweight boxer and former champion, Jack "Nonpareil" Dempsey—had signed to fight veteran George Copelin.
Upon learning Copelin had sparred with Jack Johnson, given Bernie Dempsey was nearing 40 years of age, he strategically decided to back out of the fight. He substituted his brother, still unknown in Eastern Colorado, as "Jack Dempsey"; the fans at ringside knew this was not the man they'd paid to see. The promoter became violently angry and "sailed into us, barehanded", threatening to stop the fight. Copelin himself, who outweighed Dempsey by 20 lbs. upon seeing Dempsey's small stature in the ring, warned the promoter, "I might kill that skinny guy." The promoter reluctantly permitted the fight to commence, in his first outing as "Jack Dempsey", the future champion downed Copelin six times in the first round and twice in the second. From there, it was a battle of attrition, until a last knockdown of Copelin in the seventh, moved the referee to make the then-unusual move of stopping the fight once Copelin regained his feet. According to Dempsey "In those days they didn't stop mining-town fights as long as one guy could move."
This trial by fire carried with it a $100 purse. The promoter, angered at the switch pulled by the brothers, had laid no promised side bets, "...and if I did, I wouldn't give you anything."Such lessons were hard, but fighting was something Jack Dempsey did well. Following the name change, Dempsey won six bouts in a row by knockout before losing on a disqualification in four rounds to Jack Downey. During this early part of his career, Dempsey campaigned in Utah entering fights in towns in the Wasatch Mountain Range region, he followed his loss against Downey with a knockout win and two draws versus Johnny Sudenberg in Nevada. Three more wins and a draw followed when he met Downey again, this time resulting in a four-round draw. Following these wins, Dempsey racked up 10 more wins that included matches against Sudenberg and Downey, knocking out Downey in two rounds; these wins were followed with three no-decision matches, although at this point in the history of boxing, the use of judges to score a fight was forbidden, so if a fight went the distance, it was called a draw or a no decision, depending on the state or county where the fight was held.
After the United States entered World War I in 1917, Dempsey worked in a shipyard and continued to box. Afterward, he was accused by some boxing fans of being a slacker for not enlisting; this remained a black mark on his reputation until 1920, when evidence produced showed he had attempted to enlist in the U. S. Army, but had been classified 4-F. After the war, Dempsey spent two years in Salt Lake City, "bumming around" as he called it, before returning to the ring. Among his opponents as a rising contender were Fireman Jim Flynn, the only boxer to beat Dempsey by a knockout when Dempsey lost to him in the first round, Gunboat Smith a highly-ranked contender who had beaten both World Champion Jess Willard and Hall of Famer Sam Langford. Dempsey beat Smith for the third time on a second-round knockout. Before he employed the long-experienced Jack Kearns as his manager, Dempsey was first managed by John J. Reisler. One year in 1918, Dempsey fought in 17 matches, going 15–1 with one no-decision.
Manager (professional wrestling)
In professional wrestling, a manager is a supporting character paired with a wrestler for a variety of reasons. A physically attractive woman accompanying, or "seconding", a male wrestler to a match is sometimes referred to as a valet. Performers who assume this role may be non-wrestlers, occasional wrestlers, older wrestlers who have retired or are nearing retirement, or new wrestlers who are breaking into the business and need experience in front of the crowds; the wrestler, paired with a manager may be referred to as his or her charge, client, or ward. A professional wrestling manager has nothing to do with their real-world counterpart or with a promotion's road agent. Managers are somewhat like storyline agents for an athlete. Within the context of storylines, the manager positions their client for title opportunities acts as a mouthpiece on their behalf, decides whom to trust as an ally, or just acting as an exposed Achilles' heel to be exploited by their client's opponents. Managers could be utilized by a promotion's booker to strengthen storylines.
Outside of storylines, a manager's job is to help the wrestler. The manager would cut promos on behalf of clients; as such, successful managers invariably had the "gift of the gab", though it wasn't unheard of to see managers paired with wrestlers who had no trouble cutting their own promos. A notable example of this would be CM Punk, managed by Paul Heyman from 2012 to 2013. Punk had no trouble cutting his own promos, but Heyman would cut his own promos alongside Punk in support of his client's act. While the basic goal of a manager to give his or her wrestlers a push does not change, the tactics depend on several factors alignment. Managers, when used judiciously, are capable of change the tone and inner workings of a wrestling match. A heel manager, for example, may instruct their clients to duck tougher opponents or interfere in their matches to secure a win by cheating. A face manager, on the other hand, may spend the majority of their interview time talking about how tough their client is and going out of their way to find bigger and better opponents to challenge, or rally the audience to chant and cheer in support of their client during matches.
The act of aligning with a manager, or conversely breaking away from a manager they've worked with, can change a wrestler's alignment, making them a sudden fan favorite or heel. Certain wrestlers employ a specific kind of manager known as a "handler." If a wrestler's character calls for it, a handler is the only person who can manage the behaviour of a "wild" wrestler's, prone to "go out of control". A classic example of this was The Undertaker, who in his early Deadman persona could only be controlled by Paul Bearer, through an urn, said to have all of the Undertaker's powers. A legitimate example is Arnold Skaaland, who not only managed Andre The Giant for a time but was once assigned by promoter Vince McMahon Sr. as his real life handler. Skaaland was responsible for keeping Andre, known for his alcoholism, out of serious trouble and to ensure that he would reach a venue in time to wrestle a scheduled match. A few managers, like Paul Ellering, are legitimate managers in the truest sense of the word, taking care of the day-to-day needs of their clients by dealing with travel arrangements, rentals and contractual negotiations.
Others, such as Jim Cornette or Gary Hart, participate as real-life bookers and/or road agents for their promotions behind the scenes while performing concurrently as managers. In the early years of pro wrestling, the vast majority of professional wrestling managers were men, female managers were rare. A number of prominent women like Miss Elizabeth, Sherri Martel and Woman made their debuts during the 1980s professional wrestling boom and went on to have storied careers in several wrestling promotions as wrestling managers. Up until the mid-1990s, managers were common because they served a secondary purpose: "getting heat." During the territorial era, most managers did not travel from territory to territory, but instead remained in one territory to provide instant heat to the promotion's new heel acts. Notable examples include "The Mouth of The South" Jimmy Hart in Memphis, Bobby "The Brain" Heenan in the American Wrestling Association, the "Three Wise Men" in the World Wide Wrestling Federation.
By the 2000's, major promotions like the WWE have favoured elevating the careers of wrestlers who are able to speak for themselves. As a result, the ubiquitous role of a manager has declined in favor of either female valets who get involved in wrestling matches, or by people who hold on-screen power as General Managers, Commissioners or various corporate officer positions. However, contemporary wrestling personalities such as Paul Heyman and Vickie Guerrero have demonstrated that managers are still effective at drawing heat, when used judiciously, are capable of changing the tone and inner workings of a wrestling match by contributing drama and tension. Although managers and valets are terms used interchangeably for a woman who accompanies a wrestler to the ring, a major point of difference is that the former is depicted as a professional spok
Malden is a city in Middlesex County, United States. At the time of the 2010 United States Census, the population was at 59,450 people. In 2009, Malden was named the "Best Place to Raise Your Kids" in Massachusetts by Bloomberg Businessweek. Malden, a hilly woodland area north of the Mystic River, was settled by Puritans in 1640 on land purchased in 1629 from the Pennacook tribe; the area was called the "Mistick Side" and was a part of Charlestown. It was incorporated as a separate town in 1649; the name Malden was selected by Joseph Hills, an early settler and landholder, was named after Maldon, England. The city included what are now the adjacent cities of Melrose and Everett. At the time of the American Revolution, the population was at about 1,000 people, the citizens were involved early in resisting the oppression of Britain: they boycotted the consumption of tea in 1770 to protest the Revenue Act of 1766, it was the first town to petition the colonial government to withdraw from the British Empire.
Malden High School has the second-oldest continuous high school football rivalry in the United States with Medford High School. The first "Thanksgiving Day Game" dates back to 1889. In 1984, Malden came to national renown as the location of the controversial Fells Acres Day Care Center preschool trial. In 2004, a same-sex Malden couple was the first to marry in Massachusetts at 9:15 AM on May 17, 2004 at Cambridge City Hall. Massachusetts was the first state in the United States to issue same-sex marriage licenses. Malden is bordered by Melrose on the north, Stoneham on the northwest, Medford on the west, Everett on the south, Revere on the east, Saugus on the northeast. Boojum Rock located in the north west corner of Malden inside the Middlesex Fells Reservation is the highest point in Malden with an elevation of 275 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.1 square miles, of which 5.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Bordered on the northwest by the cliffs of Middlesex Fells, Malden is drained by the Malden River.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 59,450 people, 25,161 households, 13,575 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,788.6 people per square mile. There were 23,634 housing units at an average density of 4,657.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 52.5% White, 14.8% African American, 0.14% Native American, 20.1% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.10% from other races, 3.46% were multiracial. 8.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 23,009 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 36.9% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,654, the median income for a family was $55,557. Males had a median income of $37,741 versus $31,157 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,004. About 6.6% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. As of 2009 and 2010, 37% of residents of Malden were born outside of the United States; this is twice the number in 1990, an increase from the 26% of foreign-born residents in 2000. Malden's percentage of foreign-born residents was the second-highest in Massachusetts, after Chelsea; as of 2009 and 2010 immigrants originate from Brazil, Haiti, India and Pakistan. The Moroccan American Civic and Cultural Association is located in Malden. Previous immigrants included Irish in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Malden received Jews who arrived escaping Europe before and after World War II. In 1990 Malden had 2,805 Asian residents. In 2000 this increased to 7,882 Asians, or 14.5% of the city's population, making it one of ten Massachusetts cities with the largest Asian populations in the state. There were 4,504 ethnic Chinese people, 876 ethnic Vietnamese, 696 ethnic Indians. From 1990 to 2000 the Vietnamese population increased by 187% and the Indian population increased by 262%. From 2000 to 2010 the Chinese population of Malden increased by about 50%. Institutions serving the Asian community in Malden include the Immigrant Learning Center, which offers English as a second language classes. In the 2017, South Cove Community Health center began building a new site in Malden to serve the growing Asian American population. Malden Public Schools is the school district. Malden has middle schools.