Old Saybrook, Connecticut
Old Saybrook is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 10,242 at the 2010 census, it contains the incorporated borough of Fenwick, as well as the census-designated places of Old Saybrook Center and Saybrook Manor. In 1644, shortly after establishing their first settlement at Governors Island, Dutch settlers established a short-lived factory at present day Old Saybrook; the trading post was named Kievits Hoek, or "Plover's Corner". Kievits Hoek was soon abandoned as the Dutch consolidated settlement at New Amsterdam. In 1633, Fort Goede Hoop, was established at present-day Hartford; the Pequot siege of Saybrook Fort took place from September 1636 to March 1637 during the Pequot War. Following the August 1636 Massachusetts Bay attack on Manisses and Western Niantic villages, the Pequot retaliation fell on the English at Saybrook. During an eight-month time period, the Pequot killed and wounded more than twenty English at and near Saybrook Fort; the English were attacked when they ventured far from their palisade, the Pequot destroyed English provisions and burned warehouses while they attempted to interrupt river traffic to Windsor and Hartford.
During the Siege and Battle of Saybrook Fort, the Pequot and English assessed each other's military capabilities, adjusted counter-tactics. Each side’s tactical modifications show a high degree of sophistication and ingenuity. Lessons learned during the siege of Saybrook escalated the Pequot War in Connecticut Colony, indirectly resulted in the attack and destruction of Mistick Fort; the Saybrook Colony was established in late 1635 at the mouth of the Connecticut River, in what is today Old Saybrook and environs. John Winthrop, the Younger, son of the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was designated Governor by the group that claimed possession of the land via a deed of conveyance from Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick. Winthrop was aided by Captain Lion Gardiner; as the principals of the group who had planned to settle the colony were supporters of Oliver Cromwell and remained in England during the English Civil War, the colony struggled. In 1644, Fenwick agreed to merge the colony with the more vibrant Connecticut Colony a few miles up river, which purchased the land and fort from him.
The design of the Flag of Connecticut comes from the seal of Saybrook Colony. The seal was brought from England by Colonel George Fenwick, depicted 15 grapevines and a hand in the upper left corner with a scroll reading "Qui Transtulit Sustinet". In 1647 Major John Mason assumed command of Saybrook Fort which controlled the main trade and supply route to the upper river valley; the fort promptly and mysteriously burned to the ground but another improved fort was built nearby. He spent the next twelve years there and served as Commissioner of the United Colonies, as the chief military officer and peacekeeper. In 1659 all settlers from Saybrook under the leadership of Mason, purchased land from Uncas, sachem of the Mohegan tribe, removed to and founded Norwich, Connecticut. In 1661 there was a witch trial of Saybrook residents Margaret Jennings and her husband Nicholas, who were accused of causing the deaths of Marie Marvin and others; the trial resulted in a finding that they were witches, but there was not sufficient proof to execute them.
On October 9, 1701 the Collegiate School of Connecticut was chartered in Old Saybrook. It moved to New Haven in 1716, was renamed Yale University. Turtle - the first American submarine - was invented in Westbrook Connecticut in 1775 by David Bushnell; the General Assembly created the separate town of Old Saybrook from Saybrook in 1852. Old Saybrook was partitioned again in 1854. In early 2007, plans were established to return the former town hall building to its original use as a theater; the theatre was completed in 2009 and is named "Katharine Hepburn Cultural Arts Center and Theater". The town has committed spending $2 million on the renovation, at least $810,000 is to be contributed by the state. A committee is attempting to raise another $2.5 million for the renovation and to add two wings, but for an endowment. The structure was built in 1901 and was a theater until the 1940s. After renovations, the theater will seat 250, Hepburn memorabilia will be displayed there. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 21.6 square miles, of which, 15.0 square miles of it is land and 6.6 square miles of it is water.
Chalker Beach Cornfield Point District of Fencove Borough of Fenwick District of Fenwood Indian Town Knollwood Old Saybrook Center District of Otter Cove Saybrook Manor North Cove Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where so-called "subtropical indicator" plants and other broadleaf evergreens can be cultivated. Old Saybrook averages about 90 days annually with freeze - about the same as Baltimore, Maryland, or Albuquerque, NM, for example; as such, Southern Magnolias, Needle Palms, Windmill palm, Loblolly Pines, Crape Myrtles are grown in private and public gardens. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,367 people, 4,184 households, 2,920 families residing in the town; the population density was 689.5 people per square mile. There were 5,357 housing units at an average density of 356.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.75% White, 1.01% African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.72% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 0.9
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Board of selectmen
The board of selectmen or select board is the executive arm of the government of New England towns in the United States. The board consists of three or five members, with or without staggered terms. Three is the most common number, historically. In some places, a first selectman is appointed to head the board by election. In most New England towns, the adult voting population gathered annually in a town meeting to act as the local legislature, approving budgets and laws. Day-to-day operations were left to individual oversight, but when towns became too large for individuals to handle such work loads, they would elect an executive board of select men to run things for them; these men had charge of the day-to-day operations. However, the larger towns grew, the more power would be distributed among other elected boards, such as fire wardens and police departments. For example, population increases led to the need for actual police departments, of which selectmen became the commissioners; the advent of tarred roads and automobile traffic led to a need for full-time highway maintainers and plowmen, leaving selectmen to serve as Supervisors of Streets and Ways.
The function of the board of selectmen differs from state to state, can differ within a given state depending on the type of governance under which a town operates. Selectmen always serve part-time, with a token or no salary, it is the chief executive branch of local government in the open town meeting form of government. The basic function consists of calling town meetings, proposing budgets to Town Meeting, setting public policy, calling elections, setting certain fees, overseeing certain volunteer and appointed bodies, creating basic regulations. In larger towns, the selectmen's daily administrative duties are delegated to a full-time town administrator or town manager. In some towns, the board of selectmen retains the historic name. In some places, such as Connecticut, the board is headed by a first selectman, who has served as the chief administrative officer of the town and may be elected separately from the rest of the board. In New Hampshire cities, a "selectman" is an elected position, responsible for organizing elections for local and federal offices.
Three selectmen, a moderator, a clerk are elected in each city ward. A rare use of the term outside New England is in Georgetown, where the town governing body is called the Board of Selectmen; the first selectman is the head of the board of selectmen in some New England towns. The first selectman was the one who received the largest number of votes during municipal elections or at a town meeting. Most towns, have chosen to elect the first selectman in a separate election, much like a mayor. While the principle remains the same in most towns, the function has evolved differently. Traditionally, the first selectman acts as chief administrative officer; as with all politicians in New England, it was a part-time position. Most modern towns that have part-time first selectmen limit their function to chairing the board of selectmen and performing certain ceremonial duties. Actual administration of the town is handled by the town manager. In other towns, the first selectman acts as CEO of the town, much like a mayor, alone or in conjunction with a town manager who acts as a chief administrative officer.
In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the presiding selectman is called the chairman and is chosen annually by his or her fellow selectmen. In Connecticut, the first selectman is the chief executive and administrative officer of most towns with the Selectmen-Town Meeting form of government; some towns, such as Woodbridge, elect their first selectmen to be the chief administrative officer of the town though the position is technically part-time. The first selectman is a voting member of the board of selectmen and can cast a tie-breaking vote in the board of finance. In other towns, the position is full-time. In towns such as Beacon Falls, Bethany and Simsbury, the losing first selectman candidate can earn a seat on the board of selectmen, depending on the number of votes he or she garners. Alderman de Tocqueville, Democracy in America: the Henry Reeve text as revised by Francis Bowen, now further corrected and edited with introduction, editorial notes, bibliography by Phillips Bradley, Chapter V: Spirit of the townships of New England.
Fairlee, J. A. Local government in counties and villages, Chap. 8 Murphy, R. E. "Town Structure and Urban Concepts in New England", The Professional Geographer 16, 1. Garland, J. S. New England town law: a digest of statutes and decisions concerning towns and town officers, pp. 1–83. Green, A. New England's gift to the nation—the township.: An oration, Parker, J. The origin and influence of the towns of New England: a paper read before the Massachusetts Historical Society, December 14, 1865, Whiting, S; the Connecticut town-officer, Part I: The powers and duties of towns, as set forth in the statutes of Connecticut, which are recited, pp. 7–97 Zimmerman, Joseph F. "The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action" Praeger Publishers, 1999
Killingworth Village, sometimes known as "Old Killingworth", is a small village south of the modern town of Killingworth, north of Forest Hall in North Tyneside, North East England. The village church was designed by Bassett Keeling of London, is faced with local stone, with bands of pink sandstone from a local quarry, it is surrounded by elm and sycamore trees, ministers to a wide age-group including young families. There are two public houses in Killingworth Village: The Killingworth Arms. Killingworth Arms Football Club is a Sunday league team, in the North East Sunday Football League Division D. "Sitelines", page includes records of historical activity in the Killingworth Village area Killingworth Photos and Videos group on Facebook contains over 680 old and new local photos, school photos, 11 videos and discussion
Greater Hartford is a region located in the U. S. state of Connecticut, centered on the state's capital of Hartford. It represents the only combined statistical area in Connecticut defined by a city within the state, being bordered by the Greater Boston region to the northeast and New York metropolitan area to the south and west. Sitting at the southern end of the Metacomet Ridge, its geology is characterized by land of a level grade along the shores of Connecticut River Valley, with finer-grained soil than other regions in the state. Hartford's role as a focal point for the American insurance industry is known nationally; the vibrant music and arts scene defines the region's culture. The region's economy is tied with Springfield, Massachusetts, as Hartford and Springfield are twin cities, only 25 miles apart; the area is served by Bradley International Airport as well as the smaller Hartford-Brainard Airport. Greater Hartford, had a total population of 1,212,381. New England City and Town Areas are cluster of cities and towns throughout all of New England defined by the Office of Management and Budget.
The Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metropolitan NECTA consists of 54 towns, including 25 in Hartford County, 5 in Litchfield County, 6 in Middlesex County, 2 in New London County, 12 in Tolland County, 4 in Windham County. The United States Census Bureau defines the Hartford–West Hartford–East Hartford, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area based on towns as building blocks; the area contains 54 towns of Hartford County, Tolland County, Middlesex County. The 2015 population estimate for the MSA is 1,211,324 and is ranked as the 47th largest metropolitan area by population in the United States; the MSA definition of the area contains a significant portion of the Lower Connecticut River Valley, not considered as part of Greater Hartford. A region similar to the MSA is covered by the combination of the Hartford Service Delivery Area and the Mid-Connecticut Service Delivery Area, covering 56 towns. Hartford Bristol East Hartford Manchester New Britain West Hartford ^1 Town included in the Springfield, Massachusetts NECTA Aetna Eversource Energy The Hartford Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company The Phoenix Companies Travelers Insurance Virtus Investment Partners Barnes Group Carrier Corporation2 Cigna Colt's Manufacturing Company Connecticut Natural Gas Doosan Fuel Cell America ESPN Inc.
Gerber Scientific Henkel Kaman Aircraft Legrand Otis Elevator2 Pratt & Whitney2 Stanadyne Stanley Black & Decker Systematic Automation Trumpf United Technologies Voya Financial ^2 Division of United Technologies Public, four-year universities in the area include:. Central Connecticut State University University of Connecticut University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine University of Connecticut School of Law University of Connecticut School of Medicine Public, two-year community colleges in the area include: Asnuntuck Community College Capital Community College Manchester Community College Middlesex Community College Tunxis Community College Private, four-year universities in the area include: Goodwin College Hartford Seminary Rensselaer at Hartford Trinity College University of Hartford University of Saint Joseph Wesleyan University There are numerous hospitals in the Greater Hartford area, including five teaching hospitals and two psychiatric hospitals. Connecticut Children's Medical Center Hartford Hospital The Hospital of Central Connecticut Saint Francis Hospital & Medical Center University of Connecticut Health Center, John Dempsey Hospital All of the above hospitals are affiliated with the University of Connecticut School of Medicine Connecticut Valley Hospital and operated by the state of Connecticut The Institute of Living, a division of Hartford Hospital The Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts is one of the largest indoor performing arts venues in the area.
It houses two theaters within the complex: the 2,800-seat Mortensen Hall and the 906-seat Belding Theater, is home to the Hartford Symphony Orchestra, the premiere orchestra in Connecticut. Other theaters in the area include the Hartford TheatreWorks; the area is home to the Xfinity Theatre, a 7,500-seat open-air amphitheater. The lawn outside the theater is capable of holding 22,500 people, bringing total capacity to around 30,000 people; the Connecticut Convention Center is located in downtown Hartford adjacent to the Hartford Marriot Downtown. The facility has more than 140,000 square feet of exhibition space, a 40,000-square-foot ballroom, 25,000 square feet of space for meetings and conferences. Since 2005, it has an annual, multi-genre, pop culture convention; the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks hosts many events, with three large hangars available for use. One of the more popular events held
Killingworth Killingworth Township, is a town north of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in North Tyneside, England. Killingworth was built as a planned town in the 1960s, next to Killingworth Village, which existed for centuries before the Township. Other nearby towns and villages include West Moor and Backworth. Most of Killingworth's residents commute to Newcastle, or its surrounding area. However, Killingworth developed a sizeable commercial centre, with bus links to the rest of Tyne and Wear. Killingworth is served by Palmersville Metro station; the town of Killingworth in Australia is named after the British original because of its extensive coal mines. Killingworth was used as a filming location for the 1973 BBC sitcom Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?, with one of the houses on Agincourt on the Highfields estate featuring as the home of Bob and Thelma Ferris. In an episode of the architecture series Grundy's Wonders on Tyne Tees, John Grundy deemed Killingworth's former British Gas Research Centre to be the best industrial building in the North East.
The Doctor Who episode titled "The Mark of the Rani" depicted Killingworth in the 19th-century, with the Sixth Doctor in search of George Stephenson, after the Doctor's arch-enemy The Master attempts to hijack the Industrial Revolution. Filming of the episode took place in the 19th Century mining village at Blists Hill Open Air Museum in Ironbridge, however. According to Morrison there is no recorded evidence of early human activity at Killingworth, she asserts. Subsequent mining, spoil heaps and landscaping disturbed the stratigraphy and damaged or destroyed artifacts. Documentary evidence for Killingworth starts in 1242 when it is recorded as part of the land held by Roger de Merlay III. There were nine recorded taxpayers in 1296, falling to eight by 1312. In a survey of the township dated 1373 listed sixteen tenements. Other enclosed land was kept as common land; the commoners were the owners of land in Longbenton. Prior to enclosure Newcastle races were held on the moor from the early 17th century.
Racing transferred to Newcastle Town Moor. The 1841 Census recorded a population of 112 spread through 14 dwellings; the village consisted of two rows of cottages on both sides of the road. By the mid-nineteenth century a terrace had appeared connected with the developing mines in Killingworth and surrounding areas. To the north farms persisted; this pattern of development with 18th and 19th century stone buildings is identifiable today, though with recent infilling. Construction of Killingworth, a new town, began in 1963. Intended for 20,000 people, it was a former mining community, formed on 760 acres of derelict colliery land near Killingworth Village; the building of Killingworth Township was undertaken by Northumberland County Council and was not formally a'New Town' sponsored by the Government. Unlike that town, Killingworth's planners adopted a radical approach to town centre design, resulting in high-rise buildings in an avant-garde and brutalist style that won awards for architecture, dynamic industry and attractive environment.
This new town centre consisted of pre-cast concrete houses, with millions of small crustacean shells unusually embedded into their external walls, 5 to 10 storey flats, industrial units and service buildings, which consisted of artistic non-functional characteristics and residential multi-storey car parks, interconnected by ramps and walkways. These made up a deck system of access to shopping and other facilities, employing the Swedish Skarne method of construction. Named Killingworth Township, the latter part was dropped through lack of colloquial use. Killingworth is referred to surrounding areas. Around 1964, during the reclamation of the derelict pit sites, a 15-acre lake south of the town centre was created. Today, swans and local wildlife live around the two lakes, which span the main road into Killingworth; the lake is kept well stocked with fish and an angling club and model boating club use it. Killingworth was home to a number of pits including the world-famous Killingworth Colliery.
In 1814 George Stephenson, enginewright at the colliery, built his first locomotive Blücher with the help and encouragement of his manager, Nicholas Wood, in the colliery workshop behind his house "Dial Cottage" on Lime Road. This locomotive could haul 30 tons of coal up a hill at 4 mph, it was used to tow coal wagons along the wagonway from Killingworth to the Wallsend coal staithes. Although Blücher did not survive long, it provided Stephenson with the knowledge and experience to build better locomotives for use both at Killingworth and elsewhere, he would build the famous Rocket in his locomotive works in Newcastle. At the same time Stephenson was developing his own version of the miner's safety lamp, which he demonstrated underground in Killingworth pit a month before Sir Humphry Davy presented his design to the Royal Society in London in 1815. Known as the Geordie lamp it was to be used in the North-east in place of the Davy lamp; the gauge of the Killingworth tramway was 4 ft 8 in. Killingworth consisted of local authority houses.
The first houses at Angus Close, owned by the local authority, were built to house key workers for the British Gas Research Centre. The rest of Killingworth's estates were cul-de-sacs named "Garths" – all numbered, although Garths 1–3 never existed; the numbering was: 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12